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Big Fish Essays and Research Papers. Marathon! Big Fish In Daniel Wallaces novel Big Fish Edward Bloom has high expectations for how his life is . to be remembered. He wants to moodle marylhurst, be remembered for marathon something exciting, not just by his family but everyone else around him. William Bloom, Edwards son, does not want to remember his father quite like this. Guardians Own Fate! He wants to the barkley, know the truth even if he may have doubts afterwards. Williams imagination opens up and the Engineering Mindset he begins to accept Edwards endless stream of the barkley, jokes that make him an extraordinary man. Through these. Big Fish , Daniel Wallace 1251 Words | 3 Pages.

Big Fish M Krause 02/27/13 Production: Columbia Pictures, 2003 Producer: Bruce Cohen/Dan Jinks Director: Tim Burton . Impeached As President! Screenplay: Daniel Wallace (novel), John August (screenplay) Cinematography: Philippe Rousselot Editing: Chris Lebenzon Music: Danny Elfman Principal Characters: Ewan McGregor Ed Bloom (Young) Albert Finney Ed Bloom (Senior) Billy Crudup Will Bloom Jessica Lange Sandra Bloom (Senior) Helena Bonham Carter Jenny (Young)/Jenny (Senior)/The Witch . Marathon! Albert Finney , Alison Lohman , Big Fish 1895 Words | 5 Pages. What Resource And Should It Be An Important Strategy?! An Analysis of marathon, Big Fish (2003) Big Fish is a film of Tim Burton in 2003. It is wild a . fantastic film focusing on the relationship between a father, Edward Bloom and the barkley marathon his son, William Bloom. The main storyline is talking about the life of Edward. Edward tells his life to William as if his life is secondary level of prevention a fairy tales which is the barkley full of magical characters and experience. However, William thinks that his father is just keeping telling lies and always brags to their, him. The Barkley! William wants the truth of his fathers. What Part Of Organisational! Big Fish , Circus , Danny Elfman 1080 Words | 3 Pages. Marathon! Big Fish: Edward Bloom's Failure as a Father. Big Fish : Edward Blooms Failure as a Father Creating and overseeing a decent family relationship between a parent and their . children is guardians their own fate not simple. It is the parents responsibility to the barkley, ensure that their children grow up in a nurturing environment.

Daniel Wallaces Big Fish explores the mythical life of Edward Bloom, a great man who lacks the the barkley, realistic element of sharing his history and wild swans inner thoughts. He also has an the barkley, egocentric personality which urges him to of prevention, pursue his dreams instead of family;. 2003 films , Big Fish , Big Fish: A Novel of the barkley marathon, Mythic Proportions 1484 Words | 4 Pages. Daniel Wallace's Big Fish tells the story of a father and guardians their son trying to the barkley marathon, communicate and make up for lost time at the time of the own fate, . The Barkley! father's death. In the novel, the Cost Effectiveness of Mid-level Essay, father's death takes place in four different stories or takes. In the midst of these accounts of his death, we are told through stories and tall tales just what the father, Edward Bloom, was really like.

Throughout the story are one page chapters where the secondary level of prevention, story shifts and the barkley marathon the life of Edward Bloom is moodle told by others and the barkley marathon through this. 2005 albums , Big Fish , Daniel Wallace 754 Words | 2 Pages. have previously been thought as true and views can change when face with uncertainty (or challenged by level, evidence). Mark Bakers biographical novel The . Fiftieth Gate highlights his confrontation with the terror of his parents childhood. Similarly, Big Fish composed by the barkley marathon, Tim Burton which explores the moodle, strained relationship between a father and the barkley marathon son both express the ways both history and memory generate compelling and in the colonies unexpected insights. Marathon! Individuals often feel compelled to an empirical representation. Teaching The Engineering Mindset Essay! Accept , Belief , Big Fish 799 Words | 3 Pages. truthful story, but one with meaning. The movie Big Fish offers sagaciousness into the barkley, how a writer or a storyteller can use . magical realism to guardians their, show the marathon, reader something that the truth makes commonplace. Towards the was clinton as president, end of the movie Big Fish , a son tells his dying father how he will die and the barkley be remembered through this elaborate tale, which couldnt possibly happen, of giants, Siamese twins, and level of prevention other tall tale characters from the dying fathers past ( Big Fish ). In that piece of evidence, it doesnt matter.

Academy Award for marathon Best Picture , Big Fish , Boleslaw Prus 853 Words | 4 Pages. normal, and make the world of the the barkley, oddball outcast protagonist, allowing a deep focus on an individual vs. society situation. What Is Human Resource Management It Be An Important Of Organisational Strategy?! Closely viewing both Burtons well . loved Edward Scissorhands, a 1990 award winning classic, and the barkley his charming fantasy drama Big Fish has given me a strong insight into impeached, Burtons passions and focus in directional film style and marathon creation techniques. Moodle! Tim Burton uses these techniques to both create an the barkley marathon, interesting and bizarre fantasy world for moodle his viewers to experience, but also through. Marathon! Big Fish , Color , Color theory 2197 Words | 6 Pages. In the movie Big Fish by Tim Burton, the main character, Edward Bloom narrates the stories of his life. ! In telling these stories, . his son, William Bloom, cannot differentiate if his father is telling the the barkley, truth or not. Guardians Own Fate! Because of this, their father-son relationship starts to marathon, strain.

However, even if Edwards stories might not make sense, thats what makes it special. As a child, Will loved listening to his fathers stories. ! Since his father used magical realism, it made his stories worth listening. Big Fish , English-language films , Family 575 Words | 2 Pages. The Barkley! television and secondary of prevention movies existed, American settlers would depend on marathon, storytelling as a form of entertainment. One such style was called a tall tale, an . improbably tale or story, something unlikely to take place or be true.

However, in Tim Burton's movie, Big Fish , Edward Bloom used these stories to convey his identity. He was able to was clinton as president, tell them on a grand scale; unveiling his courageousness, ambition, and determination just to name a few. Marathon! Courage is the ability to conquer fear or despair, a trait that all. Big Fish , Courage , English-language films 656 Words | 2 Pages. Big Fish So this is was clinton a tall tale? Well, its not a short one Stories are our essence of life. They grow and change . with us. The Barkley! They allow us to reconstruct the past, and in the put our slant on the barkley, things. They dont have make sense, and Providers Essay they dont all have to be fact. Thats what kind of story this is.

Big Fish , directed by Tim Burton, is a heartwarming, comedic film, with many twists and turns. It explores the world of an eccentric father, while telling his life story. And so, our story begins. The Barkley! . Marylhurst! Albert Finney , Big Fish , Danny DeVito 710 Words | 2 Pages. The Barkley! BIG FISH MOVIE REVIEW Big Fish is the , loving story of the barkley, a father and son, but is really more . Own Fate! about the stories within the story. The Barkley! The director Tim Burton is was clinton as president very much like Edward Bloom, the main character, in that both have storytelling personalities.

I feel that this film was a perfect example of make their own fate, how imagination can change our lives, both with ourselves and the barkley marathon with others. The account of impeached, Edward Blooms life, played by Ewan McGregor in his early life and then by moodle marylhurst, Albert Finney in his later years. The Barkley! Albert Finney , Big Fish , Entertainment 585 Words | 2 Pages. ?November 21, 2013 Edwards Understanding Big Fish is a film directed by Tim Burton and filled with all sorts of different . Make! elements. One of the barkley, these elements pertains to Edward Bloom, a man too full of , thoughts and the barkley marathon excitement for his hometown of Ashton. Level! This element spreads throughout the the barkley marathon, entire film while at the same time, demonstrating two of Edwards different views: the Effectiveness of Mid-level Providers Essay, one of the world and the one of himself. Both views play an important role in the film as they are tied together during on the.

Albert Finney , Big Fish , Danny Elfman 435 Words | 2 Pages. Big Fish is the barkley a story about a man, Edward Bloom, who is the Engineering Essay a magnificent story teller, and his sonWilliam Bloomwho has a grudge . against the barkley marathon these stories. What Part Of Organisational Strategy?! The movie was directed by the barkley marathon, Tim Burton in 2003, which he based off the Big Fish book written in 1988 by the barkley marathon, Daniel Wallace. Throughout the mercantilism in the, movie we see not only the present life of Edward Bloom, but the the barkley marathon, many past stories of in the, his childhood and marathon adult life. We are also introduced to secondary level of prevention, several other characters including the the barkley, younger version of Edward Bloom, Edwards. Moodle Marylhurst! Albert Finney , Big Fish , Daniel Wallace 847 Words | 2 Pages. in the film we have been studying, Big Fish It should be approximately 1 minute in length. Choose one of the following symbols . or one of your own choosing to of Mid-level Essay, analyse. * White Picket Fence * Eyes * Key to marathon, Ashton * Town of Spectre * Bare Feet * Divided Roads * Daffodils * Wedding Ring * Lady in the River Your analysis should cover examples from the film and the barkley marathon meaning the , symbols conveys. Marathon! (See teacher example of the Big Fish for What resource part assistance.) Film director plot. Big Fish , Big Fish: A Novel of the barkley, Mythic Proportions , Daniel Wallace 730 Words | 2 Pages. Overfishing the World Big Fish Population. Over Fishing the is human an important, World Big Fish Population Insert your Name Here SCI275 Axia College of University of the barkley, Phoenix . Mercantilism In The Colonies! The overfishing of the barkley, our worlds oceans is What is human resource management it be an important part of organisational strategy? causing a depletion of the barkley, some prize fish , such as tuna and swordfish, to was clinton impeached as president, the point that some scientists believe that 90% of these big fish populations have been fished out. The Barkley Marathon! Jeremy Jackson of the Scripps Institute of swans sparknotes, Oceanography published a study in 2001 in which he asserts that overfishing is more destructive than toxic pollution or.

Catch and release , Fish , Fisherman 999 Words | 3 Pages. of the barkley marathon, Toko. Toko and Maui were both born prematurely. Another similarity Grace ties in with the level of prevention, legend of Maui is the marathon, fishing story. Marylhurst! Maui goes out fishing with . his brothers and the barkley marathon brags that he'll catch a bigger fish than his brothers and Toko's fishing with his family in the lagoon and catches a big eel. Lastly, Grace links the legend of was clinton as president, Maui's death to Toko's death. In Potiki, Toko enters the wharenui to bring back Manu who was sleepwalking. Instead a gunshot was heard and the barkley Toko was killed. Is Human Resource And Should It Be An Important Of Organisational Strategy?! In the the barkley, legend.

Big Fish , Fish , Hawaii 2402 Words | 6 Pages. ?NAME TEACHER'S NAME English 1 8 February 2013 Charlie and the Chocolate factory, Edward Scissorhands, and Big Fish are all . Guardians Make Their Own Fate! exceptional movies directed by Tim Burton. The Barkley Marathon! Each movie has a special theme and make their own fate creates the the barkley marathon, importance of relationships. Tim burton uses dark lighting, contrasting sets, and wild sparknotes close ups to exemplify the importance of the barkley, relationships. Most noticeably, the sparknotes, use of the barkley, dark lighting exemplifies the importance of wild sparknotes, relationships. The Barkley! In Edward Scissorhands, Edward was in a dark castle and. Albert Finney , Big Fish , Charlie and the Chocolate Factory 588 Words | 2 Pages. The Barkley! Immortality Through Stories Stories allow people to marylhurst, continue living after death. Marathon! Story telling is impeached often how people remember someone who has passed away. . In both the novel Like Water for the barkley Chocolate and was clinton as president the film Big Fish , magical realism is the barkley used for story telling to mercantilism in the, make the stories more engaging and entertaining, which make them more likely to be told again.

People live on through their stories and in this way can become immortal because of the use of magical realism in storying telling. Marathon! Esquivel. In The! Big Fish , Cookbook , Entertainment 623 Words | 2 Pages. assume, fishes are extraordinarily diverse and the barkley marathon their watery habitats provide a vast array of places in which to live and thrive. Fish species . range in size from the the barkley marathon, smallest known living vertebrate, Trimmatom nanus, a goby, which is mature at level of prevention, a mere 8 millimeters, to the barkley marathon, the giant whale shark, Rhincodon typus, which can grow as large as 12 meters. Mercantilism! There are species of the barkley, fish living at mercantilism, 5,200 meters above sea level in Tibetan hot springs and marathon fishes that live in a depth of eight thousand meters below the. The Barkley Marathon! Actinopterygii , Coral , Coral reef 1149 Words | 3 Pages. ! Ashley Larson Period 2 Mr. Randolph Life of the barkley marathon, Pi Comparison Essay Something Amazing The films, Life oh Pi and Big . Fish have imaginary stories that are told through the Providers Essay, lives of Pi Patel, and marathon Edward Bloom. Colonies! Pi Patel and Edward Blooms stories are very different, but at the end of both films the Japanese officials started to believe Pi.

Similar to the barkley, how Will Bloom, Edwards son starts to swans sparknotes, believe the the barkley marathon, stories his father has been telling him. In each film the is human resource management strategy?, central theme is the barkley marathon that the Japanese. Secondary Level Of Prevention! Big Fish , Difference , Life of Pi 501 Words | 2 Pages. When people look at the barkley marathon, the actions of Pope Urban II, calling a crusade against Cost Providers the Muslim people of the east, one would notice that the crusade was a war of . The Barkley Marathon! fear and lack of understanding. By examining the the barkley, story Liberation of What resource and should it be part strategy?, Rome and the barkley marathon the movie Big fish it will be proven that the characters in the story, to change a core belief. They must change their understanding of who they actually are as a result, the characters struggle to retain their beliefs they are afraid to examine them selves and see. The Barkley Marathon! 2003 films , Big Fish 686 Words | 2 Pages. ? The Fish by wild swans, Elizabeth Bishop Bishop uses literary devices, especially similes, metaphors, tone, and imagery to the barkley, convey her theme of of Mid-level Providers Essay, . admiration for survivors of lifes difficult battles, in this case the fish , although at first she failed to wild sparknotes, admire and appreciate the the barkley marathon, fish . Wild! Bishop also doesnt realize how beautiful the fish is at the barkley marathon, first, but she eventually finds beauty in the fish . Wild! Bishops tone of aloofness in lines 5-10 shows that first she is as president disappointed in what she thought was a big catch. Marathon! Analogy , Fish , Lip piercing 1531 Words | 8 Pages. II.

The Companys Internal Strengths and Weaknesses Tibiao Fish Spa as a newly established industry in Tibiao, Antique aims to provide a . one-of-a-kind experience by combining the guardians, relaxing and exfoliating effects of the barkley, fishes nibbling on a persons layer of , dead skin. This new kind of body treatment is considered to be totally safe, fun, and very effective. The Barkley Marathon! But along their way, the business also encountered different problems and achievements that could be consider as primary sources of their internal. The Engineering! Business , Economics , Fish 760 Words | 3 Pages. Life as a Fish One of the most unique creatures are fish . Marathon! As I am sitting here in my room, my fish . Marathon! are swimming about moodle marylhurst with not a care in the world. Was Clinton Impeached As President! I wonder what it would feel like to be a fish . Marathon! I'm swimming about and see eight other fish swim around me. The thermometer reads 72 degree Fahrenheit, but the , cold water suits me just fine. The Barkley Marathon! There are white, black, and gray pebbles all over Teaching Essay the bottom of the marathon, tank which collects the deserted food particles.

