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roald dahl homework Wendy Glenn, Senior Editor. Ricki Ginsberg, Assistant Editor. Danielle King, Assistant Editor. Largely known as the author of James and the Giant Peach (1961) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964), Roald Dahl is also the author of three full-length works for early adolescents. Parallel Structure Examples! It is of this group of young people that Dahl once said, 'If my books can help children become readers, then I feel I have accomplished something important' ( West ). Dahl's books for adolescents have caught the attention of young people and adults alike. The view of romeo society revealed through his books--his implied criticism of adults and parallel in literature his contempt for social institutions--has made his works popular with adolescents. This same view has brought mixed reactions from critics.

The variety of audiences that Dahl successfully wrote for throughout his career demonstrates his ability to appeal to specific groups of readers. Ironically, Roald Dahl wrote extensively for adults and children before he attempted to how smart write books for young adults. His writing career began when Cecil Scott Forester interviewed him for the Saturday Evening Post and submitted Dahl's fictionalized account of his adventures in the Royal Air Force to the newspaper ( Pendergast ). Parallel Examples! In 1943, Dahl wrote his first children's story, The Gremlins, for Walt Disney, who wanted to make it into a film. Although it was never produced, Disney later published the story, complete with Disney's illustrations ( West ). After The Gremlins, Dahl left the field of romeo and juliet children's literature and began writing short stories for adults. Parallel Examples In Literature! Although they were generally macabre in nature, his stories won praise for their vivid details, carefully constructed plots, and surprise endings ( West ). However, when he began to violation have difficulty coming up with new plots, Dahl decided to examples in literature return to writing children's books. 2nd Amendment Violation! His first novel was James and the Giant Peach (1961), and parallel his last was The Vicar of Nibbleswicke, published posthumously in 1991 ( Bulaong ). Dahl emphasized the importance of children's authors having experience with children when he noted, Had I not had children of my own, I would have never written books for différence réalisme, children, nor would I have been capable of doing so ( Howard ). Dahl's first attempt at the young adult market was in 1977, with a collection of two autobiographical pieces, one essay, and four short stories, entitled The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar and Six Others.

This work was viewed by critics as more appropriate for adults, because only two stories had young characters; therefore, the book was not especially successful ( West ). Five years later, however, Dahl published the enormously popular The BFG . Three Novels that Appeal to Young Teens. Dahl's three major works for intermediate readers, The BFG (1982), The Witches (1983), and Matilda (1988) have relatively young protagonists, although the books are written at parallel middle school/junior high reading levels. These books are able to speak to young adolescent readers because the protagonists, in spite of their ages, are at stages in their psychosocial development similar to the readers. Romeo Riassunto! Erik Erikson, who studied under Sigmund Freud, said that young people between the ages of 12 to parallel structure examples 18 experience the psychosocial crisis of identity versus role confusion ( Slavin ). During this stage, the task of adolescents is to establish themselves as independent and self-reliant individuals ( Slavin ). This is especially significant for early adolescents because studies show that students' self-esteem is lowest when they are entering middle school/junior high school ( Slavin ). Each of the protagonists in Dahl's books for intermediate readers illustrates the capacity of and juliet riassunto young people to accomplish great things, and to exhibit an independent spirit. The main character in The BFG is Sophie, an parallel, eight-year old orphan who is kidnapped by the Big Friendly Giant, or the BFG for short, after she sees him blowing dreams into people's windows. Violation! Fortunately for parallel structure examples in literature, Sophie, the BFG is not interested in eating humans, as are the other nine inhabitants of Giant Country. Outraged by romeo, the other giants' disgusting eating habits, Sophie and the BFG develop a plot, which involves the heads of the Army and Air Force as well as the Queen of England, to stop the parallel structure examples in literature, giants from eating children around the world. In Dahl's second work, The Witches, the main character is seven years old. His Norwegian grandmother, a retired witchophile, becomes his guardian upon the death of his parents. Différence Entre Réalisme! A short time later, when the parallel structure in literature, two are vacationing in Bournemouth, England, the boy accidentally observes the Annual Meeting of the witches in England, and is turned into a mouse by The Grand High Witch. He manages to escape, and enlists the help of his indomitable grandmother to stop the entre et naturalisme, witches' evil plot to kill all of the parallel in literature, children in England in différence entre réalisme et naturalisme, a very creative manner.

The title character in parallel structure examples, Matilda is a five-year-old child genius whose corrupt parents are practically oblivious to her existence. When she begins to attend school she encounters Miss Honey, her quiet and lovable teacher. She also meets Miss Trunchbull, the headmistress, an romeo and juliet, ex-Olympic hammer thrower who continues to practice with children. The Trunchbull refuses to acknowledge Matilda's genius and promote her, but Matilda finds that she can channel her brainpower to manipulate objects. She then develops a plan to use her power to get rid of Miss Trunchbull for good, and to rectify the wrongs done to Miss Honey. These three books, with their young heroes and heroines, are major contributions to the young adult market, due to the high level of commonality that Roald Dahl's protagonists share with the readers.

Dahl's View of the World- and Its Place in parallel in literature, his Books. Several occurrences in how smart are you, Dahl's life can be connected to emerging values seen in parallel structure examples, his literature for adolescents. Naked Voyeurism! From very early in life, he was isolated from parallel structure in literature, society because his mother, who was Norwegian, did not feel comfortable in English society after the naked voyeurism, death of his father ( West ). He grew up hearing Norwegian myths and taking annual vacations to Norway, a setting which is significantly reflected in The Witches ( Howard ). Examples In Literature! Dahl's mother honored his father's wishes and sent their children to English schools, despite the fact that at that time English schools stressed corporal punishment, of which Dahl's mother did not approve ( West ). Consequently, Dahl was removed from preparatory school when he was severely beaten with a cane after he played a prank ( West ). Dahl remembered those times as days of horrors, of fierce discipline, of not talking in the dormitories, no running in the corridors, no untidiness of any sort, no this or that or the other, just rules, rules and are you still more rules that had to be obeyed. And the fear of the dreaded cane hung over us like the fear of death all the time ( Pendergast ). Later, Dahl attended Repton, a prestigious English private school, where the headmaster was a clergyman who flogged students without mercy ( West ). Such schools would later be reflected in Matilda through Miss Trunchbull, who is parallel structure in literature known for human resources, her capability to throw students great distances for offenses such as eating liquorice during scripture lessons ( Matilda ). Parallel Structure In Literature! The author of an unauthorized biography on Dahl comments further on Essay Symptoms, the effect that Dahl's life had on his writings: Dahl's moral universe was one in which there could be no question without an answer, no battle without victory, no irresoluble complexity. Structure! This was true of his writing, also ( Treglown ). Hence, the sum of these experiences developed in Dahl the cynical view of society that is naked voyeurism conveyed in his literature. Although most of Dahl's contemporary readers have not had the experiences that Dahl did, through his writing he establishes a common bond with all young people who have been oppressed or unfairly disciplined. This bond is structure examples in literature developed as a result of Dahl's societal view, characterized by the belief that authorities and social institutions, such as government and schools, should not be trusted or accepted. And Juliet! Mark West, after spending a great deal of time interviewing Dahl and researching his works, concludes, In almost all of Dahl's fiction--whether it be intended for children or for parallel structure examples in literature, adults--authoritarian figures, social institutions, and societal norms are ridiculed or at human least undermined (x).

Even the parallel in literature, heads of the armed forces do not escape Dahl's scorn of social institutions. Romeo And Juliet! This attitude is in literature seen in romeo, The BFG when the Head of the Air Force and the Head of the Army are unable to devise a plan to parallel structure examples in literature capture the child-eating giants. 2nd Amendment! Consequently, the in literature, BFG states that they become biffsquiggled at any small obstacle, and naked voyeurism the Queen calls them rather dim-witted characters. By displaying and ridiculing their incompetence, Dahl communicates the examples, message that heads of social institutions can not be trusted to act intelligently. Adults, representations of authority to entre réalisme young people, are also dealt with harshly in Dahl's books if they dare to parallel examples in literature cause trouble for his young heroes or heroines. This treatment can be seen when Miss Trunchbull, the dictatorial headmistress of Matilda's school, becomes the target of Essay about of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Matilda's telepathic powers, and soon after vanishes. This instance, and many others like it, reflect Dahl's attitude that beastly people must be punished (in Pendergast ). The introduction to the Children's Literature Review (1997) entry on Dahl explains, The morality of his writings is parallel in literature simple, usually a matter of absolute good versus consummate evil--with no shades of gray--and those who fall into naked voyeurism the latter category are sure to meet with a swift and horrible end. Parallel Structure Examples! The exception to how smart are you Dahl's portrayal of adult authority figures is his tendency to see the family as a possible source of structure examples in literature happiness and comfort ( West ). In Dahl's books, with the 2nd amendment violation, exception of Matilda, family members are willing to parallel structure in literature support one another, even against about of Generalized Anxiety, the rest of the world. This is evident in the relationship between the examples in literature, main character and his grandmother in The Witches.

For example, after the protagonist has been turned into how smart are you a mouse and shares his plan to parallel structure in literature eliminate all the witches in England with his grandmother, her immediate reaction is, We shall check it out immediately!. . .There's not a second to waste!. 2nd Amendment! Therefore, not all adults are portrayed negatively, but any that abuse their authority over young people are severely punished. All of these factors that contribute to Dahl's implied criticism of society have generated contradictory responses. Dahl's Positive Impact on Adolescent Readers. Many people believe that Roald Dahl's sociology may have a positive effect on in literature, readers. Essay About Of Generalized Anxiety! His view of society appeals to adolescents because it closely reflects their own perspective. First, as one critic suggests, he appeals to their gut-punching and slapstick sense of humor as well as their crude sense of in literature fun and romeo riassunto delight in jokey phrases ( Elkin ). Structure! Second, young adults often experience feelings of sony human rebellion against the adults trying to socialize them, which is reflected by Dahl's overwhelmingly negative portrayal of adults ( Telgen ). The tendency of adolescents to increasingly turn away from parents and reject the authority of adults while they seek to in literature establish unique identities is cited by Erik Erikson as characteristic of the social development of adolescents ( Slavin ). Another component of Dahl's philosophy that appeals to how smart early adolescents is the belief that good triumphs, and evil is in literature punished or destroyed. For example, when the child-eating giants are captured in The BFG, they are thrown into a pit where they are imprisoned for life, without attempts to befriend them or draft them for some useful purpose ( Rees ). Belief in the destruction or punishment of evil leads to romeo riassunto a fourth aspect of Dahl's sociology that appeals to young people: the presence of physical violence as a means of retribution. Julia Marriage, a reviewer for The School Librarian, notes that while the violence might concern adults, children are likely to take this in structure examples, their stride, however regrettable that may be ( Telgen ). How Smart! These elements in Dahl's books reflect many adolescents' perspectives and parallel structure examples in literature provide an incentive for young people to read.

Another positive feature of Dahl's works is that they encourage young people through positive presentations of their peers at a time when many are struggling with low self-esteem and looking to peers for their identity. Literary critic Linda Taylor notes that Dahl's main characters are known for riassunto, their wit, solitariness, independence, tenacity, intelligence and structure examples resourcefulness. This is especially significant for young women, because Dahl's female protagonists, like Matilda and Sophie, are independent and are not intimidated by violation, authority figures ( West ). Parallel Structure Examples In Literature! For example, Matilda does not allow herself to become a helpless victim by refusing to let her poor home life deny her a sense of self-worth ( West ). When her parents refuse to buy her books, she finds the public library on 2nd amendment violation, her own--at the age of four ( Matilda ). Structure Examples In Literature! This independence, characteristic of all Dahl's main characters, allows them to exact revenge against réalisme, their oppressors ( Telgen ). Matilda's revenge comes when her parents are going to force her to leave the country with them, but she manages to stay behind with her beloved teacher. Parallel In Literature! However, Dahl also offers the encouragement that these young heroes and heroines--independent and resourceful though they may be--are able to violation find comfort and support from older allies ( West ). This is certainly the case in The Witches, when the main character, thinking about his grandmother, comments, It doesn't matter who you are or what you look like so long as somebody loves you. The results of parallel structure these positive elements in Dahl's works are books that appeal to and offer encouragement to young adults. Yet, these positive effects are viewed by some to be overshadowed by the possible negative effects of sony human resources Dahl's view of society on adolescents.

Critics' Objections to Dahl's Books. Many challengers of structure examples in literature Dahl's work object to his unrealistic portrayal of life. For example, David Rees , in about of Generalized, an article published in Children's Literature in Education (1988), states, The trouble with Dahl's world is that it is black and white--two-dimensional and parallel structure unreal. Dahl's portrayal of about of Generalized Disorder life can be seen as a result of his overall philosophy of society. Since adults are not to parallel in literature be trusted, they are often portrayed as villains. Yet, Rees explains, adults enter a child's world in a thousand different moral shapes and sizes. Very rarely does the sony human, average child encounter, as Sophie did, adults as evil as the flesh-eating giants, as incompetent as the heads of the armed forces, or as childlike as the BFG. There is much more variety--and many fewer extremes--in the types of adults that children may encounter.

Another unrealistic aspect of Dahl's work is the concept that virtue and poverty go together, such as with Miss Honey, Matilda's adored teacher ( Telgen ). Some find this connection objectionable because it is a view consistent with Marxist philosophy, not one that supports free market capitalism. Adult readers also object to the unreality of Dahl's books because in parallel structure in literature, life, everything is not fair, and good does not always win. Even when the hero of The Witches is permanently turned into a mouse, the reader is assured by the main character that, I honestly don't feel especially bad about it. I don't even feel angry. In fact, I feel rather good ( The Witches ). This lack of regret is the norm in Dahl's works instead of the sony, exception, as some feel that it ought to be. Dahl has garnered further criticism for his portrayal of in literature adults, which many challengers believe has a negative effect on his young readership. Throughout his work, authoritarian adults are frequently the victims of vicious revenge. However, what some find most objectionable is that adults are treated harshly even when they are innocent, such as when the main character's parents are killed in a car crash in The Witches ( Pendergast ). Critics Myra Pollack Sadker and David Miller Sadker have accused Dahl of ageism, and of conveying the message that the needs and desires and opinions of old people are totally irrelevant and inconsequential. Some believe that presenting adolescents with such a view of adults, at an age when they are experiencing conflicting emotions about are you adults already, could adversely affect their relationships with older people.

Commenting on this attitude, Bruno Bettelheim, author of The Uses of Enchantment , points out its limitations: It is this inclination to pretend that all people are good that Dahl challenges, and consequently his literature attracts opposition from many adult sources. The final major concern of critics of Dahl's works is his treatment of important issues, and how that treatment might affect his readers. This concern is especially relevant when considering The Witches, ninth on the list of the examples in literature, most frequently banned books in the 1990s ( Foerstel ). Dahl has been accused of sexism by feminists in England, and has been criticized for his negative portrayal of naked voyeurism witches by witches' societies in the United States. These critics point to statements such as the in literature, following in making their case against Dahl: But the fact remains that all witches are women. There is no such thing as a male witch ( Telgen ; The Witches ). However, his critics often ignore the statement that follows the first: On the other hand, a ghoul is always a male ( The Witches ). When questioned about this issue, Dahl defended his work by violation, pointing to the 'lovely grandmother, who is one of the major characters in the story' ( Telgen ). The grandmother's character is communicated to the reader early in the book when the main character says, 'The fact that I am still here and able to speak to you. . .is due entirely to my wonderful grandmother' ( The Witches ). Dahl claims that the previous accusations are unfounded because of the courage and wisdom that the grandmother displays, in addition to her encouragement of unorthodoxy ( Treglown ). He does not concern himself with the possibility that certain groups of adults might be offended, but concentrates on entertaining his readers. Dahl's treatment of the structure, issue of child neglect has also been criticized. This view is based on the fact that Matilda is treated by resources, her parents, at least from her perspective, as nothing more than a scab.

A scab is something you have to put up with until the time comes when you can pick it off and flick it away ( Matilda ). One reviewer, Anna A. Flowers, concluded, Child neglect countered by revenge, however funny and however justified, is just not a nice theme (in Telgen ). However, Matilda could also be used as an avenue for discussion with students about child abuse and neglect. Nevertheless, because it leads to an unrealistic portrayal of life, a negative representation of adults, and a careless treatment of social issues, Dahl's sociology is viewed by parallel structure examples, many to be more harmful than beneficial to adolescents. Romeo And Juliet Riassunto! Yet, as is often the case, controversy may lead directly to popularity. The very controversy caused by Roald Dahl's works for early adolescents has drawn millions of teens to his books and, subsequently, encouraged them to enjoy reading. These young people found in Roald Dahl something that they could not find anywhere else: an author with a view of structure examples in literature society that was essentially identical to their own--distrustful of how smart are you authority figures and firm in the belief that good will triumph. Concerning Dahl's popularity, the librarian of examples in literature one middle school made this comment during the spring of 1997: Roald Dahl's books are always on our reorder list, for copies of his books circulate so much they are worn in no time!

The titles are always checked out and usually on reserve! ( Crawford ). Roald Dahl's view of resources society, his contempt for corrupt authority figures, and his distrust of the structure examples, system have made his works popular with adolescents. About Of Generalized Anxiety! An expression of such values in the disguise of fantasy and humor is a rare find and one that young adolescents should be encouraged to make. Examples! Roald Dahl has certainly achieved his goal as an author because his books have provided a way for many young people to become readers. Sharon Royer is a senior, majoring in and juliet riassunto, education, at Malone College (Canton, Ohio) and is indebted to Dr. Virginia Carroll of Kent State-Stark Campus for her to submit this article for in literature, publication. This is Ms. Royer's first publication in The ALAN Review. Bulaong, Lia. Naked Voyeurism! The Roald Dahl Index 1996. Parallel Structure In Literature! [Online] Available (not currently available), January 27, 1997. Dahl, Roald.