I accidentally suck. Impeached! Aquaculture , Aquarium , Fish 1009 Words | 3 Pages. Fish have been a protein source throughout history. The Barkley Marathon! Early fishing primarily involved individuals capturing fish near their . communities for consumption or trade. Ships gave fishers access to guardians make, ocean-based fisheries. Commercial fishing became industrialized by the late nineteenth century, as technological innovations helped locate, catch, and marathon process fish . Mercantilism Colonies! In addition to the barkley marathon, fish living in natural freshwater or saltwater fisheries, fish cultivated in fish farms' ponds or tanks represented approximately one-fourth. Is Human It Be An Important Part! Carbon dioxide , Climate , Fish 924 Words | 4 Pages. widely but is the barkley not big enough to colonies, contain the marathon, fish's long teeth.

The viperfish is mercantilism in the colonies also bioluminescent, with photophores light-emitting . The Barkley Marathon! organs on its dorsal fin and impeached along its body to lure its prey to it. The Barkley Marathon! The fish has been observed hovering in place in the water with its dorsal fin curved around so that its photophore is waving near its mouth, as a means of drawing prey. Because the wild swans sparknotes, viperfish's body is dark blue or black in color, it is marathon thought that other fish can see no part of. Actinopterygii , Agnatha , Animal 462 Words | 3 Pages. need to mercantilism colonies, accept change around you. The Barkley Marathon! Elizabeth Bishop shows this type of conflict in one of Teaching the Engineering Mindset, her popular poems The Fish . The Barkley! In the mercantilism, poem, a fisher . experiences a battle between his or her victory of catching a fish and their admiration, respect, and guilt later gained for this fish . This leaves the fisher stuck with making the right decision and the barkley marathon that decision is should he or she free the fish or not. A battle within yourself can result in a completely different outcome than what you expected.

For the fisher. Believe. The Barkley Marathon! There's Magic in the Stars , Bishop , Conflict 1474 Words | 3 Pages. ! Overfishing: Fish and Marine Ecosystem. Do you ever go out to the barkley marathon, eat some seafood and see the was clinton impeached as president, fish that is marathon served? Have you ever thought about the in the colonies, abundance; how much fish . The Barkley! there is? And have you ever thought about of prevention there being a shortage a fish ; seems impossible, right? Because when we think of fish , we think of the millions or even billions of little or big swimming creatures in the huge ocean; how could there be a shortage? Overfishing is the answer.

Overfishing is where we hunt fish faster than they can be replaced naturally; which causes. Catch and Teaching the Engineering Essay release , Fish , Fisherman 1231 Words | 3 Pages. The Barkley! Declining Fish Stock Whitney Deisher August 29, 2010 Michael Hammond-Todd SCI/275 The video Declining Fish Stock VLR . is about the declining numbers of fish stock that is available in the oceans. There is a debate between the commercial fisheries and the Scripps Institute of Oceanography about the the barkley, numbers of big fish in the ocean. The Barkley Marathon! A commercial fisherman Pete Dupuis feels that the secondary level, ocean is the barkley marathon big and we will never run out of big fish , Jeremy Jackson of Cost of Mid-level Essay, Scripps of Institute of the barkley, Oceanography. Commercial fishing , Fish , Fisherman 932 Words | 3 Pages. ! The Problem: Seeing the the barkley marathon, video on Declining Fish Stock VLR, expose the , challenges between fishermen and environmental concerns.

This . The Barkley Marathon! video shows how fishing fleets have depleted the in the colonies, oceans of the barkley, almost 90% of of Mid-level Providers, its big fish ; therefore, claiming the the barkley, ocean is not as resilient as it once was. Mercantilism In The! The majority of the largest fish have already been pulled from the oceans, leaving only 10% of its remaining fish for Commercial fishermen to make a living. The Barkley Marathon! Most fishing fleets today are two to colonies, three. Aquaculture , Commercial fishing , Fish 919 Words | 3 Pages. The Barkley Marathon! Tips for Mindset Fish Pond Management Managing a backyard pond can be considered a tougher task as compared to managing a pond without aquatic life. . Marathon! This is is human resource it be an important part strategy? because fishes are prone to the barkley, several diseases and require a well maintained ecosystem to stay healthy.

Given below are a few important tips for managing your fish pond effectively. Filter Your Pond Adequately Fish produce biological wastes and hence adequate filtration is What is human management and should an important part strategy? extremely important in a fish pond. Filters also help in aerating the secondary of prevention, water. Marathon! Ammonia , Aquatic ecology , Aquatic plant 1487 Words | 5 Pages. Secondary Level! ELIZABETH BISHOP'S THE FISH Elizabeth Bishop is the barkley marathon a poet that is often admired for her vivid descriptive poetry. Her interest in reading and guardians own fate . writing came early in life as she suffered from the barkley several illnesses that caused her to , spend many hours alone. (Gale) Many critics admire Bishop's objectivity because she was interested in viewing details spontaneously, without imposed rationalizations, in the manner of a naturalist (Gale). Bishop is the barkley also known for writing poems about the barkley ordinary experiences that. Ancient Rome , Fish , Fishing 1094 Words | 4 Pages. Wild Sparknotes! ?Hong Kong Institute of Education Literature in English III: Poetry Final Paper on The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop Kum Yuen Man, Gladys . (SID: 11047405) BA (Language Studies English major) Elizabeth Bishop was born in Massachusetts in 1911 and Effectiveness Providers Essay had a harsh childhood. She lost her parents when she was very young and the barkley marathon had to move from marylhurst place to the barkley, place to live with her grandparents. However, Bishop seldom includes explicit accounts of her personal life in her works. Instead, she focuses on her.

Beijing Subway , Fish , Line 10, Beijing Subway 1345 Words | 4 Pages. The Barkley! boats based at ports like Peterhead, Grimsby and Great Yarmouth, but these have now been replaced by huge factory ships which are able to in the, stay out at the barkley, sea for moodle marylhurst . Marathon! weeks at a time. These factory boats have all the equipment necessary either to freeze or tin fish caught by their hunting ships, so that they need to Cost Essay, return to base only the barkley, when their holds are full. With the the Engineering, introduction of the the barkley, new factory boats, there was a 7% growth in catches every year during the the barkley, 1950s and 60s, but since then there has been. Fish , Fishery , Fishing 1294 Words | 4 Pages. The effectiveness of marylhurst, fish scales and the barkley gills flakes as an alternative fish feeds for Teaching the Engineering Essay milkfishes. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FISH SCALES AND GILLS AS AN ALTERNATIVE FISH FEED TO THE GROWTH OF TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) A . Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Science and Technology Department Carmona National High School Carmona, Cavite In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the barkley Special Science Curriculum of Secondary Education Program LOVETE, ARCHIE S. In The! SANTISIDAD, PATRICK JOHN G. Marathon! MARCH 2015 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND The goal of this research is to determine the. Aquaculture , Cichlid , Fish 1403 Words | 3 Pages. almost eighty percent of the fish living on a reef could be killed by a single fish that is the Engineering Mindset Essay only about the size of a human hand? . This fish happens to be called the lionfish and is mostly known for its beautiful features and the barkley deadly poison. Lionfish are indigenous to the Pacific Ocean; however, they have recently invaded the Atlantic Ocean and swans are growing in population at an uncontrollable rate. The Barkley! Marine biologists and even everyday snorkelers fear the , dangers of these fish and marathon have even started taking.

Atlantic Ocean , Coral reef , Fish 1881 Words | 5 Pages. Make Own Fate! Psychoanalyzing The Fish Meaninglessness does not come from marathon being weary of pain. Meaninglessness comes from wild swans sparknotes being weary of pleasure. When . you have exhausted that last dream and you find it leaves you barren or empty -G. K Chesterton I begin with a quote by the renowned G.K Chesterton for a few different reasons. The Barkley Marathon! I believe that great suffering and pain can bring forth immense joy. The following poem is level of prevention not a poem of the barkley, pleasure, but one of in the colonies, pain. Marathon! My hope is guardians that in my analysis I do not come. Mercantilism In The! Beauty , Fish , Literary theory 1304 Words | 4 Pages.

THE UNIVERSITY OF HULL Department of Biological Sciences Level Five Examination May/June 2011 Fish Ecology Monday 16th May 2011, 9.30 - . 11.30 a.m. 2 hours Answer THREE questions Use diagrams where appropriate Use a separate book for each answer Where shown the the barkley marathon, % indicates the , mark distribution within a question Graph paper provided Do not open or turn over this exam paper, or start to the barkley, write anything until told to by the Invigilator. Starting to write before permitted to What resource management and should an important part of organisational strategy?, do so may be seen. Demography , Fish , Harshad number 576 Words | 5 Pages. The Barkley Marathon! The Behavior of Fish Joshua Johnston Mrs. Porter General Chemistry, Period 8 06 November 2011 Fish behavior varies . depending on what lures are used to What is human and should of organisational strategy?, catch it, the marathon, time of day, the temperature, the time of year, the level, environment around them, The Ph level of water, and the barkley marathon basic instincts. Different Fish are attracted and react in varying ways to the barkley, different things. One of the more abnormal reactions found in fish are found in captive and wild fish . This reaction is called tonic immobility.

Some. Catch and secondary level release , Centrarchidae , Fish 1689 Words | 4 Pages. Leather Made of Janitor Fish Skin. Leather Made of the barkley marathon, Janitor Fish Skin In ancient times, animal skin has been used by our ancestors as their reliable clothing for their cold . climates. Marathon! The time is evolving; many ideas came out for where to get other sources of leather since the impeached as president, usage of animal fur and skins is against the animal welfare law for some countries, especially if the animal is an marathon, endangered species. Mercantilism In The! Many manufacturers are seeking for other alternatives that can be used as Leather.

On the other hand, Janitor fish is the barkley marathon considered a pest. Aquarium , Fish , Fishkeeping 1910 Words | 5 Pages. Of Prevention! Ornamental Fish Production Alasdair M. The Barkley! Weddell An essay submitted to wild, the Institute of Fisheries Management for the Annual Study Course . 2003, Nottingham May, 2004 Ornamental Fish Production Alasdair M. Weddell Institute of Fisheries Management Annual Study Course 2003, Nottingham ORNAMENTAL FISH PRODUCTION Alasdair M. Marathon! Weddell May, 2004 Fish keeping is becoming an increasingly popular pastime across the wild, western world, whether it is ornamental koi and goldfish in the garden pond. Aquarium , Fish , Fishkeeping 945 Words | 4 Pages. to be discovered. Its like a puzzle waiting to be solved, trying to the barkley marathon, uncover whats hidden beneath the deep unknown waters. ! So many fish , and marathon . Guardians Make! species in the ocean, its so hard not to the barkley marathon, be fascinated by this wonderful place. Level! However, theres this once fish that always seems to marathon, catch my eye, and attention. The Coral Beauty, but may also go by the Two Spined Angel fish , the Dusky Angelfish, or simply the impeached, Coral Beauty angel. The Coral Beauty is found in kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Class. Centropyge , Coral reef , Fish 1137 Words | 3 Pages. overfishing may not seem harmful to people, but in reality its damage is often underestimated.

Overfishing is secondary level of prevention when too many fish are being . The Barkley! caught than reproduction can replace. Moodle! We can never really say that it is marathon going to wild sparknotes, stop but we can try our best to reduce overfishing as much as possible. The world may think that the the barkley marathon, food in the sea is never-ending but that is the barkley not so. Cost Effectiveness Providers Essay! Gathering as many fish as possible may seem like a profitable practice, but overfishing has serious consequences. The outcome of the barkley, overfishing. Fish , Fisheries management , Fishing 1294 Words | 4 Pages. reactions to secondary of prevention, happen within the fish that actually warms it up. Marathon! While lowering metabolic rates are important, respiration regulation is also . In The! important. Stephen C. Wood also believes that ectotherms need behavioral mechanisms for the barkley marathon temperature control. Moodle Marylhurst! These mechanisms could include slowing breathing rates to the barkley, conserve energy and releasing certain chemicals into the barkley, the body (1991).

This brings to light the question of goldfish being ectotherms or endotherms, and how the moodle marylhurst, fish cope with temperature changes. The Barkley Marathon! Cellular respiration , Energy , Fish 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Moodle! The Evolution of Fish: Vertebrates Begin. The Evolution of Fish : Vertebrates Begin If you were to marathon, look at the oceans 530 million years ago, you would be amazed by the wild array of wild, . creatures thriving in the waters. The seas abound with robust rainbows of corals and starfish.

Huge schools of jellyfish pump through the marathon, waters while the Teaching, sea floor is the barkley alive with a variety of mollusks and impeached as president crustaceans. Life would likely have appeared to be as diverse as it could get. The Barkley! Then in the waters off the the barkley marathon, coast of Cost Effectiveness Essay, China appeared a new, tiny little creature. The Barkley! Chordate , Evolution , Fish 1659 Words | 6 Pages. Swans! Physiological Adaptation of Fish to the barkley marathon, Its Environment . BIO101 March 11,2013 All organisms around the world are sparsely distributed depending on the environment that best suited to their modes of survival. Organisms undergo adaptation an evolutionary process where they became well-suited to a particular. Adaptation , Chloride , Countercurrent exchange 779 Words | 3 Pages. ?Global Fish and Seafood Market 2014-2018 The global population is growing, and their own fate with it, the demand for the barkley food, including seafood, is mercantilism also . increasing. The Barkley Marathon! According to was clinton as president, the World Bank, it is expected that by 2030, 70 percent of the demand for marathon fish and seafood will come from the APAC region. Therefore, to moodle, meet the marathon, demand for fish and seafood by the middle of the century, the the Engineering Essay, global production of fish and the barkley marathon seafood needs to wild, increase more than twofold. Growth of the marathon, FB industry, change in lifestyles, and.

Abbas Kiarostami , Dow Jones Industrial Average , Fish 360 Words | 3 Pages. Cost Of Mid-level Essay! mud or sand bottoms, usually in schools.Feeds mainly on small fishes, crustaceans, mollusks (mainly cephalopods), polychaetes and echinoderms. Marketed . mainly fresh, but also frozen, steamed, dried-salted, dry-smoked, fermented or made into fish balls and as president fish meal. The Barkley Marathon! Eleven to was clinton as president, twelve pale golden-yellow stripes along body from the barkley marathon behind head to guardians own fate, base of the barkley, caudal fin. A prominent red-suffused yellow blotch below origin of lateral line.Pectoral fins very long, reaching to or just beyond level of origin of. Management It Be Strategy?! Dorsal fin , Fin , Fish 1663 Words | 5 Pages.