The BFG. New York: Puffin Books, 1982. Dahl, Roald. Matilda. New York: Puffin Books, 1988. ---. The Witches. New York: Farrar, Straus, and human Giroux, 1983. Crawford, Paula J. Letter from Jackson Memorial Middle School librarian to structure examples in literature student (Massillon, Ohio). Are You! 26 March 1997.

Elkin, Judith. The BFG [book review]. The Times Literary Supplement 26 Nov. 1982: 1303. Foerstel, Herbert N. The Most Frequently Banned Books in the 1990s. Banned in parallel structure in literature, the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. [Online] Available , January 27, 1997. Hitchens, Christopher. The Grimmest Tales. Vanity Fair Jan.

1994. Howard, Kristy. The Roald Dahl Home Page 1996. Essay About Symptoms Anxiety! [Online] Available , January 27, 1997. Pendergast, Tom. Dahl, Roald. Contemporary Authors New Revision Series. Vol. 37. Ed.

James G. Lesniak. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. Rees, David. Dahl's Chickens: Roald Dahl. Children's Literature in Education, Fall 1988.

Slavin, Robert E. Parallel Structure In Literature! Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. Telgen, Diane. (Ed). Roald Dahl. Children's Literature Review. Resources! New York: Gale, 1997. Treglown, Jeremy. Roald Dahl: A Biography. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1994. West, Mark I. Roald Dahl.

Twayne's English authors Series 492. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. Sharon Royer lives in North Canton, Ohio, where she is a student and prospective who enjoys studying young adult literature. Reference Citation: Royer, Sharon. (1998). Roald Dahl.

The ALAN Review, Volume 26, Number 1. Last modified: 04/25/17 13:58:11 by Radiya Rashid.

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cool hand luke essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. In these dangerous times, where it seems the parallel structure in literature world is ripping apart at the seams, we can all learn how to survive from those who stare death squarely in the face every day and sony resources [we] should reach out to each other and parallel examples bond as a community, rather than hide from the terrors of life at réalisme the end of the millennium. Jonathan Larson wrote these words shortly before his death at age thirty-five, and they were discovered on his computer by his family after he died. They serve as a fitting tribute to his only Broadway musical, the mega-hit Rent . Parallel Structure? Larson, a hard-working, long suffering, not yet recognized composer-lyricist-bookwriter had been working for sony, seven years on the cheerfully transgressive Rent , a 1990s rock/pop riff on parallel structure examples Puccinis beloved opera La Bohme, this time set in New York Citys East Village. Rent is so many things to so many people. It was the first musical in decades that younger audiences really identified with, that speaks in their voice, that voices their concerns, that tackles their issues. 2nd Amendment? It breathed new commercial life into the Broadway musical, possibly signaling the beginning of the end of the great divide between pop music and theatre music, which has existed since the advent of rock and roll in the 1950s. Even the title means different things to different people. Structure Examples? It represents the financial burden young people feel as they graduate college full of knowledge but absent any marketable job skills, thrown into about Symptoms Anxiety Disorder, a real world where high ideals dont pay the rent. But the title also highlights the temporary nature of these characters lives, the month-to-month living without permanence or promises. Parallel? The characters Collins and human resources Angel sing to each other in the song Ill Cover You that though love cant be bought, at least it can be rented.

In other words, their happiness wont be forever both of examples in literature them have AIDS but its theirs for a while. And the différence réalisme word rent also means torn, Larsons favorite meaning of the title, and certainly the characters in this show are torn between conflicting desires between comfort and idealism, between love and parallel dignity, between anger and pain, between the fear of intimacy and the fear of 2nd amendment violation getting hurt. The word rent means shredded in grief or rage. It means split apart when it describes communities, families, or other relationships. And it also means torn open by structure examples painful feelings, something nearly every character in the show feels at some point. And all the Essay Symptoms Anxiety complexity of that simple, four-letter word parallels the construction of this fascinating musical. Larsons lifelong goal was to combine the Broadway tradition with contemporary pop music, a very difficult task at which many before him had failed. After seven years of workshops and re-writes, the show was scheduled to open in previews off-Broadway at New York Theatre Workshop, on January 25, 1996. But Larson had been feeling ill.

Hed been to two hospitals; one diagnosed him with food poisoning, the other with the flu. The night before the first preview, after a great final dress rehearsal, Larson went home, put a pot of parallel structure water on sony resources the stove for tea, collapsed, and died of an aortic aneurysm. In June 1993, New York Theatre Workshop did a reading of Rent . Structure Examples? The show was a mess but showed real promise. Riassunto? Another reading was done in 1994, this time with director Michael Greif on parallel in literature board. In October 1995 a reading was done in which the entire show was a flashback from Angels funeral.

In December 1995 Larson finished another revision that returned to the earlier structure and he wrote a one-sentence summary of the how smart are you show: Rent is about a community celebrating life, in in literature the face of death and AIDS, at the turn of the century. This statement of purpose helped later on. Naked Voyeurism? After his death, as previews began, the artistic team found themselves trying to structure examples figure out what Larson would have changed and what he would have kept working on. They went through his notes to see what he still had been unhappy with, and did their best to make decisions they thought he would have made. His one-sentence summary helped guide them through the difficult process of finishing a show without its author.

After two weeks of previews in early 1996, the romeo riassunto show opened to rave reviews and standing ovations. Four months later it moved to Broadway and structure examples became the biggest thing to hit the Great White Way since Phantom of the Opera . Larson received a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for his work. He had frequently told his friends that he knew he was the future of musical theatre. Violation? And he just might have been if hed had a chance. The show moved to Broadway and opened at the Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996, to both mixed and rave reviews. The New York Times called it an exhilarating, landmark rock opera, and said it shimmers with hope for examples, the future of the American musical. Time magazine called it the most exuberant and Essay about Anxiety original American musical to come along this decade. The Wall Street Journal called it the best new musical since the 1950s. Parallel Structure? On opening night, the performance began with Anthony Rapp, who played Mark, dedicating the show to the memory of Jonathan Larson. Rent was nominated for a staggering ten Tony Awards and won four, including Best Musical, Best Score, and Best Book. It won six Drama Desk Awards, three Obie Awards, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for 2nd amendment, Best Musical, an Outer Critics Circle Award, and a Drama League Award.

As had happened with Hair twenty-eight years before, Broadway borrowed from the alternative theatre community and discovered a gold mine. In 1992, Larson had written of his show, Rent also exalts Otherness, glorifying artists and in literature counterculture as necessary to a healthy civilization. Larson and later, many commentators, called the show a Hair for the 90s and indeed it shares much with the 1968 landmark rock musical. Daphne Rubin-Vega, who originated the différence entre role of Mimi, said, We didnt want to go to Broadway to become Broadway stars; we went to kick the parallel motherfuckin doors of Broadway open, because its old-school and stodgy. We were invited there and that was cool.

The show became a cultural phenomenon. The cast soon found themselves in The New York Times, Newsweek, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and Harpers Bazaar. About? They appeared on structure examples in literature The Late Show with David Letterman, The Charlie Rose Show, and The Tonight Show , and sang Seasons of about Love at the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Both Hard Copy and Prime Time Live did stories on the show. Frank Rich, New York Times political columnist and structure examples former senior theatre critic, wrote in naked voyeurism a Times op-ed piece, At so divisive a time in structure examples our countrys culture, Rent shows signs of revealing a large, untapped appetite for something better. Both the classical music reviewer and the pop music reviewer for violation, the Times weighed in on Rent , neither raving but both finding much to admire. Because the producers were as new to in literature Broadway as the cast was, they did things very differently. They set aside the first two rows at each performance as $20 seats so that the people the show was about could afford to see it. These special tickets would go on sale at 6:00 p.m. each night and are you the line usually formed by noon on parallel structure examples in literature weekdays and often twenty-four hours in advance on weekends. Rent fans sometimes called Rent Heads would bring tents, food, and CD players to pass the time while they waited. How Smart Are You? Some had seen the structure examples show dozens of times.

But in 2nd amendment July 1997 the line was replaced with a lottery system. Still, the actors love having the structure in literature $20 seats in front they say the first two rows are always the naked voyeurism most lively, the most passionate, and the most appreciative. But after the opening, great controversy circled around the mega-hit. Larsons dramaturg from New York Theatre Workshop, Lynn Thompson, sued the family for part of the shows profits. She lost. Sarah Schulman, a playwright and parallel structure in literature novelist, sued the estate because she claimed Larson stole some of his plot and characters from her novel People in Trouble . She also lost. In fact, there is nothing in Rent that even comes close to the plot and characters of Schulmans book. Angel is the romeo and juliet wise wizard in this collective hero myth story. She's almost other-worldly in her Zen-like understanding of the world around her, her wisdom, her compassion. She's there to teach the others (and us) a valuable lesson, to see the world in terms of what we can give instead of what we can get. As Collins says to Roger in Act II, Angel helped us believe in love.

I can't believe you disagree. On the other hand, several of the central characters in Rent are dealing with much bigger issues than nineteen- or twenty-year-olds should face AIDS, death, suicide, drug addiction, unsafe streets, big but dubious offers from TV execs. How many college-age kids ever grapple with anything like that? To call Roger, Collins, or Angel whiny misses the structure examples in literature entire point of the story. Perhaps the people who hate Rent see their younger selves in these characters and they don't like that. After all, most of naked voyeurism us are whiny and selfish when you're young (and we artsies can be the structure examples worst); we still have growing up left to do.

Though to be honest, a lot of people in their forties still have growing up to do. Its not hard to see a parallel to American politics today. At the beginning of our story, these kids are the Republican Party: I want what I want, and if the other guy also gets what he wants, that's fine, but don't ask me for any. Romeo And Juliet? They have to grow up and become more like the Democratic Party, believing that caring for the least of these makes us all better off. Angel teaches her friends and us ? to be more Christ-like. After all, Rent is about the least of these, the poor, the outcasts, the parallel sick, the 2nd amendment rejected, the kind of people Jesus hung out structure examples in literature with. For much of the twentieth century, Alphabet City has been where mainstream society's rejects form their own community, their own support system, to some extent even their own economy. It's the place where Mark can toast, To being an us for once, instead of a them. Entre Réalisme Et Naturalisme? It's a place where Mark can ask, Is anyone in the mainstream? because he knows the answer is no. Structure Examples In Literature? Not here . Maybe the most potent part of the magic of Rent and make no mistake, Rent is genuinely, inexplicably mystical in the same way that Hair is is sony resources, that its production requires the parallel structure same kind of community the show depicts.

Any cast of Rent has to be, by Larson's design, racially and sexually diverse. 2nd Amendment? And that's why performing and watching Rent can be so powerful the sense of community and the intense emotions aren't just realistic; they're real . The actors aren't just portraying all that; they're actually living it onstage. The Birth of structure examples in literature Rent. Originally the Essay Anxiety Disorder idea for Rent was Billy Aronsons, a young playwright who saw the similarities between La Bohme s artists at the turn of the last century in Paris, and the young artists at the turn of this century in America. In 1989, he was looking for a composer to collaborate with and Playwrights Horizon suggested Larson.

When the two met, Aronson said to Larson, Its time for a new Hair . Though they stuck to the basic plot of La Bohme , they exchanged tuberculosis for AIDS, and Paris for examples, New Yorks East Village. Différence Entre Et Naturalisme? In 1991, after only minimal progress, Larson asked Aronsons permission to go ahead on his own with Rent and parallel in literature Aronson bowed out. Larson decided to stray from Puccinis opera, to consult the 2nd amendment novel on which the opera was based, Scenes de la Vie de Bohme, and to go his own way. The operas poet Rodolfo became Roger the songwriter. Marcello the painter became Mark the filmmaker. Parallel Structure Examples In Literature? Colline became Tom Collins (both philosophers) and naked voyeurism Schaunard became Angel Dumott Schunard (both musicians). Musetta became Maureen the performance artist. Benoit the landlord became Benny the roommate turned landlord.

And in parallel structure in literature Larsons greatest departure, Mimi the différence réalisme et naturalisme embroideress became Mimi the structure in literature SM dancer. When Rent opened, everybody made a big deal out of its connection to La Bohme . But Rent is not an updating of différence réalisme La Bohme or an adaptation; its a response to it. The characters are similar but thats where the comparison ends. Parallel Examples? While La Bohme romanticizes death (which was very trendy in 1896 when it premiered), Rent celebrates life with all its might, as evidenced by all the references to life in the show (the Life Caf, the Angels group Life Support, and others). While Bohme is tragic, Rent is joyous. While Bohme s bohemian world is romantic and poetic, the world of Rent is tough, gritty, angry, and real . While Bohme has Musettas Waltz, Rent has the cynical Tango Maureen.

While Bohme observes the bohemians from a distance, Rent is written by a bohemian, someone who had trouble paying the rent, whose friends were dying of sony AIDS; and it fully inhabits that world. Larson kept the basic character profiles and the establishing situation from Puccinis first act, but then he went off on his own. Like Rent , Bohme opens on Christmas Eve, while two artist roommates try to keep warm in their apartment. Rodolfo burns his manuscript for heat. Colline and Schaunard show up with food and wine and Schaunard tells them the wild tale of structure examples in literature how he made some unexpected money that day. Essay Anxiety Disorder? In Bohme , hes hired to play piano until he drives a parrot to death; in examples in literature Rent , hes hired to play drums until he drives a dog to suicide. Schaunard announces hes taking them all out to eat. Benoit shows up asking for rent. All but Rodolfo leave for their favorite caf, and once theyre gone, Mimi appears, asking for a light for her candle, whereupon Rodolfo and Mimi fall in love. All that is also in Rent . Theres a very funny insiders joke in this scene in 2nd amendment Rent , in the song Will You Light My Candle, a joke exclusively for fans of La Bohme . In Bohme , Mimi comes back the parallel structure second time because she lost her key on Rodolfos floor when she fainted.

In Rent , Mimi comes back the second time also because she lost her key a different kind of key a kilo of cocaine. ( Key is drug users slang for réalisme, kilo .) So Larson has both remained true to Bohme Mimi came back for her key and simultaneously updated it drastically. The other insiders joke in the show is that Rent s Roger is trying to write his one great song and keeps coming up with something that sounds like Musettas waltz from parallel in literature La Bohme. Up to how smart are you this point, the two stories are basically the same. Parallel Structure? But then Rent and La Bohme part company, as Larsons characters pursue more 90s storylines. After the set-up, only Rent s flea market, the caf, and Mimis (near) death have counterparts in the opera. Though Larson takes the operatic Mimis actual death and transfers it to Angel, while Rent s Mimi survives. Larson wrote detailed biographies of all his characters and this gave him the freedom to leave the details of Bohme behind and sony human resources create his own world. In the biographies he wrote, as described in the Rent coffee table book, Mark and Benny were roommates at Brown University; Rogers band was called the Well Hungarians; Mimi left home when she was fifteen; and Maureen dreamed of being a famous performance artist like Patti Smith or Laurie Anderson. Rent is Larsons more positive view of the world, with details and structure people from 2nd amendment his own life mixed in to examples in literature give the story resonance. In real life, Larson himself actually had to throw his keys down to entre the street for people to get into his apartment, and he had to run orange extension cords all over his apartment to make up for parallel structure examples in literature, the lack of outlets.

He often went to support meetings with his best friend who was HIV-positive. He had once lost a girlfriend to another woman. All of this found its way into Rent , along with the naked voyeurism names of three of his friends who had died of AIDS, in parallel examples in literature the support group scene. Though Larson strayed greatly from the opera, he used many details from the novel upon which the opera is based, Scenes de la vie de Bohme by Henri Murger. The book is unlike the opera in many ways, particularly in of Generalized Anxiety its wonderful, raunchy sense of humor. The book is funny, first and foremost, and the four friends are much more like the four friends in structure examples Rent than they are like the characters in the opera. The book is riassunto, chock full of rampant casual sex and other delightful decadences, a remarkable thing for a book written in parallel examples in literature the 1840s. Essay Of Generalized? Also in the book, Mimis great tragic death of tuberculosis really belongs to examples a one-chapter character named Francine, who was in love with a man named Jacques, who died of grief a few days after Francine. Lots of details in riassunto Rent come from the book: the parallel structure examples importance of Collins coat, their regular restaurant where they often order nothing and dont always pay the bill, the constant burning of manuscripts and letters for heat, Marcel/Marks decision to sell out violation his art, and the structural significance of Christmas Eve.

The novel makes a strong (and constant) point of the fact that the four bohemians are fairly irresponsible, selfish, and structure in literature immature (though utterly charming), a charge leveled by critics against Larsons characters. Also, in the book Rudolf is able to about of Generalized write his one great poem only after Mimi has left him, paralleling Rogers song Your Eyes. And just as the song revives Mimi in parallel examples the musical, Mimi in the novel sees Rudolfs poem in a magazine and Essay Disorder its (indirectly) what brings them together again. Also, the novel is organized into dozens of structure short, seemingly randomly ordered and unconnected incidents. When critics complained about Rent s structure, they probably didnt realize it mirrored the original novel. There are differences too. In the novel, Rudolf actually marries Mimi, but they separate after eight months because Mimi has champagne tastes and naked voyeurism cheats on him repeatedly with rich men (mirroring Mimi and Benny in parallel Rent) . Although the novel does end with Mimi showing up at romeo Rudolfs apartment half-dead, starving, and weak (though not on drugs), she doesnt die there.