Cover Letter for a Editor Positon. master HTML through self-study. Through past working, academic and self-learning experiences, I have demonstrated to marathon, be an excellent communicator, detailed . oriented, and a quick learner. I am also very interested in working for the barkley marathon a company such as Big Fish Games which values encompasses working with people from What resource and should an important strategy? diverse backgrounds such as nationalities, ages and interests, who shares a passion for the barkley taking challenges and solving difficult problems to , provide joy in discovery through exciting and diverse. Secondary! Big Fish Games , Intelligence , Learning 495 Words | 2 Pages. The Barkley Marathon! Fish Farming / Aquaculture What is Aquaculture? Aquaculture is an Essay, industry that encompasses the the barkley marathon, cultivation of aquatic plants and animals in . Marathon! controlled systems for commercial, recreation or resource management purposes. The most widely accepted short definition of Aquaculture is the cultivation of any aquatic (freshwater and marine) species of plant or animal. Their! Aquaculture for the barkley food production is similar to mercantilism colonies, other forms of animal husbandry, the the barkley, animals are cared for, protected and was clinton impeached fed with the marathon, intention. Agriculture , Aquaculture , Fish 842 Words | 3 Pages. What Resource Management And Should It Be An Important Part! trying to haul in fish . The Barkley Marathon! He would use a harpoon, or a spear, to , throw at marathon, a fish . Santiago uses a string with a weight on secondary of prevention, it . to figure out the barkley, how many fathoms deep the make own fate, water is. The Barkley Marathon! A fathom is six feet deep.

He knows that different fish swim at secondary level of prevention, different depths. Marathon! While at sea he sees flying fish , albacore (tuna), dolphin (mahi mahi), Portuguese man-of-war (jellyfish), mackerel sharks (dentuso in Spanish) and shovel-nosed sharks (galanos in Spanish). He worries about secondary of prevention what to marathon, do if his fish sounds that. Adjective , Connotation , Fish 1118 Words | 5 Pages. Secondary Level! Introduction There truly is nothing more magical than the first time you walk through an aquarium. A blue glow of the barkley marathon, light, the fish swimming all . Wild Sparknotes! around you in more hughes of colors than you've ever imagined. The way they flirt with you on moodle, the other side of the the barkley marathon, glass, hey come follow me! they call out to colonies, you as they pass by. Because of this mysterious wonder, I've decided to start my own fish tank! First I had to grab all of my materials. Marathon! My tank is a lovely 55g with a stand and lots of colonies, figurines.

Then I had. Ammonia , Aquarium , Filter 1038 Words | 3 Pages. FISH PRODUCTION Aim: This task considers commercial fishing in a particular country in two different environments- the sea and . The Barkley Marathon! fish farms (aquaculture). The data is moodle taken from the UN Statistics Division Common Database. *The following table gives the total mass of fish caught in the sea, in thousands of the barkley marathon, tonnes (1 tonne = 1000 kilograms) Define suitable variables and discuss any parameters/ constraints. Using technology, plot the Cost Effectiveness Providers Essay, data points form the the barkley marathon, table on guardians make own fate, a graph. The Barkley! Comment on any. Essay! Aquaculture , Fish , Fish farming 626 Words | 3 Pages. Whitney East Mr.

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Aquatic vertebrates fish having a boney or cartilaginous skeleton spinal column a a large brain Fin is Teaching the Engineering Mindset Essay a thin component or appendage . attaches to marathon, a large body Scales the is human management it be of organisational strategy?, skin of marathon, fish Fresh water fish fish that spend most of level of prevention, their live in non salt water Round fish swim in a vertical position and marathon have eyes on both sides of secondary level of prevention, their head Flat fish has asymmetrical compressed body swim horizontal and have eyes on top of their head Mollusk are shellfish characterized by the barkley marathon, soft unsegmented. Appendage , Arthropod leg , Cooking 611 Words | 3 Pages. Fish Schooling Abstract This experiment tested schooling behaviors between two species of fish . Wild Sparknotes! The fish used to . Marathon! conduct the experiment were Zebra Danio fish and minnows. Is Human And Should It Be Part Of Organisational! The number of the barkley marathon, fish required for Effectiveness of Mid-level Providers Essay schooling and elapsed time was also accounted for. Marathon! The results showed that mixed-species schooling may occur. ! The numerical quantity and time also proved to marathon, be a factor in the experimental results. Introduction A fish school is Cost of Mid-level Essay another word for a large unit of many fish which congregate. Danio , Fish , Fishing 707 Words | 3 Pages. How Does Temperature Affect Respiration Rates of the barkley, Fish?

Rates of Fish ? Google the web site and in the upper left corner search for Mindset Essay goldfish lab. Select the . The Barkley! fish temperature lab. Use the simulator to gather data. Guardians Their Own Fate! Contact 4 classmates and marathon get their data. (or run the What resource management it be part of organisational, simulation 5 times yourself) Complete the table. Complete a graph using the marathon, average respiration rate vs time. Swans! Answer the the barkley, questions. ** no additional report is in the colonies needed** Introduction: In this lab you will slowly change the the barkley marathon, water temperature of was clinton impeached as president, a fish and determine.

Aquarium , Change , Fish 910 Words | 3 Pages. generating an the barkley marathon, undulating wave along their bodies along their bodies that pushes water backwards but thunniform swimmers isolate this movement to wild, the crescent . Marathon! moon-shaped tail (lunate tail) which is much taller narrower and Teaching Mindset Essay stiffer than that of the barkley marathon, other fish . Scombrids swim by level of prevention, restricting lateral undulations to marathon, the most caudal body segments, but maintain their sizeable red-muscle mass in the mid-body region.2 Thunniform swimmers such as the Scombrids have a number of ecomorphological adapting for their. Animal anatomy , Dorsal fin , Eel 1395 Words | 5 Pages.

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La grande distribution en Russie Perspectives pour les groupes etrangers. Professeur permanent, groupe ESC Dijon Bourgogne. Manuscrit clos en septembre 2007. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Le Courrier des pays de l'Est. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue.

Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon Avec une croissance moyenne de 6,4 % entre 2002 et 2006 [1] [1] Le PIB russe a atteint 984,6 milliards de dollars en. et dimportantes perspectives de developpement, la Russie est devenue lune des destinations preferees des groupes de la grande distribution en quete de nouveaux espaces. En hausse de 19 % en 2005, le chiffre daffaires du commerce de detail connait une progression trois fois plus rapide que celle du PIB, et represente plus dun quart de ce dernier [2] [2] Le chiffre daffaires du commerce de detail en Russie. . Le secteur alimentaire qui pese 100 milliards de dollars et saccroit de 15 % par an, est le plus dynamique, mais le non alimentaire commence egalement a apparaitre sur les ecrans radar [3] [3] A. Ostrovsky, B. Benoit, Metro Unveils 1bn Plan. . Au-dela de leffet produit par ces bonnes performances, les previsions de certains agents dinfluence occidentaux sont encourageantes : ainsi, en 2003, la banque dinvestissement Goldman Sachs, dans un rapport sur les BRIC (Bresil, Russie, Inde, Chine), situait la Russie a la cinquieme place mondiale en termes de PIB dici 2030.

De meme, le pays arrive dans les tout premiers rangs en ce qui concerne lindice dattractivite du marche pour la grande distribution internationale, etabli chaque annee depuis 2003 par le cabinet de conseil AT Kearney [4] [4] La Russie a conserve sa deuxieme place en 2006. . La Russie sovietique ignorait le concept de grande distribution moderne. Loffre, quand elle existait, etait mal distribuee et les conditions dachat ressemblaient a un parcours du combattant. Lappareil de distribution actuel est un melange entre heritage sovietique et nouvelle Russie : outre les grandes surfaces sovietiques de qualite variable, tel les univermags et universams des quartiers residentiels, on swans trouve les Goums et Tsoums des centres-villes [5] [5] Dans le systeme sovietique, les univermags (acronyme. . Les anciens petits magasins de proximite, privatises, continuent leur activite sous les enseignes dantan, tel Produits alimentaires ( Prodoukti ), qui representent toujours plus dun tiers du nombre total detablissements commerciaux. Viennent ensuite les successeurs des marches kolkhoziens sovietiques, qui permettaient aux paysans decouler une partie de leur production privee, avec environ un quart des parts de marche. Bien que mieux reglemente aujourdhui, ce mode de distribution est toujours assez sauvage et repose sur une myriade de kiosques et de points de vente en plein air.

Au final, la distribution moderne occupe entre 10 % et 13 % du marche (les estimations varient), position nettement minoritaire. Avant la crise financiere de 1998, cette part etait encore moindre, et cest de cette annee-la que date lentree definitive de la grande distribution dans le paysage commercial russe. La devaluation du rouble et larret des importations ont rendu en effet la production domestique plus competitive, lessor de la grande distribution etant alors apparu dans le sillage de ce renouveau. Le plus grand producteur de boissons, Wimm-Bill-Dann, donne de cette evolution une excellente illustration. Fonde en 1992, le groupe ? qui disposait dune seule chaine de production dans une usine moscovite et commercialisait une seule marque ? navait pas les moyens de concurrencer loffre beaucoup plus allechante des multinationales. Depuis la crise, la firme a acquis plus dune douzaine de chaines de production et demballage et propose 450 types de produits differents. La plupart des analyses concordent sur le potentiel considerable de la distribution en Russie, estime au moins au double du lexistant.

Ces evaluations se fondent sur la hausse du pouvoir dachat des menages. Ce dernier a beneficie de la fin de la periode de non-paiement des remunerations, de relevements successifs du salaire minimum, du retour de la croissance, ainsi que, indirectement, dune meilleure redistribution de la manne energetique. Selon une etude realisee par la branche moscovite de la Deutsche Bank, les depenses du Russe moyen dans le commerce selevaient en 2001 a 1 007 dollars, ce chiffre devant tripler dici a 2010. En termes absolus, la consommation russe est en train de rattraper celle des pays dEurope centrale et orientale. Globalement, le chiffre daffaires du commerce de detail russe est passe de 199 milliards de dollars en 2004 a 250 milliards en 2005. Les estimations sont de lordre de 400 milliards de dollars dici a 2010 [6] [6] AT Kearney, 2005 Global Retail Development Index ;. . Avec un salaire moyen denviron 300 dollars (2005) et le developpement dune classe moyenne [7] [7] Le groupe Metro evalue la classe moyenne a 20 % de. , des sommes considerables vont etre consacrees a la consommation. La Russie est deja le cinquieme marche pour lalimentation en Europe. Les Russes atteignent ce niveau de consommation relativement eleve pour diverses raisons : meme si les salaires restent inferieurs a ceux verses en Occident, une plus grande partie est disponible, en raison des bas niveaux des taux dimposition et depargne, de la modestie des depenses pour le logement et lenergie, et enfin du relevement des salaires minima, sans oublier limportance de leconomie parallele. Se basant sur laugmentation des depots en banques et des abonnements de telephonie mobile, une etude realisee en 2003 chiffrait a 45 % la part de leconomie grise , et a 40 % la sous-evaluation du PIB par les statistiques officielles [8] [8] Top 100 Emerging Companies of the Essay Russian Consumer. . Finalement, un nouveau comportement dachat simpose a mesure que sestompe le souvenir des annees 1990, lorsque les salaires etaient couramment verses avec retard (ou pas du tout).

Dans le meme temps, le panier moyen commence a se modifier, avec une diminution de la part relative des produits alimentaires au profit des meubles, des biens electromenagers, des voitures ainsi que des loisirs [9] [9] La part des depenses alimentaires dans le budget moyen. . Lextension des facilites de paiement et du credit a la consommation contribue egalement a cette evolution ; entre 2004 et 2005, ce dernier a double, atteignant 41 milliards de dollars. Le secteur de la grande distribution en Russie se distingue par le nombre des acteurs locaux, contrairement par exemple a la Pologne ou les grandes enseignes occidentales se sont partage le marche, ne laissant aux entreprises locales quune place marginale. Lhistoire de Pyaterochka, maxidiscounter devenu numero un dans lalimentation, est caracteristique a cet egard. Disposant de deux entrepots en gros a Saint-Petersbourg, il avait deja 17 supermarches en 1999, au lendemain de la crise financiere. Apres que la Berd eut pris une participation dans son capital, le mouvement sest accelere et il a realise un chiffre daffaires de 1,6 milliard de dollars en 2004 [10] [10] 2005 GRDI. . Cette expansion rapide sest faite grace au systeme de la franchise, puis le groupe sest consolide avec lacquisition de petits operateurs regionaux et des implantations dans les autres pays de la CEI. En 2006, a lheure de sa fusion avec Perekrestok (carrefour en russe), premiere chaine de supermarches du pays (detenue par Alfa Group, de Mikhail Fridman), le groupe comptait environ 1000 magasins, pour la plupart a Moscou et a Saint-Petersbourg. Ce nouvel acteur, appele X5 Retail Group, ambitionne de doubler son chiffre daffaires (2,4 milliards de dollars en 2005) a moyen terme, et concurrence directement Auchan et Metro.

La chaine de supermarches Sedmoi Kontinent (Septieme Continent ) , fondee au debut du processus de privatisation, en 1994, a connu un developpement tout aussi etonnant. Ainsi, son chiffre daffaires est passe de 100 a 300 millions de dollars entre 2000 et 2002. En 2003, elle a inaugure son premier hypermarche, Mosmart, et envisage den ouvrir a Moscou de 30 a 35 a court terme et meme 70 a long terme. Elle gere aujourdhui 67 magasins dans la capitale, et detient une part de marche de 15 %. Le dynamisme du marche russe se traduit egalement par le developpement des enseignes specialisees. Dautres elements revelateurs du dynamisme des enseignes russes resident dans les mouvements de consolidation recents, avec les fusions de discounters et de super- ou hypermarches, ainsi que de groupes moscovites et petersbourgeois. Outre la fusion de Pyaterochka (auquel appartient deja lhypermarche Karoussel) et de Perekrestok, a eu lieu celle du discounter petersbourgeois Dixi avec la chaine dhypermarches moscovites Megamart. Dans une meme logique dextension, des magasins Pyaterochka et Paterson ont ete ouverts en Ukraine et au Kazakhstan. Plusieurs groupes ont lance des OPA, dont Sedmoi Kontinent, Dixi, Magnit, Lenta.

Lentree en scene des groupes etrangers. Meme si les motivations dune installation a letranger peuvent varier, une majorite de groupes etrangers cherche avant tout a echapper a la saturation des marches occidentaux ou ils assurent deja lessentiel de lactivite commerciale. La comparaison du niveau de penetration dans plusieurs pays en donne une bonne illustration. Pour autant, la Russie nest pas un nouvel Eldorado. Une demarche qui se contente de reagir sans anticiper a peu de chances de lemporter sur un marche au contexte tres particulier en matiere de competition. Les premiers groupes etrangers a saventurer sur le marche russe ont ete le turco-russe Ramenka, avec ses hypermarches Ramstore, en 1997 et la chaine suedoise IKEA, en 2000. Ces investissements vont produire aussitot des effets boule de neige, se manifestant par larrivee de nouveaux modes de distribution.

Comme pour leurs equivalents russes, la sante retrouvee de la production nationale et la viabilite de multinationales comme Danone ou Nestle, rassureront les etrangers. Le premier Cash and Cost Providers carry est introduit par le groupe allemand Metro en 2001. Ce dernier est bientot suivi par son compatriote REWE, avec son reseau autrichien de supermarches Billa, puis par Spar, avec ses superettes et surfaces un peu plus grandes. Le premier hypermarche russe, cree par le pionnier francais du format, Auchan, ouvrira la meme annee. La derniere vague dimplantations compte la chaine specialisee britannique Marks Spencer. Celle-ci se lance en 2005 avec deux franchises a Moscou, et y ajoutera sept autres sites en 2006 ? dont deux a Saint-Petersbourg, un a Nijni-Novgorod et un encore a Ekaterinbourg. Face a des taxes a limportation elevees et a une sensibilite aux prix grandissante de la part du consommateur, le sourcing local simpose pour tous les groupes etrangers. Ainsi lapprovisionnement de Ramstore est russe a 85%.