They call the doctor and put her in the hospital, from which a false report of her death is delivered to parallel in literature Rudolf. But once he finds out its false and naked voyeurism he finds Mimi again, she has actually died. (And people thought Rent could get confusing!) Why It Shouldnt Have Worked. There are so many reasons why Rent should not have worked, why it should not have been a success off-Broadway, much less on Broadway, much less an international phenomenon. First, rock and structure roll does not work in the theatre. Admittedly, thats a pretty board statement but its almost always true. Certainly Hair worked, but to this day no one really knows why. Several shows have succeeded that employed a watered-down, Broadway-pop vocabulary, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Les Misrables, Miss Saigon, Jekyll Hyde, but those scores are not real rock. Essay Symptoms? And Tommy doesnt really count because it was a hugely successful rock album and parallel examples in literature movie decades before it ever hit Broadway; its impossible to know if it would have succeeded without its reputation. And it too was pretty watered down and riassunto sanitized on Broadway. Most pop musicals that have succeeded are far more pop than rock, and structure examples really soft pop at that.

With the obvious exceptions of Hair and Tommy , when Broadway tries to speak in the voice of genuine rock and are you roll, the show is almost always a flop. The reason is that in parallel rock music the resources most important element is the beat. The melody, the chords, and structure examples in literature the lyrics are often very repetitive and naked voyeurism they all serve the beat. Generally, its the structure examples in literature emotion and energy that matter, not the intellectual content. But in theatre music, the lyrics are the entre réalisme most important element. The lyrics not only have to be heard and understood (not always a priority in rock) but they also have to structure in literature tell the story, to advance plot and character. Are You? To do that, they have to convey clearly a lot of information in parallel structure in literature very few words; repetition is a luxury modern theatre composers and lyricists cant afford.

So it follows that Rent shouldnt have worked because its music is genuine rock and roll (though more 70s than 90s). But theatre audiences loved it and so did the pop music audience, though hard-core rockers denounced it as imitation. Human? Perhaps to work on stage, it couldnt have been pure, up-to-the-minute, on-the-radio rock, but it was real. Parallel Structure? Larson was as tuned in to rock as he was to traditional Broadway musicals, and he did the near impossible by successfully blending the two without emasculating either, creating a kind of Broadway fusion rock that satisfied both audiences. The CD quickly became the best selling cast album of the decade.

But the question remains: why did it work? Were Broadway audiences ready for Rent because the blander Broadway pop of Andrew Lloyd Webber had prepared them to accept a more legitimate rock sound? Did Tommy help pave the way? Or was the romeo and juliet success of Rent an parallel audience rebellion against the abundance of elevator pop on Broadway? And if not for Rent , would later pop musicals like Jekyll Hyde and The Scarlet Pimpernel have been so popular?

Its impossible to know for and juliet, sure. The second reason Rent shouldnt have worked is that it was a big mess. Its first several incarnations were so full of ideas, so full of structure examples in literature everything Jonathan Larson wanted to say, that no one could make heads or tails of it. There were so many themes he wanted to explore, so much of his wide-eyed optimism and naivet that he wanted to and juliet inject into his story, so many plot lines. And the specter of parallel in literature La Bohme was always getting in and juliet the way. It wasnt until director Michael Greif entered the picture and dramaturg Lynn Thompson and several others that a coherent story began to emerge. And there were other issues.

Many of the people involved thought his early depiction of homeless people was nave and borderline offensive. Many people thought too many of his characters were one-dimensional. Parallel Examples? And Larson could be very defensive, very closed to outside feedback. But luckily, as he began to trust Greif and others, he opened up and listened to naked voyeurism what they had to say. Examples? He began to entre réalisme et naturalisme trust their criticisms and in literature makes changes. But he never finished his show. Différence? For many musicals, the preview period is when the most important work gets done, and Larson died before previews began. Even now in its finished version, Rent has dramatic and structural problems. Is it better for its roughness and structure imperfection, more accessible, more loveable for its flaws? Quite possibly. The third reason it shouldnt have worked is différence entre et naturalisme, that Broadway audiences generally dont want to structure see musicals about overtly sexual gays and lesbians (although the de-sexualized varieties are okay), or SM dancers, drug addicts, drag queens, or performance artists.

And they certainly dont want to 2nd amendment see these people have simulated sex onstage. Like Hair did, Rent brought forbidden content to Broadway and ended up a commercial success. This is even more surprising in an era when Disney is structure, becoming the king of Broadway with its sanitized, family-friendly, substance-free musicals selling out and winning Tony Awards. Was Rent s success due to a backlash against a Broadway turning to Disney and the bloodless pop musicals epitomized by the work of and juliet riassunto Frank Wildhorn? Were Broadway audiences hungry for more adult fare? Did the growing prevalence of parallel structure examples gay and lesbian characters on TV and in différence entre réalisme et naturalisme movies make audiences more comfortable with this material? Did Larsons innocence and generosity of structure spirit come through these characters so warmly that audiences couldnt help but care about them?

Again, its impossible to know. Some critics complained that there was no irony in how smart the material, no cynicism, none of Sondheims frosty intellectualism, as one critic put it, that everything in examples Rent was laid bare, right there on the surface. Perhaps thats another reason why audiences embraced it. The last reason the 2nd amendment show shouldnt have worked is that it was the anti-spectacle. It had virtually no set a couple tables, folding chairs, a platform for structure examples in literature, the band, and a junk sculpture on how smart are you one side of the stage. Its costumes came from the actors own closets and from thrift stores. The show looked sparser and parallel structure examples more low-budget than anything in years. This low-rent show (pun intended) opened at a time when the entre other hits on Broadway were Sunset Boulevard, Show Boat, Beauty and parallel structure examples in literature the Beast, Les Misrables , Miss Saigon, Phantom of the naked voyeurism Opera, Cats , and a tastelessly overproduced Grease, expensive spectacles one and all.

Why did audiences embrace Rent, a show that had neither chandelier nor helicopter? Then again, though Les Misrables had the turntable and barricade, many of its scenes were played on a bare stage. And opening at the same time as Rent was Savion Glovers definition-defying dance musical Bring on da Noise, Bring on da Funk , which also used virtually no sets. Opening the following season was the revival of Chicago which had less set than Rent did. Maybe the time was just right. Maybe audiences were just ready. Maybe they were sick of empty calories. But aside from all these problems with the show as a whole, there are also some other problems that may or may not have been fixed had Larson not died. Despite its much touted diversity blacks, Latinos, gays and parallel structure lesbians, cross-dressers, junkies the 2nd amendment violation two main characters (including the storys narrator) are both straight white guys from suburbia, just like Larson was.

Did these two white guys make it easier for the audience to accept the others? Were the others just tokens? People argued both sides of the issue. And what about in literature Mark and Rogers refusal to pay Benny rent for their apartment? Why is that portrayed as such a gutsy gesture? Do they deserve to live rent-free and job-free merely because theyre struggling artists? And lets not forget that theyre struggling artists by choice . They could get jobs. Larson did; he waited tables for a living.

In a pinch, they could move back home with their parents or ask their parents for money. Their self-identification with the real homeless people seems artificial, and perhaps even a bit offensive. Its safe to say that most of the homeless people living in réalisme et naturalisme the tent city on Bennys lot are not there by choice, some probably suffering from mental illness, addiction, and who knows what else? Then again, this issue was raised over Hair why were these kids panhandling on the streets when they came from middle class suburban homes, when most of structure examples in literature them were college educated? Is it idealism, naivet, or just arrogance when Mark and Roger declare theyre not going to pay rent this year or next even next year? Back to the Future. Rent didnt really break that much genuinely new ground (one might argue that Griefs staging did more than Larsons material), but like Oklahoma! fifty years earlier, its triumph was in how smart bringing together what had gone before it, combining many past innovations all in one new work, and doing it with great skill, and structure examples more important, great success. Naked Voyeurism? As mentioned before, innovations generally only get carried on structure examples if they show up in hit shows.

In fact, Larsons great achievement and the reason for violation, Rent s enormous appeal to so many different kinds of people lies precisely in the heady mix of musical theatre traditionalism and parallel structure examples in literature innovation. The shows influences are many. Like the romeo early musicals of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber ( Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita) and the musicals of Schnberg and Boublil ( Les Misrables, Miss Saigon ), Rent is through-sung, with almost no spoken dialogue. This is certainly nothing new. Broadways pop operas have been around since the early 1970s and though their often over-blown spectacle has fallen out of structure examples vogue for the moment, the pop operas will no doubt continue. (Its interesting to note that Larsons idol Stephen Sondheim has never written a through-sung musical. Sondheim enjoys the resources back-and-forth between spoken dialogue and singing.) Like Lloyd Webber and parallel structure examples Schnberg, Larson wrote self-contained songs as well as duets, group numbers (some with beautiful, carefully constructed counterpoint and harmonies), and operatic style recitative, using the structural vocabulary of classical opera with the harmonic and rhythmic language of rock. One could argue that Larson did all this better than those who went before him, but it wasnt new. (A pause here for some parenthetical comments about naked voyeurism one of my greatest pet peeves.

Too many people experts even habitually refer to pop and rock operas as through-composed . This is not correct. What they mean is through-sung , meaning that there is no dialogue, that everything is sung. Through-composed means something entirely different. It means that the music never repeats itself, that no two verses have the same music, that there are no reprises in parallel examples in literature Act II, that the composer writes different music for every moment. I dont know that Ive ever seen a musical that is through-composed, although Ive seen many that are through-sung. Différence Et Naturalisme? All musicals repeat music in some way and certainly Andrew Lloyd Webber, the king of the pop opera, does it a lot . Some people tell me I should lighten up, and they may be right, but either the labels we use have meaning or theyre worthless.) Larson also wasnt the examples first to adapt classical opera for the musical theatre.

Oscar Hammerstein II did it with Carmen Jones in human 1943, by updating Bizets opera Carmen, moving it to the American South, and writing all new lyrics. Jim Luigs and Scott Warrender did it in 1995 with Das Barbec , which recast Wagners operatic Ring cycle as a country western musical comedy, but this was more parody than adaptation. What Larson did, creating new music and new text, and even freely adapting the plot, was arguably new. In a very real way, Larson borrowed from the musicals of the parallel examples 20s and 30s and the work of the Gershwins, Cole Porter, Rodgers and Hart, and others, by writing in a genuine pop music style, a style that the audience hears in their everyday lives, a style that instantly makes the language of the musical accessible to resources the untrained ear. Structure In Literature? Surely today, no one can escape rock/pop music. Its in the movies, in commercials, even in dentists offices. And like the songwriters of the 20s and violation 30s did, Larson tells his story in the musical language of the people, something Broadway has rarely done (or at parallel structure examples least rarely done well) since the 1950s. Larson followed the lead of Rodgers and Hammersteins early musicals ( Oklahoma! , Carousel, South Pacific ) by violation telling a story that directly addresses important social issues and problems. And as in Oklahoma! , Larsons story is about a threat to the community; in Oklahoma! its Jud Fry, in Rent its AIDS. He used long-form musical scenes, which were first developed by Hammerstein, in Show Boat with Jerome Kern, and in Oklahoma! and parallel structure in literature Carousel with Richard Rodgers, a device perfected by Larsons mentor Stephen Sondheim, most notably in Sweeney Todd . (And like Sondheim did in Sweeney , Larson even quoted the dies irae, a musical motif from the mass for the dead, in the song La Vie Boheme.

He also mentioned Sondheim in that song.) Larson also learned from Hammersteins example that the resources truly great writers always write what they believe. Sondheim writes about psychologically complex, neurotic New Yorkers because thats what he knows and understands. Hammerstein wrote about cattle standing like statues because thats what he understood and believed in. And like Hammerstein, Larson wrote with tremendous optimism, an almost embarrassing naivt, and a genuine love of life, because thats who he was, despite living in structure the midst of the AIDS pandemic and watching many of his closest friends die. But like Sondheim, Larson also focused more than anything else on the way people connect (and fail to connect), one of the most important themes in Rent (as evidenced by Larsons quote at the beginning of of Generalized Anxiety this chapter) and a theme Sondheim returns to in almost every one of his shows. Larson followed in structure the footsteps of naked voyeurism West Side Story in structure examples in literature depicting the seamy, gritty side of life on the streets of New York, and in the footsteps of William Finns Falsettos trilogy in his matter-of-fact treatment of gay characters.

Like Grand Hotel and Sondheims Into the entre réalisme et naturalisme Woods , Larson successfully manipulated numerous storylines, weaving them in and out of each other. He followed Cabaret and Company in their treatment of parallel social issues and their use of commentary songs. He and naked voyeurism Greif followed The Fantasticks and A Chorus Line by using virtually no set. All this is not to say that Larson stole from any of these shows; he learned from them. Parallel? He was a true Broadway baby, a serious, passionate student of the American musical theatre and he synthesized all that had gone before him to create a new creature, one that had clear ancestors but still stood on its own.

He did in 1996 what Rodgers and Hammerstein did in 1943 with Oklahoma! he knocked Broadway on its ass. Are You? We can only hope that, like Oklahoma! , Larsons Rent will become a model for the new generation of Broadway musical artists. Its Between God and Me. What does Rent think about God and religion? The one time religion is really invoked in Rent , early in La Vie Bohme, it's held up for sustained mockery, including ironic quotes from the Latin mass and structure the Jewish prayer for the dead. Religion does not serve this community. The one time we see a representative of religion in romeo and juliet riassunto the show, it's a nasty priest who's hassling Collins about paying for the funeral.

One other passing reference to God comes from the homeless: Can't you spare a dime or two? Here but for the grace of parallel structure God go you. It's an interesting line, since most of the characters don't seem to think much about God or religion. But with homeless people singing these lines, it might remind us of naked voyeurism Bill Maher's contention that it's easier for middle-class and parallel examples wealthy people to be atheists; it's a luxury of sorts. Et Naturalisme? Those who are poor, the least of these, those who struggle to survive every day, don't always have that luxury. Then, midway through La Vie Bohme, we get this gem: It's between God and me. While some might see the suggestions of structure in literature a belief in God here, it's such a confrontational, aggressive statement that we can't take it at face value. These kids are telling us they think the rules of Leviticus and the rest of the are you Bible are silly and anachronistic.

There's not even a hint of parallel structure respect for those rules or their source here. But aside from these few references, God and religion are mostly absent in this world. Take a look at the lyric of romeo and juliet riassunto Another Day: There's only this. Or life is yours to miss. No day but today . Millions of people have sung these words since Larson wrote them, but how many of them have stopped to think about them? Many people hear that lyric as just a reminder to live for the present, especially for these characters who have an uncertain future. Parallel? But this lyric is saying a lot more than Live in the present. This lyric does two jobs, both giving the community some context, in the form of the support group, and also doing some important character work between Mimi and violation Roger. There's only this . Could that be the show's or Larson's rejection of parallel structure examples organized religion and revealed word, rejection of a merciful God who brings AIDS down on riassunto his people, of various, conflicting codes of morality, of the moral cluelessness of parallel structure examples in literature a 2,000-year-old religion?

There is no God , this lyric is différence et naturalisme, telling us; there's only us . There is no heaven, no afterlife, no ultimate reward or punishment; there's only this life, here, now. Structure Examples? Or as John Lennon put it: Imagine there's no heaven; It's easy if you try. No hell below us, Above us only sky. Imagine all the naked voyeurism people. Living for today. Though some Rent fans may recoiling from this reading, the AIDS pandemic led a lot of people to question the existence of God.

As Larson watched so many of his friends killed by the disease, as he saw Christians reject and condemn the parallel structure examples in literature gay community, as he heard the et naturalisme Religious Right claim AIDS was God's just punishment on gays, what must that have done to parallel structure examples in literature his ideas about God and religion? Or did he ever have any? Or life is yours to miss. Is that a call to reject notions of sin and divine punishment? After all, by definition, the act of repentance for sins is backward-looking. Why beat yourself up, why do your penance, when you could be moving forward, this lyric seems to ask us. No day but today. Could this mean that the only way to truth, to entre réalisme happiness, to enlightenment is to live fully in parallel in literature the reality of today, not in the mythologies of human thousands of years ago, not in the spiritual bamboozles of new mythologies, but instead in the divinity of plain old human connection, love, sex, generosity, forgiveness, kindness, joy, music?

If there is parallel, spirituality in 2nd amendment violation Rent , it's in the obviously named Angel. She brings out structure examples in literature what is divine in Collins and the others. She shows us the road, this road that we're on, the how smart are you one in front of us. If we embrace this road, this way, this day, we live more fully and we appreciate each other more deeply. The song goes on, and Mimi and the support group sing: I trust my soul. Mimi may be a heroin addict, but she's also something of a philosopher.

She has self-awareness, and perhaps that's her great tragedy. They're not saying they trust God here, or fate, or Allah; they trust their souls. They trust their human nature, their humanity, the deepest part of themselves. They don't strive to be sinless or righteous or morally upright, but just to in literature be, just to live life, to keep moving forward, to play out différence réalisme et naturalisme their own individual hero myth stories, each on his own individual road. There's only now, There's only here. Or live in structure fear. There is no eternity, the lyric seems to argue; there's only now.

There is no heaven, hell, or other plane of existence; there's only here. Are You? You can choose to structure examples live in love and joy and sunlight, or you can choose to live in fear and distrust and darkness. You can work to better the lives of your fellow humans, or you can live in resources fear of them and what they'll take from you. No day but today. It's pretty obvious why the support group is singing this as their affirmation. They have to find peace in living with AIDS. Structure Examples? They have to live fully now, because they don't know how much future they've got. Naked Voyeurism? For Angel and Collins, that's freeing, and maybe it allows them to be themselves and accept themselves in a way they might not have otherwise.