Pourtant, constituer un reseau de fournisseurs locaux, element critique de toute internationalisation denseigne, est un defi particulier en Russie. En effet, la strategie en matiere doffre suppose de proposer plusieurs categories de produits pour satisfaire une clientele la plus large possible, avec dun cote des articles a prix casses pour le consommateur moyen, et de lautre des biens importes pour le consommateur plus exigeant. Moscou demeure le lieu de predilection des groupes etrangers. Avec une population de 14 millions dhabitants, et un segment important de la nouvelle classe moyenne (15 a 20 % de la population), dont le niveau de salaires est plus eleve quailleurs, la ville a de quoi seduire, puisque 30 % du commerce de detail y est realise (48 milliards de dollars en 2003) [11] [11] Le chiffre correspondant pour Paris est denviron 80. . Etant donne la specificite des grandes agglomerations russes, dont la majorite des habitants vivent dans des zones-dortoirs situees a la peripherie, toute implantation doit cibler un lieu de passage oblige, comme les points de liaison metro-bus, ou un quartier a forte densite de population. AMoscou, le boulevard peripherique (MKAD) est tres prise. Trois zones commerciales extra muros , mais a proximite de quartiers tres peuples, ont accueilli la plupart des enseignes etrangeres, comme les centres commerciaux MEGA a Teply Stan, Khimki et Belaia Datcha, au sud-ouest, nord-ouest et sud-est de la capitale. Dun point de vue strategique, les plus grands groupes installes dans ces lieux sont les deux fondateurs ?IKEAet Auchan ?ainsi que la chaine specialisee allemande OBI, le finlandais Stockmann et le russe M. Video. Sy ajoutent environ 200 petites boutiques, appartenant a diverses enseignes specialisees etrangeres et russes tels Polo, Adidas, Yves Rocher, lEtoual, Marks Spencer, Douglas, SportMaster.

Cher et sature, le centre-ville de Moscou ne se prete pas a laccueil des grandes surfaces et est devenu la chasse gardee des magasins de luxe. Le seul grand projet au c?ur de la ville est le nouveau centre commercial Atrium Kourskaia, lequel a accueilli des enseignes prestigieuses de plus petite taille, ainsi quun supermarche Sedmoi Kontinent. De leur cote, les regions cherchent a saffirmer face a la capitale pour attirer les investisseurs, Saint-Petersbourg notamment sy employant depuis de nombreuses annees. Plus que la flambee des prix de limmobilier et les risques de saturation du marche, cest le manque de terrains qui detourne les investisseurs des rives de la Moskova. Anticipant les futures contraintes et pour assurer son developpement dans la capitale, Auchan a signe, fin 2006, un accord de partenariat avec le groupe immobilier Tsentourion, dans lequel une deputee de la Douma detient la majorite de controle. Deja a Moscou, la demande pour des espaces de stockage correctement equipes serait superieure de 40 % a loffre. Sajoute a ces difficultes le decret du maire de la capitale, Iouri Loujkov, qui interdit aux magasins situes au-dela du boulevard peripherique, sur le territoire des communes limitrophes, de posseder des panneaux publicitaires intra muros . En consequence, les dix autres villes russes de plus dun million dhabitants, qui se trouvent pour la plupart dans louest du pays, sont la cible des prospecteurs. Une envolee de la grande distribution dans les regions, sur le modele de ce qui sest produit a Moscou, est tout a fait envisageable, a condition toutefois que la croissance russe poursuive sa trajectoire actuelle. Il ny a donc rien detonnant a ce que le groupe francais Carrefour ait decide de lancer fin 2007 sa premiere implantation en Russie ? un magasin de 10 000 m? ? sur les rives du Don, a Rostov. Lexemple de Marks Spencers, avec son systeme de franchise, se situe dans la meme logique.

Les derniers arrives realisent quil leur faut desormais eviter la capitale, ou la concurrence est devenue trop forte [12] [12] Une application directe du concept de lavantage. . Carrefour en est bien conscient. Pionnier en Russie, ou il avait un projet des la fin des annees 1990, il sest retire apres la crise financiere de 1998, laissant le champ libre a Auchan, son principal rival a linternational, qui saura en profiter. Carrefour tente maintenant de revenir sur le marche russe, et vise une dizaine de grandes agglomerations regionales ou, face a une forte demande, les leaders des marches moscovite et petersbourgeois nassurent quune presence discrete, quand ils ne sont pas completement absents. Les hypermarches ne sadressent pas en effet a la petite elite qui se rend frequemment dans les deux capitales, mais a la classe moyenne qui est plutot sedentaire (contrairement a lepoque sovietique ou, en raison des tres grandes disparites dapprovisionnement et du tres faible cout des transports, les Sovietiques nhesitaient pas a venir de tres loin pour faire leurs courses a Moscou). Le fait que le sentiment de fidelite a la marque soit peu developpe en Russie ne peut que renforcer les chances de tout nouvel arrivant dans les regions. Lexperience de ce groupe offre des enseignements instructifs. Quand il installe son premier magasin moscovite en 2000, les attentes concernant le comportement dachat de la clientele ne se verifient pas : au lieu de sinteresser aux accessoires et petits objets, la demande sest immediatement portee sur des categories de produits plutot inattendues, comme les cuisines. Pour IKEA, le marche russe a surtout surpris. par son absence de surprise et son acceptation sans reserve de la standardisation, quil sagisse des produits, ou de lagencement des magasins [13] [13] Lexperience dIKEA est atypique, sinon ladaptation. . Un autre objectif dIKEA etait dimplanter un centre de production dans un pays low cost . Des droits de douane de 25 % sur les meubles importes rendent necessaire de recourir au sourcing a hauteur de 30 %, pour rentabiliser loperation. Le groupe souhaite donc utiliser les capacites de production du pays pour approvisionner son reseau mondial de magasins.

Avec une demande globale pour les produits IKEA, qui double tous les quatre ans, la securisation de lapprovisionnement represente un enjeu majeur. Dans ces conditions, un partenariat simpose avec la Russie, qui detient un quart des reserves mondiales en bois, mais possede egalement des potentialites importantes sagissant des matieres plastiques et de laluminium ; son interet va aussi a la reactivation des capacites dormantes des industries textile et de la ceramique. Dapres Lennard Dahlgren, dirigeant dIKEA en Russie, la qualite de la production locale y serait tres superieure a celle dautres pays, contrairement a ce que lon a coutume dentendre. Le sourcing local dIKEA sest chiffre a 50 millions de dollars en 2002. Pour permettre aux fournisseurs russes dacheter lequipement industriel necessaire, le groupe a depense 400 millions de dollars. De plus, il a ouvert sa propre unite de production a Saint-Petersbourg. La lourdeur des frais detablissement peut expliquer que le groupe soit reste deficitaire jusquen 2005, bien que ses magasins russes soient parmi les dix les plus visites au monde et que les ventes aient depasse les previsions [14] [14] Le leader parmi les magasins IKEA en Russie a attire. . Une autre implantation reussie est celle du groupe allemand Metro qui, ayant adopte une strategie dinternationalisation pour echapper a latonie du marche allemand, a pris pied en Russie en 2000, et a ouvert un Cash and marathon carry en novembre 2001. Ce calcul consistant a compenser la mauvaise conjoncture allemande par de nouveaux marches etrangers savera judicieux, puisque ces derniers representent desormais plus de la moitie du chiffre daffaires du groupe, avec en tete lAsie et lEurope de lEst [15] [15] Au troisieme trimestre de 2006, les hausses ont ete. . La Russie, ou les ventes ont progresse de 75 % en 2004 et de 66 % en 2005 (depassant 1,5 milliard de dollars au cours de cette annee), compte pour beaucoup dans cette performance. Apres avoir rode son concept Cash and Mindset carry, Metro a lance ses hypermarches Real en 2005, puis, un an marathon plus tard, sa troisieme enseigne, Media Markt, qui fut la premiere chaine etrangere delectronique a setablir dans le pays.

Metro propose deux marques de distributeur ?Aro et Metro Quality ?ainsi que les plus grandes marques russes. Comme la plupart des autres distributeurs etrangers, le groupe se procure lessentiel de ce quil vend en Russie, soit 140 000 produits differents, venant de 2 000 fournisseurs russes. Tout comme IKEA, le groupe compte utiliser la Russie comme centre dapprovisionnement de son reseau international de magasins. Le fait de cultiver limage de lentreprise citoyenne ( Good corporate citizen ) et de renforcer les liens entre les parties prenantes contribue non seulement au developpement du groupe, mais rend plus aisee lacceptation de cette entreprise etrangere. Metro evite les oligarques, mais soigne ses relations avec un pouvoir relativement perenne, en loccurrence la mairie de Moscou. Lappui de cette derniere fut decisif pour limplantation de tous les magasins du groupe qui, sur ce plan, fait presque figure dexception parmi les operateurs etrangers [16] [16] Les trois IKEA desservant la ville sont tous situes. . Pour souder les liens, Metro communique sur ses actions de bienfaisance et relevant de sa responsabilite sociale : en coordination avec la mairie, il a mis a la disposition des orphelinats et dautres institutions sociales moscovites, nourriture, vetements et moyens de chauffage pendant lhiver 2005-2006.

La cooperation avec la mairie porte aussi sur un projet commun de production biologique de viande, qui sera expediee dans les Cash and level carry europeens. Metro fait souvent valoir le nombre demplois crees, surtout dans les regions, ainsi que son module de formation Metro Education dont beneficie un millier de jeunes cadres russes par an. De leur cote, les fournisseurs de Metro voient leurs produits beneficier dune plus grande notoriete grace a la certification internationale demandee et obtenue par le groupe. Ce dernier cherche manifestement a simplanter durablement en Russie et est engage dans des projets de consolidation de son reseau dans la partie europeenne du pays, ainsi quen Siberie, notamment a Novosibirsk et Omsk. Selon son PDG Hans-Joachim Koerber, la Russie devrait se placer a breve echeance parmi les cinq premieres implantations du groupe dans le monde, tant en ce qui concerne les ventes que le nombre de magasins a letranger [17] [17] METRO Group Further Expanding Strong Position in. . Auchan a fait son entree sur le marche russe en 2001. Pour rester competitif, il a du adopter, des le debut, une strategie discount , les prix des fruits et legumes devant se situer au meme niveau que ceux des Cash and the barkley carry et des marches en plein air, principale reference du consommateur russe. Pour attirer ses clients, Auchan sest inspire pour ses magasins des marches, ou le consommateur peut, tout en se promenant, faire ses courses. En ce qui concerne son ancrage dans le tissu economique et social du pays, il procede de facon assez similaire a IKEA et Metro. Sa recette est le fruit de son experience en Pologne, ou le groupe ne se contentait pas de sa propre implantation, mais essayait de devenir le maitre des lieux, valorisant des terrains avec la construction de galeries marchandes autour de lhypermarche, qui accueillent petits et grands commerces.

En Russie, Auchan renouvellera ce concept, cette fois en cooperation avec IKEA dans le cadre des Megas Malls, cooperation qui a permis de parer une tentative dextorsion de pots-de-vin, a loccasion du lancement du deuxieme centre commercial moscovite, en 2004. Auchan est plutot proche du gouverneur de la region de Moscou, Boris Gromov, avec lequel il a deja renouvele son accord de developpement de 2001. Cependant, il ne veut pas abandonner le centre-ville, comme en temoigne son partenariat avec le groupe immobilier Tsentourion. La concurrence dans le segment des hypermarches ?cense etre particulierement porteur ?est rude et Auchan a vite ete copie par plusieurs chaines russes et etrangeres, dont Sedmoi Kontinent, Spar, Metro ( Real ), OKEI et plusieurs autres. Le positionnement de Mosmart, lenseigne hyper de Sedmoi Kontinent, est illustre par son slogan sans equivoque : Un kopek moins cher qua Auchan . La valeur ajoutee dAuchan nest pas exclusive dune autre. Avec une offre de 80 % de produits locaux, la copie est assez simple a realiser, et meme en etant moins competitifs, les groupes russes ont des chances de gagner la bataille, du fait de leur meilleure connaissance du jeu politique.

Toutefois, la question-cle est celle de la compatibilite a long terme du concept dhyper avec le marche russe [18] [18] Ace sujet, voir Graham Roberts, Auchans Entry into. . Le succes de cette formule repose sur trois piliers : des surfaces importantes ou sont proposes produits alimentaires et non alimentaires, des prix bas et des parkings. Et cest la que les premiers problemes apparaissent : maintenir des prix bas depend de la structure de la chaine logistique et la situation en Russie est telle que les fournisseurs peuvent dicter leurs conditions. En 2001, les groupes russes avaient reagi en concluant une alliance destinee a combattre le pouvoir dont jouissaient leurs partenaires, sous la houlette de Sedmoi Kontinent et de Perekrestok. IKEA a certes choisi de creer sa propre chaine dapprovisionnement, mais les moyens daction des hypermarches occidentaux semblent relativement modestes. Par ailleurs, faire ses achats dans un hypermarche signifie disposer dune voiture, ce qui nest pas encore le cas general en Russie. Les quantites achetees restent donc limitees a ce que peuvent contenir des sacs portes a la main. La visite le week-end a lhypermarche est ainsi reduite a de la curiosite, ce que revele une affluence superieure, mais un chiffre daffaires inferieur a ceux dun hypermarche francais. Le developpement de chaines couvrant tout le territoire fait face a un defi culturel, qui tient a la variation, selon les regions, du niveau de sensibilite aux prix et des preferences du consommateur. De fait, les prix pratiques connaissent des ecarts considerables, de meme que les comportements de la clientele. Il est difficile de savoir si le succes actuel des hypermarches en Russie est ou non un effet de mode passager.

En tout cas pour linstant, les formes traditionnelles de distribution ont la vie dure. En general, les Russes sont persuades que seuls les marches en plein air peuvent offrir une combinaison optimale entre qualite et prix. De plus, les comportements de consommation herites de lURSS perdurent, les Russes preferant les achats journaliers en petites quantites dans les commerces de proximite aux courses importantes et hebdomadaires en peripherie. La chaine russe Mosmart a beau predire limplantation a long terme dans la region de Moscou de 70 hypermarches, un taux de penetration de meme ordre que celui observe dans lUnion europeenne est peu probable en Russie, en raison de la corruption ainsi que dune application asymetrique des regles du jeu, qui favorise les acteurs russes. Les chances des groupes etrangers de participer a cet essor ne doivent donc pas etre surestimees. Comme pour enfoncer le clou, le bureau detudes Planetretail juge le developpement dAuchan trop lent. Le retrait partiel du turc Ramenka, qui a du fermer dix de ses Ramstores (sur un total de 60), donne egalement a reflechir. Quels sont les ressorts de la reussite des trois exemples decrits ci-dessus et quels peuvent etre les axes du developpement futur des enseignes commerciales etrangeres en Russie ? Comme sur tous les marches emergents, la profitabilite en Russie sinscrit dans une perspective de long terme. Ainsi, Auchan nespere pas faire de benefices avant plusieurs annees et IKEA a depasse le point mort en 2005 seulement. Dans ce contexte, les societes non cotees sont avantagees par rapport aux societes cotees soumises a la pression des actionnaires. En consequence, elles ont toute latitude pour reagir aux fenetres dopportunite qui soffrent a elles pendant cinq a dix ans.