Maybe they wouldn't have connected so quickly, so powerfully, if not for the disease they share. And maybe the same is true for Roger and structure examples in literature Mimi. Naked Voyeurism? They're sickness is their bond. So why is Mimi singing this to Roger? Because Roger is raging against the first genuine emotions he's felt since his girlfriend died. He hasn't been able to give into love thus far, so he has live[d] in fear. It's terrifying for examples in literature, him to feel again, because to feel again means to be hurt again. But Mimi has been hurt too. She really does understand what he feels.

She knows that she can live in that pain or she can give into 2nd amendment, love, and she knows the examples in literature same is true for Roger. Mimi the addict-philosopher urges Roger not to think about what might happen, who might get hurt, where it all might end, and instead just focusing on being with her here, now, for as long as they've got. They don't really have a choice, other than to retreat into themselves. There is no other path for them, no other way, and for Essay Symptoms Anxiety, many reasons, no day but today. More than anyone else, Rent is Roger's story.

It's true that there are essentially six leads in Rent , but most of them don't change significantly or learn anything significant. Roger and Mimi do, and Mark and Maureen do also, to a lesser degree. Structure Examples In Literature? But Joanne and Collins have already gone through the growing-up process, and Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Angel is the story's wise wizard figure. Rent is Roger's hero myth. It's easy to get swept up in the joy and rowdiness of this show, the rich musical landscape, the quirky characters, and to miss the skillful, carefully wrought character arc that Larson constructed for Roger. Rent went through massive rewrites over in literature several years, and though roughness is to some extent Rent 's unique style, Larson did a lot of work on the show and put a great deal of 2nd amendment violation time and thought into its construction. (In one early version, the examples in literature show began with the funeral and then flashed back. ) Once you look closely at Roger's arc, you can see how the whole show is différence entre réalisme, built on that structure. Roger is in enormous pain when we first meet him. He's been through a terrible tragedy his girlfriend April gave him AIDS, then killed herself, just six months ago and structure examples as many people do in horrific situations, he shuts down his feelings.

He becomes an emotional zombie. He looks like a person on the outside, but he's dead inside. He's learned to function, and how to fake a smile. But he has cut himself off from life. He hasn't seen anyone but Mark in a really long time.

And he's just six months clean from his own heroin addiction. You don't get cured of heroin addiction. It's like alcoholism; it's with you for life. You just learn to control it. Maybe . From the différence entre first moments of the show, we're introduced to structure Roger's magic amulet (like the ruby slippers and Luke's light saber), his Fender guitar. It's the only part of him not dead. It's the artist part of sony human him that's hanging on. As long as he has the guitar, as long as his one great song isn't finished, he has a reason to get up tomorrow. Roger is parallel structure, unable to finish his song because he's emotionally crippled, but also because finishing his one great song would mean he could die. About Symptoms Anxiety Disorder? And deep down, that's not really what he wants.

He wants to live again. The action of Rent is how Roger makes his way back to the land of the living. It's about how Roger learns to parallel structure be one of those people living with, living with, living with, living with, not dying from disease. Angel and Collins provide the and juliet call to adventure that begins every hero myth. Angel is Roger's wise wizard, his Glinda the Good Witch. And his faithful companions on his journey are his community. More than any other modern piece of musical theatre, in Rent , the structure community is naked voyeurism, a character another way in which Larson followed the Rodgers Hammerstein model.

If Roger can just get out into the community, he will find again what was taken from parallel in literature him: real human connection. Our reluctant hero resists that call at first, but then he gets a second call to Essay about of Generalized Anxiety adventure, this time a call to emotional ( okay, and parallel examples sexual and chemical ) adventure, when Mimi barges into 2nd amendment violation, the loft. Roger resists again. He wants nothing to do with Mimi, because she's a junkie like April, and he will not go through that again. He must protect himself, his heart, his broken soul. Just as he protects himself from parallel examples his addiction. After Mimi leaves, Roger realizes he likes her. But what does that mean to an emotional zombie? Might it mean that he's not a zombie after all?

He finally answers Angel's call to adventure, inviting Mimi along. And only then, when he risks, when he opens himself to the adventure, does something of value come back to him. Connection. And notice that our hero brings his magic amulet with him everywhere, to the flea market, to Maureen's performance, to the Life Cafe. Roger and are you Mimi's duet I Should Tell You is the structure in literature show's obligatory moment, the are you moments toward which everything before it has led, and from which everything after it results. Structure Examples In Literature? Take out that moment and the whole story collapses. Roger finally pries open the door to his heart, finally takes that brave step. and finds out Mimi also has AIDS. Just like April. Sony Human Resources? Just like him.

Part of him is terrified that he's finally letting himself feel again, and that it's going to parallel in literature be exactly like the naked voyeurism last time. Parallel In Literature? Nothing but pain. And Juliet? He knows it'll end the parallel examples same way. He can't do that. 2nd Amendment Violation? He can't bear that kind of pain again. But another part of him thinks maybe at long last he's found someone who could understand what he feels, something even his best friend Mark can't provide. There's such weight, such deep despair, such understanding when Roger finds out Mimi has AIDS and all he can say is, Mimi. He can't believe it. Once again, he falls for someone who's a junkie and who has AIDS, and once again, he knows, she'll die, leaving him alone again. And he knows he won't survive that. Parallel? And yet who could better understand what he's been going through?

The power of the scene is that Mimi knows exactly what he's thinking, and she can feel that weight, and she knows the source of his pain. And she knows they could ease each other's pain. If only. And then he chooses. (Here goes. ) The end of Act I of resources Rent feels a little like the parallel structure in literature end of Act II of Next to Normal guardedly semi-optimistic. A fully happy ending isn't really possible here, so we'll take what we can get. Yes, there will be pain. As Next to Normal tells us, It's the price we pay to of Generalized Disorder feel. And as the act ends, Roger and Mimi join the others in celebrating life at the Life Cafe.

Unlike most stories, a big part of Roger's hero's journey is skipped, as we race through most of the year in Act II. We're left to fill in those blanks, assume a progression (and disintegration) of Roger and Mimi's relationship, but Larson does a great job of connecting all the dots for us. Roger's real moment of self-discovery comes in the double interior monologue he shares with Mark, What You Own in Act II, and in their fight leading up to it. In each hero myth, the hero has to gain some new wisdom from the trials he's been through and he must return to his village to share his new wisdom. But first he has to hit rock bottom. Everything that Roger needed is being taken away.

In the song-scene Goodbye, Love, Roger and parallel structure examples Mark have a real fight, and in pointing out each other's flaws and frauds, they each gain some self-awareness. It takes a fight for them to finally say all this, to finally open up. They sing: So I own not a notion. I escape and ape content. I don't own emotion I rent.

What was it about that night? Connection in an isolating age. For once the shadows gave way to light, For once I didn't disengage. Dying in America. At the end of the millennium. We're dying in America.

To come into naked voyeurism, our own. But when you're dying in America. At the end of the parallel structure in literature millennium, You're not alone. Or as Sondheim would put it, No one is romeo and juliet riassunto, alone. Mark and examples Roger are coming to realize that we all go through trials. We all suffer. We all grieve.

And we all know we're not alone. Notice the how smart are you shift from living in America earlier in the song, to dying in America, and then to parallel structure in literature dying. to come into naked voyeurism, our own. Parallel Structure Examples? It's the hero's progression from sony mere existence, to parallel structure examples in literature challenge and danger, to finding your own place in the world. But Roger has not finished his journey. He has not yet become a man. If he doesn't own his emotion, how can he write a love song? When they bring Mimi up at the end of the show, Roger sees his past playing out in front him again.

It's all happening exactly as before. And then he makes a different choice . Instead of sony resources giving in to the grief, as he did with April, here he fights it. He rises up to slay the dragon. Roger's song or more accurately, the parallel examples in literature genuine love that his song expresses is the kiss the Prince gives the Disney Princess that saves her life. He hasn't been able to write the song before now, because he wasn't yet capable of sony resources mature love. Now he is.

He's growing up. Now Roger is no longer passive. Parallel Structure? He has chosen to naked voyeurism be active. Structure? He has chosen to act to save another. He has become heroic. in Essay Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety a small, urban, Alphabet-City, kind of way. He has grown up, and now he can love someone fully. But like Matt in parallel structure examples in literature The Fantasticks , Roger first had to get beat up by the world.

Larson's decision to how smart give Roger such a heavy backstory was one of his most important choices. The existence of April in parallel structure examples in literature the story changes it, and elevates it well beyond both the maudlin, emotional pornography of the opera and the subversive but shallow comedy of the novel on which the musical and the opera are based. April gives Roger weight. Naked Voyeurism? In the opera, Rodolfo seeks romance; in the novel, Rudolphe seeks sex. Roger seeks connection. At the parallel in literature beginning of the show, Roger's song had to Essay Symptoms Anxiety Disorder be written before he dies. It's connected with ending. Structure? At the end of the show, his new song has to be written to express real love. Now it's connected to romeo beginning. Structure In Literature? All through the show, as a running joke, Roger keeps trying to write this song, but it always ends up sounding like Musetta's Waltz from La Bohme . (How meta!) Now that Roger has grown up emotionally or at least, is growing up now he can integrate his obstacle into his journey, and now a quote from how smart are you Musetta's Waltz shows up as an integrated instrumental break in the middle of his love song, Your Eyes.

Instead of being stymied by parallel structure examples it, he has conquered it. Instead of being trapped by and juliet the past, he now integrates the past into the present. Also notice that Roger's first big song, One Song Glory is all about Roger. Structure In Literature? He even refers to Essay about of Generalized Anxiety Disorder himself in the song, in the third person. This is a shallow sentiment.

He wants glory. He thinks he's capable of truth like a blazing fire. Not yet he isn't. But by the end of the show, he's grown up and his last big song, Your Eyes, is all about Mimi. It's about parallel in literature connection.

Ultimately, Roger learns what Bobby learns in Company Alone is alone, not alive. Like Bobby, Roger choose to make a commitment to someone, to put himself second. Romeo Riassunto? The finale of Company is called Being Alive because Bobby has chosen not to be alone. Parallel Examples? The goal isn't to find the how smart are you perfect person. In Literature? The goal isn't to get married. The goal is to be alive. At the end of Rent , Roger choose to be alive. He takes all that he's learned on his journey and he chooses connection.

It's not a Happily Ever After, because in sony human real life there's always a next chapter. until there isn't. But it is a resolution. The (Second) Age of parallel in literature Aquarius. Jonathan Larson was born and died under the sign of Aquarius, fitting for the man who wanted to write the Hair for entre réalisme, the 90s. In fact, as much as Rent was influenced by other musicals, no show shaped Rent more than Hair . The two shows are alike in so many ways. Both originated off-Broadway and parallel in literature moved to Broadway. Both intentionally cast some actors who had no stage experience at all. How Smart Are You? Both used costumes that came from parallel thrift stores and actors closets to add a sense of realism. Neither show had much set. Both shows were a weird mix of concert and 2nd amendment musical (like the subsequent off-Broadway sensation Hedwig and the Angry Inch ), with both scores relying to some degree on list songs (even sharing some of the same references sodomy, marijuana, Ginsberg, Antonioni, and others).

Both shows acknowledge themselves as theatre, directly addressing the audience. In Rent , Mark actually speaks many of the stage directions. Structure In Literature? In Hair , the actors interact with the audience. Both shows are about drugs (marijuana in Hair , heroin in Rent ), death (Vietnam in Hair , AIDS in Rent ), and a strong sense of community as family. Both shows deal seriously with spirituality but reject traditional religious traditions. Both shows also rejected traditional Broadway staging techniques and both borrowed techniques from the experimental theatre movement, because both directors came from the experimental theatre community. Réalisme Et Naturalisme? In fact, the static, presentational staging of Seasons of Love in Rent was considered revolutionary by some but its taken directly from the staging of Let the Sun Shine In in Hair . Both shows were perceived to have plot problems (no plot in Hair , a messy plot in Rent ), and in fact, both shows were meant to feel messy and unpolished. The success and legacy of Rent owes almost as much to its original direction and design as it does to its music and lyrics. Director Michael Greif was criticized for structure examples in literature, his staging, which often looked random or even non-existent, but he was just picking up where Hair left off. Greif was creating a new kind of musical theatre staging, a theatrical equivalent to cinma vrit , the documentary style of filmmaking in which no directorial control is evident, in which real life is merely recorded without being manipulated.

Now, obviously, its tough for a musical to be completely natural because most people dont break into song spontaneously, and even fewer have a band to back them up. But Greif got as close to cinma vrit as musical theatre can get, aiming for 2nd amendment violation, the impression that these actors are making it up as they go, that theyve assembled on this nearly empty stage and are acting out examples their lives for us. Resources? There were no self-consciously clever staging moments, no technical surprises, no gimmicks (unless you call the lack of gimmicks a gimmick). In all these ways, it picked up the central ideas of parallel structure examples Hair . It was different, it was startling, and it was scary to musical theatre traditionalists. Greif has said that he staged Seasons of entre Love first and parallel the sparse, static staging of that number then determined the look of the rest of the show. Just as the authors of Hair , Jim Rado and Gerry Ragni, used their lives and naked voyeurism the lives of their friends as material, Larson did the same with Rent . Examples In Literature? As mentioned earlier, many small details of his life found their way into the show, as did the names of friends lost to AIDS. And Roger and Mark are clearly two sides of Larson, both the artist-observer and the artist determined to 2nd amendment violation leave behind something of value. Like Mark, Larsons friends say he studied people intently, often asking couples why they were together, wanting to know friends life histories, asking sometimes very personal questions in his quest to understand people. A friend says that on the last night of parallel examples in literature his short life, Larson told him that he had learned from an HIV-positive friend that its not how many years a person lives that counts; its how you fulfill the time you spend here, a philosophy Larson certainly shared with Roger. Larson also injected his hopelessly sunny disposition and romeo riassunto impossible optimism into Angel, the heart of Rent . Examples In Literature? Though Larson died, he lives on différence entre réalisme in these characters. Like Hair, Rent is about the things its creator thought were important.

Its a show about parallel examples in literature survival, just like Jason Robert Browns musical Songs for a New World . Perhaps the entre message of this generation is that the real heroism is in living, in just making it from one day to the next, against greater odds than a more generous universe would allow. Parallel Examples In Literature? Though many musicals have dealt with death, though some have even killed off their hero, never before has a Broadway musical included four main characters living with AIDS. And still, the show rarely focuses on how smart death and parallel rarely gets depressing. Its uplifting even as it deals frankly with tragedy. In Angels death we still celebrate the Essay Anxiety Disorder joy he brought to Collins and the rest. Parallel Structure In Literature? Rent deals in spiritually even though it doesnt mention God. The church of Rent is Life itself the Life Caf, Angels group Life Supports, the life teeming through the streets of New York City, the naked voyeurism life force that rages through each character as they all struggle to parallel examples in literature survive. Marks song Halloween asks why this extended family of friends was brought together and the answer is romeo and juliet riassunto, that they are each others church, each others reason for celebration and for in literature, thanks.

Mark asks this question, significantly, standing outside a church, not within it. Symptoms Of Generalized Anxiety? Mainstream religion does not offer this generation what it seeks. Like the parallel structure generation of Hair thirty years earlier, their answers arent in the Bible; their answers are in and juliet the sense of structure in literature family and are you community they all share. And like Hair , Rent is not just about a community of characters, its also about the parallel structure in literature community of artists who created it. Just as each cast of Hair takes a tribal name and how smart are you becomes a family in very real ways, so too does each cast of structure examples Rent form deep, lasting bonds. Its the nature of the how smart material. The Legacy of Rent. Rent s legacy is parallel, tough to estimate just a few years after its opening. Certainly, it will ruin the voices of a generation of singers.

Because the naked voyeurism producers want actors who dont feel like actors (as Larson wanted), many of them are untrained and dont know how to warm up their voices and bodies before a show, how to in literature rest their voices on days off, how to prepare their bodies for how smart, a kind of abuse few people ever experience. Many actors who have performed in Rent have blown out parallel structure their voices and developed serious vocal problems. About? This was less of a problem with Hair because no one actor had all that much music to sing, but in Rent several characters sing a great deal of music each night. In August 1997, the New York Times did an article on absenteeism in Rent and in Savion Glovers Noise/Funk . At some performances of Rent , as many as nine out of parallel structure examples in literature fifteen cast members would be missing. This had also been a problem with Hair , but due more to drugs than to sore throats. But the real question is: will Rent change Broadway the différence réalisme way Larson hoped it would? So far it hasnt.

Would it have been different if Larson had lived? Maybe. Who knows what his next show would have been like? Then again, maybe Larsons other shows wouldnt have made it to Broadway. Maybe they wouldnt have been the parallel examples in literature near masterpiece that Rent was. The other young composers making their marks on Broadway are following more in différence réalisme the tradition of Sondheims sophisticated, complex musicals than following Larsons populist lead. Parallel Examples? Adam Guettels brilliant Floyd Collins clearly came out of the Sondheim tradition. Jason Robert Browns Songs for a New World was heavily pop and RB-influenced, but Browns Parade was closer to Sondheim.

Frank Wildhorns musicals, Jekyll Hyde, The Scarlet Pimpernel , and others, came directly out of the Top 40 sound, but they dont succeed as theatre, really amounting to réalisme nothing more than Star Search with a slight story, so he wont be the heir to in literature Larsons legacy. Maybe the only hope resides in a new voice we havent heard yet, that will appear on the scene as suddenly as Larsons did, who will finish the work of putting musical theatre and romeo and juliet riassunto pop music back together again, without sacrificing the integrity of either, the structure examples in literature way Larson did so brilliantly and so lovingly.