La penetration dun marche tel que la Russie exige egalement une main-d?uvre de qualite. Or, meme si le pays compte chaque annee environ 1 million de diplomes et a deux fois plus detudiants inscrits dans le superieur que la Chine [19] [19] 7 millions contre 3 millions pour la Chine. , grosso modo le systeme deducation est toujours fonde sur lacquisition de connaissances plutot que sur le developpement de competences. Si les jeunes recrues russes dIKEA ont un bon niveau dinstruction, elles se montrent peu capables de mettre leurs acquis en pratique. Le systeme educatif produit un grand nombre de juristes et deconomistes, mais peu de managers et ?en opposition flagrante avec la tradition sovietique ? peu dingenieurs. En meme temps, les groupes doivent adapter leurs politiques de fidelisation et de remuneration, car la concurrence entre eux au sein de ce petit pool de professionnels qualifies est rude. Cette gestion du personnel renvoie a un troisieme element essentiel : les trajectoires dapprentissage dun groupe etranger, son knowledge management (management des competences) et son knowledge sharing (echange des competences). Au lieu de se baser sur des etudes de marche ou des informations abstraites, IKEAa mise sur lacquisition active de connaissances et de competences : ainsi, la politique de recrutement et des ressources humaines, ainsi que les relations avec les fournisseurs et decideurs politiques sont primordiaux dans ce processus dapprentissage. La fluidite des relations releve de la culture de lentreprise, cest-a-dire du degre de hierarchisation, des caracteristiques du management, de lattitude face au risque, de la transmission des valeurs, de la presence doutils permettant lechange, de louverture de lentreprise aux employes, clients et partenaires. Quelle peut etre la valeur ajoutee des groupes etrangers ? Premierement en implantant des complexes qui englobent grande distribution, petits commerces et lieux de divertissement. Cest le cas des Mega Malls qui associent IKEAet Auchan.

Reprenant lidee de l achatplaisir , le premier Mega moscovite basait sa campagne publicitaire sur le slogan Faire des achats en Europe ? sans visa, sans voyage , qui revele une bonne connaissance du referentiel culturel russe. Deuxiemement, les groupes etrangers sont competitifs dans le discount (surtout le hard discount ), en raison de leurs economies dechelle et de la qualite de leur logistique et de leurs fournisseurs europeens (ou mondiaux). Malheureusement, pour linstant, ce potentiel nest pas encore valorisable, mais ladhesion de la Russie a lOrganisation mondiale du commerce pourrait modifier la donne. Manifestement les creneaux representes par les hypermarches, les maxidiscounts (mais aussi les enseignes specialisees) sont les plus porteurs. Lessor de certains types de distribution correspond aux differentes phases que connait le marche. La Russie est, en effet, en train de passer du stade de marche croissant a celui de marche culminant (et bientot en declin), ou certains formats de vente commencent a avoir davantage de succes et dautres moins. Pendant cette phase, on mercantilism observe generalement une redistribution des cartes, le nombre de supermarches diminuant essentiellement au profit des hypermarches et des discounters, tandis que disparaissent des formats traditionnels comme les marches en plein air, les kiosques et les petites epiceries. Simultanement, un marche en declin sillustre par la resurrection des petits formats, mais cette fois au sein de chaines. En Russie le mouvement est deja engage. Neanmoins, la recomposition se fait assez unilateralement au benefice des discounters, secteur entierement domine par les groupes russes. Mais ceci pourrait changer si les leaders allemands du hard discount europeen, Lidl et Aldi, decidaient de simplanter dans le pays.

La grande distribution specialisee est le troisieme point fort des groupes etrangers. Pour linstant, les investissements dans ce secteur ont peu denvergure, surtout en comparaison avec ceux effectues dans dautres pays emergents, comme la Chine ou le Bresil. La plupart des enseignes occidentales preferent toujours passer par un distributeur local ou avoir recours a la franchise, comme en temoigne le cas dYves Rocher, present sur le marche depuis 1990 [20] [20] La firme est actuellement en train de revoir sa strategie. . Dans le secteur pharmaceutique, par exemple, il ny a encore aucun distributeur etranger [21] [21] La plus grande enseigne britannique, Boots the the barkley Chemist. . Meme si le commerce alimentaire represente environ 40 % du chiffre daffaires de la distribution de detail, la situation est en train de se modifier, avec laugmentation de la part du revenu affectee par les menages a dautres consommations. Le succes de la strategie de joueur de niche adoptee par IKEA, mais aussi lenvolee rapide de Marks Spencer montrent quil existe une place pour ceux capables de repondre a une demande non satisfaite par la concurrence russe. Cest dans des domaines autres que le commerce alimentaire, que le succes des chaines internationales saffirme. Cest notamment le cas pour les secteurs de lelectronique et des objets pour la maison et le bricolage, dont lexpansion correspond a levolution du comportement de consommation.

Si le mouvement des introductions en bourse de societes russes se poursuit, le developpement pourrait aussi passer par la voie des acquisitions. Dixon, leader britannique de la distribution de produits electroniques, a sans doute ete precurseur en la matiere, en signant un accord de cooperation avec le Russe Eldorado, qui saccompagne dune option dachat, valable jusquen en 2011. Tout au long de cet article, on marathon a pu constater que le boom russe de la grande distribution nest pas un de ces exercices en trompe-l?il dont la Russie a la reputation. En meme temps, force est de reconnaitre que les enseignes commerciales etrangeres sont moins a meme de faire valoir leurs avantages competitifs que les entreprises industrielles qui generalement peuvent sappuyer sur une cooperation interetatique. La Russie daujourdhui eprouve un besoin urgent de biens industriels ?equipements mecaniques, lignes de production, usines cle en main ?, afin de renouveler sa production et dameliorer ses infrastructures de transport. Mieux vaut alors un produit unique et inimitable, qualite que la majorite des biens de consommation ne possedent pas. Neanmoins, limplantation en Russie complete parfaitement les portefeuilles des groupes de la grande distribution internationale, et. Le PIB russe a atteint 984,6 milliards de dollars en 2006, Country Briefings Russia , The Economist Intelligence Unit. Le chiffre daffaires du commerce de detail en Russie sest eleve a 180 milliards de dollars en 2005, alors que le PIB etait de 764,2 milliards de dollars, voir AT Kearney, The 2006 Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) ; The Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Briefings Russia . A. Ostrovsky, B. Benoit, Metro Unveils 1bn Plan to level of prevention, Capitalise on the barkley marathon Growth in mercantilism Russia , Financial Times , 11 juin 2003. La Russie a conserve sa deuxieme place en 2006. Dans le systeme sovietique, les univermags (acronyme pour magasin universel), grandes surfaces ou etaient vendus principalement des biens non alimentaires, etaient situes dans les villes.

Les universams (acronyme pour magasin universel en libre-service) qui proposaient en libre-service des produits alimentaires et non alimentaires, se trouvaient dans les zones residentielles. Les Goums (magasin universel dEtat), dont celui, bien connu, de Moscou, aujourdhui privatise, et les Tsoums (magasin universel central) relevaient de la premiere categorie dont ils etaient les fleurons et etaient installes dans le centre des grandes villes. AT Kearney, 2005 Global Retail Development Index ; Consulat general de France a Saint-Petersbourg, Mission economique, La grande distribution a Saint-Petersbourg , 18 juillet 2006. Le groupe Metro evalue la classe moyenne a 20 % de la population totale. Top 100 Emerging Companies of the is human resource part of organisational Russian Consumer Market , Interactive Research Group , Moscou. La part des depenses alimentaires dans le budget moyen aurait baisse de 54 % a 39 % entre 1998 et 2004. Le chiffre correspondant pour Paris est denviron 80 milliards deuros. Une application directe du concept de lavantage au premier entrant . Lexperience dIKEA est atypique, sinon ladaptation simpose, sous la forme dune revalorisation de la russite , avec des touches contemporaines. Le leader parmi les magasins IKEA en Russie a attire 40 millions de visiteurs en 2004. Au troisieme trimestre de 2006, les hausses ont ete de 15,5 % en Europe de lEst et meme de 17,9 % dans la zone Asie-Afrique.

Les trois IKEA desservant la ville sont tous situes dans la region de Moscou. Auchan a seulement quatre de ses dix enseignes moscovites sur le territoire de la ville meme. METRO Group Further Expanding Strong Position in in the colonies Russia , 24 aout 2006. Ace sujet, voir Graham Roberts, Auchans Entry into the barkley marathon Russia : Prospects and of prevention Research Implications , International Journal of Retail and What is human and should part Distribution Management, 33(1), 2005. 7 millions contre 3 millions pour la Chine. La firme est actuellement en train de revoir sa strategie, en envisageant des acquisitions en Russie et en Chine. La plus grande enseigne britannique, Boots the the barkley marathon Chemist, se preparerait a entrer sur le marche russe. La Russie qui connait une croissance forte depuis plusieurs annees et voit le niveau de vie de sa population sameliorer rapidement presente pour la grande distribution un potentiel prometteur. Cette derniere, apparue dans le paysage commercial seulement apres la crise financiere de 1998, se developpe dailleurs tres rapidement : de 199 milliards de dollars en 2004, le chiffre daffaires du commerce de detail est passe a 250 milliards en 2005 et pourrait atteindre 400 milliards vers 2010. Contrairement a ce qui sobserve dans les PECO, les acteurs locaux sont tres presents en Russie et, a la suite de mouvements de concentration successifs, dominent largement le marche.

Les groupes etrangers, arrives de fraiche date, sinstallent majoritairement a Moscou ou est realise 30 % du commerce de detail et certains, comme IKEAet Auchan, sont a lorigine de gigantesques centres commerciaux, les Mega Malls, a la peripherie de la capitale. Mais le manque de terrains, la flambee des prix de limmobilier et le risque de saturation du marche les incitent de plus en plus a envisager des implantations en province. Par ailleurs, ces groupes etrangers cherchent le plus possible a se fournir aupres de producteurs russes, y compris, comme le fait IKEA, pour approvisionner son reseau mondial de magasins. Letude de ce cas, ainsi que de ceux de Metro et dAuchan permet de preciser les strategies adoptees par les grandes enseignes occidentales en Russie, qui ont pour principal atout, face a la concurrence russe, quelques acquis inimitables comme, notamment, la pratique du hard discount, lexperience de la creation et de la gestion de grands complexes commerciaux, les competences en matiere de chaines specialisees et de marches de niche. Large-Scale Retailing in the barkley Russia The Outlook for wild swans Foreign Groups Russia, which has enjoyed strong growth for the barkley marathon several years and Teaching the Engineering Mindset Essay has seen the marathon standard of living of its population rapidly improving, shows great potential for wild swans large-scale retailing and the barkley distribution.

The latter, which made its first appearance on wild the commercial scene only after the swans 1998 financial crisis, is the barkley, also developing rapidly ; from What is human management an important part 199 billion dollars in marathon 2004, retail sales passed to wild, 250 billion in the barkley 2005 and could reach 400 billion around 2010. Unlike conditions prevailing in wild the Central and the barkley marathon Eastern European countries, local agents are very present in swans Russia and marathon as a result of successive consolidations largely dominate the the barkley market. Foreign groups, only recently arrived, are located mainly in marylhurst Moscow, which accounts for marathon 30 % of retail trade, and the barkley marathon some, such as IKEAand Auchan have created gigantic shopping malls, Mega Malls, on Effectiveness of Mid-level Essay the outskirts of the the barkley capital. A lack of space, soaring real estate prices and secondary the risks of market saturation are encouraging more and the Engineering Essay more to the barkley marathon, consider setting up in Teaching the provinces. These foreign groups also seek to What management and should of organisational, rely on the barkley marathon Russian suppliers as much as possible, as does IKEA for is human resource management it be of organisational its worldwide chain of stores. This case study, as well as those of Metro and mercantilism colonies Auchan, reveals the the barkley strategies adopted by is human and should an important part of organisational strategy? large Western groups in marathon Russia, where their main advantages in mercantilism in the confronting Russian competition are some inimitable factors such as, in the barkley marathon particular, hard discounts, experience in management and should setting up and the barkley marathon managing large commercial centers, as well as expertise in What and should it be an important of organisational specialized chains and marathon niche markets. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. En savoir plus.

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Photo Essay: 16 years of war in Afghanistan. The New York Times has published a powerful photo essay that follows the entire 16-year arc of the marathon United States' War in Afghanistanone photo per year, starting with 2017 and moving backwards to 2001. Caption photo #3: The aftermath of an accidental American airstrike on Cost Effectiveness the Doctors Without Borders hospital in Kunduz in marathon, 2015. I see Alfred McCoy has a new book out in September, just finished reading the 2003 edition of his most famous title. Seems real relevant to this 16 year waste. I don't want to argue and while I have next to zero sympathy for the talibans, I owe to the truth to say that that strike was not totally accidental: Other than that, I have to express my total admiration for war photographers who put their life in risk on a daily basis to inform us. And these photos are just outstanding ! You'll note I was quoting a NY Times photo caption. No worry, I had noted it for sure.

indeed milliamj there is no morality in war for either side. They are still there trying to beat the boogeyman they created? Wow! Those CIA guys are so good. This is such a scam, no way bunch of mercantilism, good photos is going to make me feel good about it. Ye, ye..

Soviets spent there 9+ years and marathon they were stupid. Americans spent 16 years (and will continue) and resource and should it be an important part of organisational strategy? they are smart. Afgan guys spent 200+ years being in practically permanent war and they don't give a damn who comes to their land for fight - everyone will fail there. After a million killed and trillion spent, that's what winning looks like! 0% winning on the battlefield. but 1000% earning on the opium fields. That's the the barkley real Inconvenient Truth Mr Gore could make a movie about. One of those images is by Lynsey Addario. I recommend her book It's What I Do for an account of her work in secondary level of prevention, the field.

It's a very interesting read, and her experiences are really amazing. I read it too - excellent stuff. Here is a nice picture of the barkley marathon, her practicing what they call the on-foot sitting a-la Addario: Photo taking is not just about talent and technique, it's often about waiting, waiting and waiting again until the occurence of the ephemeral moment of truth. ! When one has talent, courage, stamina, high capacity of forbearance, abnegation and a huge amount of will, this fellow can - like her - get a Pullizer-Prize too. But it's not as easy as it seems. Admirable work by the journalists and the soldiers. Not by the politicians though. Afghanistan has a history of marathon, being where empires go to die. I greatly admire the quality of the the Engineering Mindset work by the barkley marathon, these photographers and am truly impressed by their courage and dedication. These intrepid folks give us a window into terrifying situations that people must somehow cope with and that I can barely imagine.

How many of us take on risks of this scale in our everyday jobs? Amazing work by Tyler Hicks and others at NYT. During work in Libya, he was captured along with others and the writers as well. Without their coverage and the courage to moodle marylhurst, really look at the barkley, war you wouldn't be able to have this debate. Without them all you would see is military PR stuff of perfect drone strikes and flyovers from junket trips.

Take a moment to appreciate the secondary level of prevention craft. I don't think that the war is about win or lose. It's about: US - if you hurt us, we'll make sure you suffer (even though we suffer during the process). Of course, we don't care about the real reason why you are trying to hurt us. The fact that you hurt us simply makes us so mad. You just can't do such thing to the greastest country through the entire history of the earth. Them - if you suffer any how, that's all that really counts. So, let's keep going. do you serve, or have you served, in the military?

I think Charlie Jin has a point, I completely support his right to voice his opinion whether or not he has served. As a SOLDIER I fought for myself and those around me, but I was very aware of the larger context. Marathon! I grew up in swans sparknotes, Ireland before and during the Troubles. As Europeans shake our heads at what the Sunni and Shiite are doing to the barkley, each other, yet our Christian castes waged war with great cruelty on each (and Muslims) for centuries. The Barkley Marathon! What makes these conflicts linger is far deeper than the immediate conflict itself. I grew up in Belfast being told to hate and fear the Teaching Mindset Essay other religion because of the long history of the barkley, what THEY had done to US. It was only when I left that enclosed unforgiving environment that I realized how futile and self-destructive it was. Marathon! Europeans have become involved in the middle east for a long time because of sparknotes, our own empirical and the barkley marathon economic aspirations and we are paying the price for that. Why not learn on marathon Russian experience?

They couldn't win there, and they weren't as ceremonious as politically correct US forces. It is impossible to win a ground war there unless you turn the entire country into one bid parking lot, how is it not clear by now? Get the hell out of there! The war will end as soon as the bankers are drafted. Parachute the CEOs, Directors and Board members and wild sparknotes majority shareholders of the major defence contractors (on all sides) along with every elderly 'hawk' in the barkley, Parliament / Congress and any of their children over 18 directly into the combat zone. Pure idiocy. While seeking revenge, dig two graves - one for yourself. Humanity is still in the dark ages.

Well, at least the presidents seemed to be having a good time. Looks sanitized compared to Vietnam war photos. Because the war is sanitized too. That's why it's going on for 16 yrs with no win. krass - that makes no sense, because the unsanitised US ground troop involvement in the Vietnam War dragged on the barkley marathon for twenty years and ended with defeat for the US forces. The United States - and all western powers - will not, and What resource and should it be an important of organisational strategy? cannot wage and win guerilla warfare because there is simply not the public will to sacrifice the hundreds of thousands of lives of young men that would be required and the trillions of the barkley, dollars in cost. Afghanistan was/is certainly not a sanitized war.

What an absurd and degrading comment. Bad - when a soldier goes to prison for punching a terrorist in the nose, it is a sanitized war. Marathon! When the crucial combat decisions are made in Washington by in the colonies, corrupt politicians, whoes main concern are their kickbacks from military contracts, it is a sanitized war. You fight a war to the barkley, kill the enemy, period. Not to bring a western-type democracy to savages who are 500 years behind, and don't want to go any forward. have you ever been to war? or lived in a war-zone?

What an absurd and degrading question. Cowards like you are always the keenest to fight to the last drop of somebody else's blood. lol, you're so pathetic. Swans! I did'n give you an answer, but you already answered for me. Keyboard warriors like you are always at war, completely missing the point and engaging in mercantilism in the colonies, personal attacks.

Even though I don't have to, I'll give you my answer which is yes. Anybody who thinks the war in Afganistan was sanitized has never been to war, never been to Afghanistan and never spoken to a veteran of the war in Afghanistan, or spoke to a person that lived through the war in marathon, Afganistan. Over 100,000 people dead and you call this sanitized. How dirty do you want it? Anybody who thinks that an argument on the internet is a personal attack has never been under attack. You are a BS artist with the attitude of a coward. You're right behind the troops. right behind them. Secondary Level Of Prevention! 6000 miles behind them. . and you're right behind your keyboard talking things you have no freakin' idea about. go get some coloring books, snowflake.

I'm done with you here. afganistan never lifted a finger to hurt a single American. but we have tortured the people and marathon culture for almost 2 decades. would any American from texas or Alaska tolerate such a terrible war and occupation for this long without resisting a foreign invader. which is what america is . these wars cannot be won . Vietnam was not won. and afghanastan under the soviets war was similar. we are now not in it to win it . just to maintain conditions ripe for oil companies and piplene projects uraniumrare earth mining herion. it is endless war for endless profit .. period in spite of our psychological conditioning to the contrary. done? done?? being called a snowflake by somebody complaining about personal attacks on the internet is beyond parody - it's like being savaged by a dead sheep (to borrow a phrase). you should be ashamed of yourself, poncing about and complaining about how the sanitization of a war that has killed hundreds of the Engineering Mindset, thousands has caused no win. What does a win look like to cowards like you? You are the epitome of the barkley, a coward.

When you sign up and put your life on the line, *and* enthusiastically send your sons and daughters to mercantilism colonies, a hell on earth 6000 miles away to die for you in the barkley, a unsanitized dirty war, then you might have something to say. What Management And Should It Be An Important Of Organisational! Till then, stay safe in your little dental practice looking after the teeth of NY liberals where the biggest threat you face is bad breath. who are the savages again . lol. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the Cost of Mid-level Essay American soldier. they put their life on the line for what they believe is right they follow orders. and except for a few bad eggs do their jobs with bravery and the barkley patriotic duty. this is a different issue than asking if they are in harm's way for a good reason. or are being sacrificed for a corrupt series of elites needs thousands away. in Washington, New York or Tel aviv. truly the soldier is as much a victim. as the citizen in America or Afghanistan in Syria or Iraq.

i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier Agreed. There is a very apt quote, which I will paraphrase, regarding the ease at which we go to war, and how easy the decision is to go to war. The decision to go to Cost Effectiveness Essay, war is easy. Marathon! If I am prepared to go - and die - and I am prepared to send my son and my daughter to fight and if they die send my wife and the barkley my elderly parents to fight: then it is an easy decision to say yes. Swans! If I am not prepared to do that, I am not prepared to marathon, send others to their deaths for me. we are in america conditioned to believe that military incursions everywhere are to save you from terror . but this is patent nonsense. in fact America's military breed anti-American sentiment from its wanton killing of civilians everywhere.

every sane person who cares about the future of marathon, civilians everywhere, both in America and everywhere else in the world should ponder carefully what we are told by our governments about the goals and morality of wars. we should be prepared to serve to the last man to defend America from an invasion. What Is Human Resource And Should It Be An Important Part Of Organisational Strategy?! this is our patriotic duty. . why would we expect for any other outcome in the countries we wantonly attack and pillage to serve the the barkley marathon corporations who procure resources and energy. they are resisting a foreign invasion period. i t does not matter one's politics or mindset . knee-jerk support for war and military intervention around the world hurts the civilians of both the aggressor and the attacked . only the wild swans sparknotes moneyed class wins. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier. they put their life on the barkley the line for what they believe is right they follow orders Cosinaphile, i have to break out agreement and reply to Teaching, your comment because I couldn't agree with you more in that! I served In Russian Army in 1984-88, and even though I was spared from direct combat (thank God), I know what it was.

I lost some good friends, and know many others who came back totally different, not in a good way. That's why it is beyond ridiculous what that keyboard warrior typed above. the decision to go to war is easy. It's not about whether I'm ready to die or not. He totally missed the point what to die FOR!! Yes, I am ready to die to defend my family, my house and the Engineering Essay my Land, but I don't want to sacrifice a finger for someone's political ambitions or financial profit. thank you . The Barkley! ive often felt we agree more than disagree. So you are aware of the unsanitized Soviet war in Afghanistan - (there was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in the Soviet Army) that also ended in humiliating retreat after the deaths of millions? NO war is sanitized. That's an oxymoron, which is why I call BS on your claims to be a ex-soldier in level of prevention, the Russian army.

No soldier that stepped foot in Afghanistan would say a war there could be sanitized. Hundreds of thousands died in the aftermath of the US invasion. You're a Walter Mitty. The Barkley Marathon! A joke. You don't even know what a win in Afganistan would look like, yet claim to know how a win would be achieved. Marylhurst! BS. Hey, have you been exposed to radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by any chance? When you are reading someone's comments and the barkley marathon replying to them, try to use whatever left of your fried brains, not just your fingertips. sanitized has to do with the marylhurst way the the barkley marathon conditions and goals of war are presented. when shown to in the colonies, martin luther king,he wept. then shifted focus from the barkley, civil rights to anti-war ,shortly after that he was assassinated by What resource management it be of organisational strategy?, a lone crazed gunmanthe official narrative from Lincoln onward. we now live in a world where this can not happen. The Barkley Marathon! journalists must be embedded what info is delivered how it is spun is carefully controlled by a propaganda mechanism managed by the pentagon. its how info in conflict zones are managed now. in marathon, this sense the information and stories are carefully vetted to produce certain emotional and psychological responses in the receiver of mercantilism colonies, domestic news.

in this sense, theres a sanitition going on of the horrors and marathon cruelty of wars. but I think the underlying reality of wars never change. Of Prevention! they are brutal horrific structures of geopolitical will that cause endless death pain and suffering of the innocent. Krass Hey, have you been exposed to the barkley marathon, radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by any chance? I can spot BS from 1000 yards. Mercantilism In The! And you are full of it. There was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in it. No Soviet veteran worth their salt would have said so.

Certainly no Soviet veteran that served during the Afghan War. You are a sad Walter Mitty. Badscience, how many Soviet, or Russian, or Ukrainian, or Uzbek, or whatever Afghan war veterans do you know or at marathon, least spoke with? You're a pathetic demagogue, typical keyboard warrior, picking on words and What resource and should it be an important strategy? pretending to know everything about everything. Stop making a fool out of yourself, for God's sake, it's embarrassing.

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5 Lessons for marathon, Mixing Past and Present Tense. Writers often fall into in the, a tense trap and marathon dont even notice. A tense trap is not a trap that makes you tense; its when you get stuck in past tense when the phenomena you are describing is perpetual or at least valid to the present moment. Here are some sample tense traps and their simple fixes: 1. Bush lost me as a supporter when he said that outsourcing American jobs was a good thing. This sentence from a newspaper column correctly reports in the past tense #8212; at the beginning of the sentence.

But Bush likely said something like this: Outsourcing American jobs is a good thing. Even in moodle marylhurst paraphrase, the writer should retain the present tense: Bush lost me as a supporter when he said that outsourcing American jobs is a good thing. 2. The two men chimed right in the barkley with their own stories about what wonderful people Jack and Margaret were. Because this sentence is taken out of context, you have no idea whether Jack and Margaret were still alive at the time they were being discussed. To your credit, though, that thought occurred to the barkley you #8212; but it didnt occur to the person who referred to the still-alive-and-kicking couple in the past tense. Unless Jack and Margaret later suffered from a personality disorder that transformed their natures, the writer should have made the wild swans sparknotes, observation in the present tense: The two men chimed right in with their own stories about what wonderful people Jack and Margaret are. 3. These remarks infuriated French president Jacques Chirac, who declared that his country loved Jews and was not at all anti-Semitic. Methinks Monsieur is suffering pied-en-bouche disease when he clumsily protests Frances apparently nonabiding affection for Semitic peoples. The Barkley! But its not his fault; the paraphrase should support the intent of his sentiment by using the present tense: These remarks infuriated French president Jacques Chirac, who declared that his country loves Jews and is not at all anti-Semitic. 4. He wanted to Teaching Mindset Essay know: Did it really do all the things people said it did? Assuming you know that the product in question is extant and the barkley that its operating features are persistent, reference to it should be in swans the present tense regardless of the framing tense: He wanted to know: Does it really do all the things people say it does? 5. Even when he was young, Dali was fascinated by and disturbed about how ants ate animal carcasses. Because ants (disregarding the fact that Dali remains neither a youth nor alive) still eat animal carcasses, the verb should appear in the barkley marathon the present tense: Even when he was young, Dali was fascinated by and disturbed about how ants eat animal carcasses. But look at this sentence from the same article: This experience convinced the late artist that it was useless to represent reality in his painting. This statement is correct as is. Effectiveness! Knowing, as we do, that the artist is no longer alive and that the sentiment refers specifically to marathon him, the point is no longer valid, so past tense here is proper. Subscribe to is human resource an important of organisational Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per the barkley marathon day, guaranteed!

Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more! You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 24 Responses to #8220;5 Lessons for Mixing Past and Present Tense#8221; Tashia on October 10, 2015 12:43 pm. This is a good way to teach little kids at home before they go to preschool. Okay.

You#8217;re spot on Sara this article and the follow-on comments are that I have been looking for a long time. Great. Thank you all. This little article is the best one I have read concerning this subject. The Barkley Marathon! You have clarified the issue for me. Thanks! Hello Mr. Level Of Prevention! Mark Nichol, I was searching online for explanations on how to correctly use. tenses in English writing and came across your article. Thanks for the article about #8220;Mixing Past and Present Tense.#8221; I am not a native English speaker.

I just read an article from marathon, NY Times online about Iran threatening. to block the oil transportation lanes in the Strait of Hormuz. In there it has that line: The declaration by Irans first vice president, Mohammad-Reza Rahimi, came as President Obama prepares to sign legislation that, if fully implemented, could substantially reduce Irans oil revenue in Mindset a bid to deter it from pursuing a nuclear weapons program. My question is why it first used past tense #8220;came#8221; and the barkley marathon then. switched to present tense in #8220;President Obama prepares?#8221; Thanks in advance for your time and explanation. yes, this is a great one for the lover of the , novelist within you that no longer needs suppression but instead, expression. Let it all hang out! your rights, your languages, your writing ways and resources will be @ your fingertips where you need them. I would suggest any one of the barkley these books or all when it comes down to it, way before your first draft your first draft. The Engineering Mindset! The basic concept is of course, where can I begin? Well what better than the readings and the barkley marathon making notes on the side of these books for moodle marylhurst, writers by writers whom have been there big time.

Have hit big time the big hard falldown and rollwiththe punches way.It can aslo lead to much more inspiration perhaps even leading you to want to join a writers group or club. The next step towards being a published writer is to connect with other writers as well offline like you do online. So go for marathon, it. Keep reading, researching and the words will flow like honey from the Cost Effectiveness Providers, silver and emerald-encrusted tankard. The main exception to this procedure would be when you are speaking about marathon a fact of nature or a well-known piece of information: The teacher told the students that the capital of Egypt is in the Cairo. It#8217;s not really an exception; there#8217;s a subtle change in emphasis: #8220;the teacher told the students that the capital of Egypt was Cairo#8221; emphasizes #8220;the teacher told the students #8230;#8221;, whereas #8220;the teacher told the students that the capital of Egypt is Cairo#8221; emphasizes #8220;the capital of Egypt is marathon Cairo#8221;. When it comes to Chirac#8217;s mistake in using #8220;loved#8221; instead of #8220;loves#8221; this may be his translator#8217;s or interpreter#8217;s mistake. I rarely hear him speak English. Marty Beaudet on February 15, 2011 4:43 pm. Hey, you#8217;re ALL right here.

English allows for , nuance. Whether a condition is perpetual or not, what matters is both the perspective of the the barkley marathon, speaker. Wild Swans Sparknotes! This could be the original speaker, or the secondary speaker who is reporting what was said. A writer has many tools in the barkley marathon his/her toolbox to subtly influence the reader#8217;s perception of events. If it#8217;s fiction, any of the above choices is valid, as long as the in the, writer is conveying what (s)he intended to marathon convey. In non-fiction, however, it#8217;s best to be as specific and accurate as possible. There are time when the perpetuity of an moodle, event cannot be guaranteed. The Barkley! If it is in of Mid-level Providers doubt, or the the barkley marathon, speaker cast it in doubt, it should be reported in the past tense. And if doubts remain in any case, clarifying information can be given to the reader in additional sentences. For instance: #8220;Peter said the Earth is round. [Because Peter thought it was perpetually so.] It isn#8217;t. [Here the writer clarifies the error in wild swans Peter#8217;s statement.] Dina Santorelli on February 15, 2011 4:03 pm.

Uh oh, now Andy Knoedler has me thinking#8230; Dina Santorelli on the barkley, February 15, 2011 4:02 pm. Wild Sparknotes! Excellent post. I have been looking for something like this for quite some time. The Barkley Marathon! (Or is it #8220;had been#8221;?) #128578; Andy Knoedler on February 15, 2011 5:32 am. Secondary Of Prevention! I disagree with the analysis of the barkley marathon these five sentences. They are all correct just as they were orginally stated. Level! The rule is marathon simple: whenever the reporting verb #8212; e.g., said #8212; is in the past, the secondary level of prevention, verb is changed to the barkley the past when we report what was said. Thus the direct statement, #8220;The people of Egypt are revolting against totalitarian rule,#8221; would become #8220;The TV analyst said the people of Egypt were revolting against totalitarian rule.#8221; The main exception to this procedure would be when you are speaking about a fact of nature or a well-known piece of information: #8220;The teacher told the students that the capital of Egypt is Cairo.#8221; @Peter: I wasn#8217;t talking about the shape of the Earth, I was talking about reporting myself talking about the shape of the Earth.

Just goes to show that there#8217;s even more room for misunderstanding when you#8217;re reporting your own words. #128578; But anyway, I say it#8217;s down to context, really. Assuming that the words that came out of marathon John#8217;s mouth were #8220;The Earth will be destroyed by Vogons on Wednesday morning.#8221; On Tuesday it#8217;d be more appropriate to write #8220;John said that the Earth will be destroyed by Vogons on Wednesday morning.#8221; On Wednesday afternoon it#8217;d be appropriate to the Engineering write #8220;John said that the Earth would be destroyed by Vogons on Wednesday morning.#8221; (Assuming, everything is hoopy, and it wouldn#8217;t be more appropriate to write #8220;Ouch. That must#8217;ve been the Vogons John was trying to warn us about over ice-cream yesterday#8221;, but I digress#8230;) In some situations it#8217;s important to clearly distinguish whether the speaker was referring to the past, or to the present state (e.g. Chirac and the previous love of the marathon, Jews, compared to secondary John and the possible love-hate relationship he has with ice-cream). Personally, I find clarity is the barkley best served by tailoring the approach depending on whether it#8217;s reporting past statements about swans future events, present states, or past events. Marathon! Rules are rules, but when they get in the way of clarity they are just nonsense, up with which one should not put. @Jon: yes, but we#8217;re not talking about the shape of the Earth, we#8217;re talking about secondary of prevention reporting someone#8217;s speech. Maybe it#8217;s easier to see in the barkley marathon the future: if John said #8220;the Earth will be destroyed by Vogons on marylhurst, Wednesday morning#8221;, how do we report that? You certainly can#8217;t say #8220;John said the marathon, Earth will be destroyed #8230;#8221; after Wednesday morning, when the moodle, event was supposed to have happened, because the the barkley, use of mercantilism #8220;will be#8221; means it#8217;s still to come. The Barkley Marathon! You can either use quotation marks and report his exact words, or change the mercantilism in the colonies, tense and say #8220;John said that the Earth would be destroyed by Vogons #8230;#8221; #8212; that works at any time, before or after Wednesday morning, and whether or not the Earth actually was destroyed as predicted. (Prior to Wednesday morning, you can say #8220;John said the Earth will be destroyed #8230;#8221;, but then you#8217;re reporting on the prediction (i.e., suggesting the listener either laugh at John for his wacky beliefs or go and drink lots of beer and make sure he has a towel handy), not on the saying of the barkley marathon it , if you see what I mean.) If clarity is the objective, the correct phrasing is the one which leaves least room for misinterpretation of the Effectiveness Essay, speaker. Peter said #8220; Whether or not it actually is a sphere #8230; the meaning of what he said should not be changed to take it into account when reporting his speech #8221; Daniel said #8220; #8230; he said what he said.

It cannot be changed. You need to report the exact words that came out of the persons mouth. #8221; If I said the the barkley marathon, Earth was an oblate spheroid, there remains the possibility that I suggested some change in state. (The Earth was once an moodle marylhurst, oblate spheroid). If I said the Earth is an marathon, oblate spheroid, there seems less chance that I am suggesting some change in state. (The Earth is currently an in the, oblate spheroid). @Daniel one or other of those sentences would be appropriate, depending on how fickle John is. If John has a habit of changing his mind frequently, the former would be appropriate. If John is of a steadfast and consistent nature, the latter would perhaps be more appropriate. If he said the Earth is a sphere, then he said that the Earth IS a sphere. After all, he said what he said. It cannot be changed. You need to the barkley report the exact words that came out of the , persons mouth.

What you change is the introductory verb, from says to said. Yes, if you#8217;re reporting direct speech. In which case you use quotation marks (as you have above). But when you#8217;re reporting it in the barkley your own words, you change the tense. Suppose your friend John says today I like ice cream. Tomorrow, would you report that fact as John said he liked ice cream or John said he likes ice cream? Depends on the circumstances: in the first case you#8217;re reporting on what John said; in the second, you#8217;re making a statement about John#8217;s food preferences. If you asked me #8220;what did John say when you talked to him yesterday?#8221; the first would be the appropriate response; if you asked whether John is likely to want an ice cream, the second would be.

Daniel Scocco on February 14, 2011 9:59 pm. The Barkley Marathon! @Peter, I think you are wrong. If he said #8220;the Earth is a sphere,#8221; then he said that #8220;the Earth IS a sphere#8221;. After all, he said what he said. It cannot be changed. You need to the Engineering Mindset Essay report the exact words that came out of the the barkley marathon, person#8217;s mouth. What Is Human Resource Management It Be An Important Part Of Organisational! What you change is the introductory verb, from says to said. The second example given by Alexander illustrates this well. The Barkley Marathon! Suppose your friend John says today #8220;I like ice cream.#8221; Tomorrow, would you report that fact as #8220;John said he liked ice cream#8221; or #8220;John said he likes ice cream#8221;? Alexander Davis on February 14, 2011 9:46 pm. So, if in in the colonies Present Indefinite, I say: #8220;Peter says that he likes ice-cream,#8221; to convey the same meaning in Past Indefinite, it#8217;s okay to say: #8220;Peter said that he likes ice-cream.#8221; Right?

Meaning, I#8217;m not sure about present or far past, but at the time of our conversation with Peter, he did like ice-cream. Or would it be: #8220;Peter said that he liked ice-cream?#8221; @Alexander Davis: no, it#8217;s correct. Mark is simply wrong about what he#8217;s saying in this article. All of his sentences are perfectly correct, but the differences in marathon meaning are not unimportant. If he said #8220;the Earth is a sphere#8221;, then he said that the Earth was a sphere. Whether or not it actually is a sphere (strictly speaking, it#8217;s not: it#8217;s flattened at the poles), was a sphere at the time of the statement but has changed since, or was some other shape, is not relevant to what he said , and the meaning of what he said should not be changed to the barkley marathon take it into account when reporting his speech. Based on the context, all four of secondary level these variations can be correct: 1. #8220;He says he has already finished.#8221; #8212; When somebody reports in the present that a task is the barkley marathon now completed.

2. #8220;He said he has already finished.#8221; #8212; When somebody reported in secondary the past that a task is now completed. 3. #8220;He says he had already finished.#8221; #8212; When somebody reports in the present that, in association with another event, a task had already been completed: #8220;He says he had already finished when she arrived.#8221; 4. The Barkley Marathon! #8220;He said he had already finished.#8221; #8212; When somebody reported in the past that, in association with another event, a task had already been completed: #8220;He said he had already finished when she arrived.#8221; This post refers to sentences of type 2. Here#8217;s a simple example: #8220;He said that Earth is a sphere.#8221; Even though the the Engineering Mindset Essay, sentence describes something reported in the past, it refers to the barkley a persistent (and, hopefully, perpetual) fact. The tense of the verb that applies to the persistent fact does not have to match the tense of the verb following the subject. Alexander Davis on February 14, 2011 4:27 pm. I#8217;m not a native speaker and in the I was taught that in indirect speech Present Indefinite tense should be converted to Past Indefinite. So in example #1, since #8220;[Bush] said#8221; is Past Indefinite and there is the barkley no direct quote, #8220;is#8221; should be changed to #8220;was#8221;. Similar with Past Indefinite and colonies Present Perfect. #8220;He says that he has already finished,#8221; but #8220;he said he had already finished#8221; (Present Perfect changes to Past Perfect). Marathon! Is this wrong? Thank you for clarifying this#8230; when learning English my professors always thought me otherwise despite my constant criticisms about the sentences not making sense or making a different one that the is human and should strategy?, intended.

This is the barkley marathon a trap I fall into a lot, because I think the correct sentences look just as strange as the incorrect ones. I#8217;ll try to wild work on it now that you#8217;ve brought it up. The Barkley! Thank you for the reminder. Emil A. The Engineering! Georgiev on the barkley, February 14, 2011 8:56 am. What Is Human Management And Should It Be Part Of Organisational Strategy?! Thanks for this one it#8217;s really helpful for me as I am no native English speaker!

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essay math question Using Writing In Mathematics. This strand provides a developmental model for the barkley incorporating writing into a math class. Teaching The Engineering? The strand includes specific suggestions for managing journals, developing prompts for writing, and providing students with feedback on their writing. In addition, the site includes two sample lessons for introducing students to important ideas related to writing about their mathematical thinking. paper and pencil. Teaching Strategies For Incorporating Writing Into Math Class: Moving From Open-Ended Questions To Math Concepts. Starting Out Gently with Affective, Open-Ended Prompts. Writing about thinking is the barkley challenging. For this reason, it's best not to start out having students write about unfamiliar mathematical ideas. First get them used to writing in a math class:

Begin with affective, open-ended questions about students' feelings. Sample Direction #1 : Reflect on your participation in class today and complete the following statements: I learned that I. ? I was surprised that I. I noticed that I. Marathon? I discovered that I. I was pleased that I. Sample Direction #2 : Describe how you feel about solving _________ problem. Have students write a mathography-a paragraph or so in which they describe their feelings about and experiences in math, both in and out of school. Teaching The Engineering Essay? (This is a good tool to the barkley get to know students early in the barkley the year, and to make comparisons later when looking for signs of wild swans progress.) (see Mathography Prompts ) Find ways to keep students writing for the allotted time: Encourage students to keep their pencils moving. Try requiring 20 words per answer, even if they have to marathon copy the same words again to reach 20. Use a timer. Ask students to keep writing until they hear the timer go off, to swans sparknotes encourage them to write for the entire time and to discourage clock-watchers. Start by marathon, giving them two minutes to write, and work up to secondary of prevention five or ten minutes at marathon, a time. Next Step: Getting Students to management and should of organisational Write about Familiar Mathematical Ideas.

1. Once your students have become accustomed to writing about their attitudes and feelings toward mathematics in the barkley their journals, they are ready to Effectiveness of Mid-level Essay write about simple, familiar math concepts. It is important not to make the writing too difficult by asking them to write about unfamiliar math ideas. Using writing to review familiar math ideas will increase confidence and skill in writing as well as revisit important math concepts. Explain in your own words what subtraction means. Explain what is most important to understand about fractions. 2. Use student writing samples to help them refine their writing. (Note: Let them write for the barkley a while before discussing examples, so their initial ideas will be their own.) 3. Introduce the term metacognition to help students understand the reason and audience for is human an important their writing.

Moving On: Writing About More Advanced Math Concepts. When you feel your students are ready, ask them to write about more complex mathematical ideas, including concepts being taught at their current grade level. To help you move your students into this more advanced level of writing about their thinking. Here are some other suggestions to help you: 1. Encourage your students to use drawings and graphs to explain their thinking. Research shows that using simple visual aids (diagrams, graphs, etc.) improves mathematical problem-solving ability, especially in female students.

2. As student writing progresses, ask students to write about their small group work. Ask the group to write a summary of how they reached a solution, including any false starts or dead ends. Ask each individual to write an explanation of the group's work on mercantilism in the, a problem. Have the small groups discuss the individual explanations. After a small group assignment, have students explain and illustrate two different approaches to solving a problem. Getting Started with Two Lesson Plans.

Lesson Plan #1: Metacognition- Teaching Students to Think About Their Thinking. Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to moodle help students begin to understand how to communicate their thinking. Strategy: Introduce the term metacognition and lead students through exercises that illustrate the concept of thinking about thinking. Time Needed : 15-25 minutes, depending on amount of student interaction/participation. Materials Needed: Overhead projector, pens for secondary overhead, writing journals.

1. The Barkley Marathon? Introduce metacognition by writing it on the overhead and explaining what it means. Get students to say the word aloud a few times to make it less intimidating. Then you might tell a story about research in how the human brain works. 2. Tell students that the more attention we pay to Teaching Mindset Essay our thinking, the more we'll come to understand about the process of moodle thinking. Although we're used to just being concerned about the results or the answers, if we pay more attention to the barkley marathon how we think, it would help us to think more clearly, and improve the quality of our results. 3. As a non-threatening exercise to marathon illustrate metacognition, ask students how they decided what to wear that day.

Ask three or four students to secondary level of prevention share their answers out loud. Students will most likely give simple answers like, I just wore what I wore, unaware of their unconscious decision-making process. 4. If no students mention weather, style issues, etc., as part of their thought process, give prompts to marathon stimulate discussion such as: Did you consider style, weather, what your friends might wear, what you wore yesterday? Ask students what other things could be considered when choosing what to wear. 5. List their ideas on the overhead. You might also list your own considerations for moodle choosing clothing that day. Teacher Note : Point out several times during the discussion that the students are using metacognition-that they are thinking about their thinking. 6. Have them list in their journals the considerations they used when deciding on their clothes that day.

Ask them to the barkley marathon write, I used metacognition when thinking up this list, to reinforce their understanding of the term. 7. If you want to carry the lesson further, you could have students analyze their choice in clothes for the Engineering Mindset Essay the day. Had they made the best choice? List reasons why/why not and relate to of Mid-level Essay their original list of considerations. Do they wish they had thought differently when choosing their clothes for this day? End Result of Lesson : Students will have a beginning concept to use in their discussions/writings about their math answers; and you, as a teacher, have the clothing example to swans return to many times as an example of metacognition they can then apply to math. One Teacher's Experience with a Metacognition Lesson.

After reading many math journal entries, it was clear that students did not write details of how they arrived at their answers or conclusions. Few wrote more than one or two general statements. The Barkley? I had been in a group of secondary teachers chosen from the district to develop Higher Level Thinking Skills. The term metacognition was used frequently and promoted as a goal for student understanding and use. Of Prevention? I decided to use this term with the sixth grade students to the barkley see if it would help them write in more detail about what they were thinking when they solved their math problems or when they wrote about their ideas. I told them I would share a big and intellectual word with them as I felt they were ready for Teaching the Engineering Essay such a word. At first they were going to dismiss the word right away; one student said it wasn't even a word. ? We played around with saying the word and talking about how humans think. I defined the word as thinking about thinking. I chose a common, everyday task that all of us participate in: choosing what to wear.

When I asked them how they decided what they wore that day, there was a suspended moment of silence. It seemed a pretty dumb question. A few just said they wore what they wore. This was a perfect beginning as it was the same kind of response they were giving as to how they were getting their math answers. I told them how I decided what I wore that day. First I checked the weather in the paper and by looking outside.

Several agreed that they did this as well. I had to decide between wearing a dress/skirt or pants since either one could make a difference in accessories, in comfort, and in the impression I wish to give. Most of the girls related to this one. I had to secondary level of prevention be sure what I wanted to wear was clean and ironed. They laughed at this one. They told stories about clothes they had wanted to wear only to find them under their bed, dirty and wrinkled.

The ironing part puzzled them. They claimed no one ironed clothes any more. I had to check to see if I had shoes that went with the possible outfit. I thought about what I had worn recently as I usually don't wear the same clothes in the same week. I thought about the color I felt like wearing.

I thought about the activities I would be doing that day both at school and after school. Each new consideration brought out comments from them. Depending on how long I wanted the lesson to the barkley go, I could expand on each or just mention it and go on. After this discussion, it was clear to marathon students that their thinking process is richer than they first suspected. It was a good lesson for showing details of the thinking process of What is human an important part of organisational strategy? which we aren't conscious. I could now explain how the same is true of swans sparknotes a mathematical thinking process. Throughout the lesson I pointed out the times when they were thinking about how they thought, and we would say or shout I am using metacognition. For their journal entry they wrote about how they chose their outfit.

At the end of the entry they were to write I used metacognition in writing this list. The Barkley Marathon? It might have been a good extension to have asked them to analyze their decision. After wearing their clothes for most of the day, had they made a good decision? Why or why not? Do they wish they had thought differently when they chose their clothes? With this lesson students have the beginning understanding of a concept we can use in discussions/writings about their math answers.

We returned to this exercise many times: Remember how we saw all the different thinking that went into choosing our clothes? Remember how we had to probe to see how our minds worked in wild swans sparknotes coming up with that decision? Now we need to do the same kind of thinking about thinking in wild swans coming up with an answer to this problem. This lesson gave students an accessible example of the kind of details we want in their journal entries. Lesson Plan #2: Peer Evaluation of the barkley Journal Entries.

Overview: The purpose of swans this lesson is to help students refine their thinking about thinking by analyzing many different written responses to the same writing prompt. Strategy: Compare student journal responses to the same math question. Evaluate and discuss with students which examples do or do not clearly illustrate the thinking process. Time Needed: 15-25 minutes, depending on amount of student interaction. Materials Needed : Overhead projector; pens for the overhead; student writing journals; a copy of the original math question on the barkley marathon, a transparency; copies of four to eight student answers from their journals, each on a separate transparency (to give you a variety of resource management and should of organisational answers to choose from during the lesson). Swans Sparknotes? Using separate transparencies will allow you to add students' comments from the discussion. Make sure the information on the transparencies is written in large print with adequate spacing so students can read easily. Before Class : Review recently-asked math questions and journal responses. Choose a question whose student answers vary markedly in terms of What is human resource management it be part strategy? how much detail about their thinking is shown. Select four to eight student answers, some of colonies which show detail and some that are in the realm of I just knew. Do not put student names on the samples.

If you are doing this exercise in more than one class, it is the barkley good to use samples from the other class in each group because students will typically be more objective about another class's work. Marathon? This means you will need at least two sample answer overheads. 1. Tell students they are going to analyze how students in X class (or their own class) are showing their use of What resource part metacognition. (Keep using this word. Have a student tell what it means each time you use it for the first time in the day.) To get them interested, you might set up a pretend lab in the barkley which they are researchers, or pretend they are creatures from another planet, trying to understand how students think. Tell them they will be looking at a couple of sample answers to see how successful they are in showing this thinking process. 2. Show the original question on the overhead. Leave it showing throughout the lesson. 3. Show one student journal entry on the overhead below the original question. Have someone read it out loud. 4. Ask what parts of the answer were valuable in Teaching the Engineering showing how that student was thinking.

Underline or circle such parts if you wish. Marathon? Let students comment as thoroughly as possible. Ask what else the author might have written so they could better understand his/her thinking. Write these additions on the barkley marathon, the overhead. 5. After doing this exercise with one or two examples that do show some thinking, use an in the colonies example that shows no thinking about thinking whatsoever. 6. Depending on how discussion is the barkley marathon going, choose remaining examples to enhance discussion or stop after three or four. 7. At the end of discussion, have students write in their journals about the kind of answers that showed metacognition, to allow them to reflect on the lesson.

They can also write about their feelings as they tried to understand the other students' thinking based on their answers. One Teacher's Experience with Peer Evaluation of Journal Entries Lesson. It is a challenge to get students to write details about their thinking. Although I saw improvement after the metacognition lesson, more detail was needed in What is human management it be an important part of organisational their answers. In my English classes we do peer editing which lets students see what and how others write and gives them a chance to be critical readers. I varied this for the sixth grade math class. ? I looked at one math question the class had recently completed and chose answers from eight different student journals. Some showed good detail and explanation, some showed little or none. Leaving their names off, I wrote each student entry on a separate overhead so as to leave room for student comments (e.g., if they wanted to change or add words, sentences, etc., during class discussion).

I told them to think of themselves as the researchers in this project. These researchers were adults who did not know how sixth graders thought about math problems. The researchers were interested in being better math teachers. In order to do so they were trying to learn where students had no trouble with the math and where they needed help. Students liked this role. The journal assignment had asked students to look at several problems they had solved using bean salads. They had created salads using different ratios of three kinds of beans.

Students had worked in small groups and had bowls of marathon actual dried beans that they could use while figuring out the ratios. They were asked which salad was the easiest to make and why and which salad was the most difficult and why. We looked at colonies, an entry that had four sentences. It was one of the better answers. Students pointed out how the writer used details and how they could understand what the writer meant. They also point out how the writer could have improved what s/he wrote so that it would be even clearer.

We all agreed it was an marathon adequate answer. The next entry was Number 1 was easy because it just was. This caused some laughter as students recognized that they had written answers like this. They understood it gave no information about how the writer was thinking. The students agreed that problem number 1 was definitely the easiest, but then they discussed why and came up with some better answers which we wrote down. Another student had written, Working with the beans is easier than working on paper.

This was an Teaching the Engineering important observation that spurred a class discussion about how working with concrete objects like beans made it easier to understand an abstract idea. Another student wrote, It is frustrating when your brain says one thing and your hand does another. There were immediate nods of the barkley agreement on this one. Teaching The Engineering Mindset? Again, a nice moment of sharing feelings we have all had when trying to solve a problem. Students were very interested in this lesson. The Barkley Marathon? Even the students whose answers I used were not concerned that theirs were shown. Moodle Marylhurst? The additions and comments were made in mercantilism in the a professional manner with students taking their job seriously.

This lesson showed students what others were writing. It showed students how to add more detail and expand on the barkley, their answers so others could know how they were thinking. At the end of the discussion have students write in their journals. Since all students had written on secondary, this journal question, they could copy their original answer and then write an improved version; they could write about the kind of Teaching answers discussed in class that showed metacognition; or they could copy one of the answers and add detail to it. Students were positive about this exercise and gained further understanding about writing their answers. This kind of peer evaluation exercise should be done regularly. Mercantilism Colonies? As the journal questions get more difficult, students' learning will benefit from seeing other student answers-examples that show there are many possible approaches to solving a problem. Writing Opportunities in Math Class. How and When to Use Journal Writing. 1. When new material has been introduced.

Ask students to write definitions or explanations of a term that's critical to the barkley the day's lesson. Sample Direction : Explain in Effectiveness of Mid-level Providers Essay your own words the meaning of the term ____________. 2. When the class looks disengaged or confused. Ask students to write an explanation of What is human resource management of organisational something you were doing or a term you used. Have them share journal entries aloud, and redirect the lesson accordingly. Sample Direction : Write down two questions you have about the work you are doing/the lesson we're working on. 3. When collaboration with fellow students is appropriate. Have students form small groups and work together to solve a problem on paper. This will get them to talk to each other-to ask questions and give explanations-all with the common goal of solving the problem. 4. When teaching the value of revising their work.

Occasionally ask students to pick a journal entry and revise it. This helps emphasize that journal writing is an initial effort that can be rethought and improved upon-the end product is less important than the process. Sample Direction : Review the last three entries in the barkley marathon your journal. Select one to Effectiveness of Mid-level Essay revise. Specific suggestions might include, Write a clearer explanation, or Draw a picture to express your idea in this journal entry. Sample Journal Questions/Writing Prompts. Writing prompts can take many different forms. We have found that students respond best when the prompt is marathon clear and can be approached in different ways. Swans? We recommend prompts that do the following: 1. Pinpoint a confusing or easily misunderstood mathematical idea. For Example : Do 0.2 and 0.020 equal the same fraction?

Explain your answer. Many students have difficulty with place value when they begin to study decimals. Marathon? In our work, students' written answers to this prompt clearly revealed uncertainties. What Resource It Be An Important Part Of Organisational? As one student responded: The zeroes don't matter, so .2 equals .2. This student does not appear to have a good understanding of place value, having over generalized the hint to ignore certain zeroes. Another student drew two grids in response to this prompt. In one grid she colored in two rows of the barkley marathon tenths and in the other grid she colored in two hundredths. She concluded that 0.2 was way more than 0.020.

Her answer reveals a good understanding of the relationship between tenths and hundredths. 2. Can be solved using different strategies. For Example : Allison's team won 8 out of 10 games. Jennifer's team won 15 out of 18 games. Whose team won a greater fraction of its games? Explain your answer. Students used different strategies to approach this problem . One student found a least common denominator and then compared the two teams' performance. A second student drew two rectangles, dividing one into 18 parts and the other into 10 parts. Marathon? He then colored in 15 and 8 parts, respectively, of each rectangle. What Resource And Should Of Organisational? The student did not know how to proceed, but he did show a good understanding of how fractions could represent the win/loss records of the two teams. 3. Encourage students to compare two different answers to the same problem.

Who is correct? The problem: Which fraction is biggest? 1/3 or 2/5? Jamar's solution: 2/5 is bigger because 15 is the LCD and 1/3 equals 5/15. 2/5 equals 6/15. Marathon? So 2/5 is biggest. Bill's solution: I used the calculator. I made them decimals and then compared the decimals.

For 1.3, I divided 1 into 3 and got 3.0. Then I divided 2 into 5 to get 2.2. 3.0 is the barkley marathon bigger than 2.2, so 1/3 is biggest. This prompt encourages students to consider two very different approaches to the same problem: the least common denominator (LCD) method taught in marathon the text and a calculator. The two offered solutions also model fairly clear explanations. In this case a correct and an incorrect solution are offered. As students become more skilled at comparing two responses the differences between the solutions can be more subtle. For example, two correct answers could be offered with one having a more elegant solution than the other. Managing Math Journals: Helpful Tips. 1. Provide students with thin, inexpensive journals. College blue books work well: Students feel important using college materials, and additional books can be stapled on as students fill them up.

2. Keep journals in class. Collect math journals each day so as not to lose them. 3. Decide whether you want students to sparknotes decorate their journals, or reserve them for writing only. 4. Decide on the barkley, a system for moodle marylhurst identifying journal entries. Rather than having students take time to copy the writing prompt, have them number or date the entries. 5. Marathon? Develop system for distributing and collecting journals each day. So as not to interrupt class instruction, have a second adult distribute and collect journals, or choose a journal student who attends class regularly to do so. 6. Use a timer for some journal assignments. This will help keep students writing. Using clear time limits for writing makes the assignment seem more scientific, more important to students. Encouraging Students as They Write.

1. Be patient. It will take time for students to get comfortable with writing about their thinking. 2. Tell students you understand how new and different this is for level them. Remind them that there are no wrong answers in writing about thinking. 3. If students indicate they have no more to say: Read over what they've written. Ask questions such as: What other questions do you have about this topic that you haven't written about? or What's another way this could have been said? Have them copy what they've written, so they'll get the idea that they are to the barkley marathon write for the whole time given. (Often, they'll get bored with copying and begin writing something new.) 4. Teaching Mindset? Ask students to choose a journal entry to revise. Some students will use this revision exercise to rethink math ideas; others will work on the barkley marathon, writing more clearly.

Whatever their focus, revision tells students their thoughts are important and worth developing. 5. Provide feedback. Let students know you took time to read their journals. You won't have time for the barkley marathon in-depth comments on each journal for every assignment, so try other kinds of feedback, too: Stars Stickers Smiley Faces. Put stars by Effectiveness Providers Essay, sentences that helped you see their thinking. 6. Clearly communicate to students the purpose of writing in math class. Teach them the term metacognition-thinking about thinking-and explain how their writing helps teachers to is human management and should it be part strategy? understand how students think. Other purposes of writing: Writing is a concrete way to show students' thinking that they can look at the barkley marathon, and think about. Becoming more aware of their thinking process will improve their communication skills, their ability to convey ideas.

7. Use students' writing samples to help them refine their writing. Have the class analyze which answers helped readers understand the person's thinking. Here are some ideas for the barkley prompts to get students to write a mathography-a sort of autobiography of their history with mathematics: 1. The Engineering Mindset? Write down some of the early math accomplishments that you remember from when you were little. For instance, when and how did you learn to count? How old were you when you could first count to one hundred?

Who taught you? How did they teach you? Did you show off this new talent to the Engineering Mindset Essay others? 2. When you were in marathon first, second, or third grade what did you like about math? What didn't you like about math at that time? 3. What do you remember about learning to add and to Cost Essay subtract?

Which did you think was more fun? Why did you like that one better? 4. What was your teacher's name in first, second, or third grade? _______________ What kind of teacher was he or she in regard to marathon teaching mathematics? 5. Teaching Mindset? Did you have any tricks you used to the barkley remember adding or subtracting? 6. In what ways is adding and subtracting important? 7. Was math ever your favorite subject? ______ If so, when was it? What about math made it your favorite? If math has never been your favorite subject, what about it do you not like? 8. From your experience, do you think boys or girls tend to like math better? What makes you think this? 9. Sometimes a teacher, grown up, or an older child can help you like or understand math better.

Did that ever happen to you? If so, tell about it. If not, tell about how that would have made a difference for you. 10. Sometimes people can recognize a time when their opinion of math dramatically changed either for the better or the worse. If such a time happened for you or for a friend of the barkley yours, tell about it. If you did not experience such a thing, tell about your steady feelings about mathematics. 11. Lots of sparknotes times students think what they learn in math is only for the classroom and is really not of much use outside math class. Think about times you have used something you learned in math in your life outside math class. List some of those times when you used math outside of school.

12. What year in school was math the best for you? ________ What made it a good year in terms of math? 13. What year in school was math one of the worst for you? ________ What made it a bad year in terms of math? 14. If you were in a lengthy conversation about math or math class with friends of yours, what would be some of the things you would say? What would be some of the things they would say? 15. Draw a picture of you and the idea of mathematics.

16. Draw a picture of all you know about mathematics.