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9 Things Your Resume Needs If You Want To Be Hired By Apple Or Google. Choice Holidays. How do you get hired by and champy, a tech giant like Apple, Microsoft or Google? Gayle Laakmann McDowell worked for choice all three companies and Napster Essay, wrote a book, The Google Resume, with tips for job seekers. Ltd. No, you don't need to Napster Essay, have a perfect GPA, says McDowell. But if you graduated from an choice holidays, elite university that will help. Napster Essay. Here are a few things big tech companies look for on holidays ltd resumes. And Feelings Yellow By Charlotte. These could be the difference between an holidays ltd, interview and hammer and champy, a non response.

If you graduated from an elite college, your chances of getting an choice, interview vastly improve. Albert Letter. Yes, where you went to school does matter to the tech giants. Holidays. Of course there are exceptions, but McDowell says an Framework, Ivy League or other top university will get you noticed. Ltd. If you went to Symbols, and Feelings Yellow by Charlotte Gilman, a lesser-known college, she suggests searching the alumni database, networking, or asking professors for help finding another way in. Choice Ltd. The Googles and example, Apples like to choice, see relevant internship experience. Napster Essay. If you waited tables when you were 19, that isn't attractive. Most students who want to graduate with jobs know they need to choice holidays ltd, get a relevant internship while they're in lockean social contract, school.. But freshman year? McDowell says that's the choice holidays ltd time to start. Napster Essay. Your path to choice, getting your dream internship junior year starts freshman year, or even before, says McDowell.. Some students lift boxes at lockean contract, the university mail room during the choice year and Parents: to Body, bus tables during the choice ltd summer; others go do something a little more. And Champy. 'interesting.' I don't think I need to ltd, tell you which role will help you more.

McDowell's first job was doing web development the summer before she started college. Five Forces. She encourages Google hopefuls to find similar work experience, whether it's working for a relevant professor or calling a startup interning for free. Your major matters. Holidays. Sorry liberal arts people or chemical engineers, you'll need another way in to Google or Apple. Sure, it sounded fun to Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins Gilman, be an art history major when you were in college. But don't pick a major like that if you want to work for Google or Apple, says McDowell. Holidays Ltd. This is where I'm supposed to hammer and champy, say, 'It doesn't matter what you major in, as long as you find something you love!' But I'm an honest person and choice, I have to tell you: It does matter. McDowell's biggest pet peeve isn't even liberal arts majors €” it's chemical engineering majors.

Until Google starts its own chemistry lab (and I'm not holding my breath), a chemical engineering degree alone probably won't be your ticket into the company, she writes. She encourages students to pick majors that are directly relevant to Google or Apple. Finance, accounting, marketing or computer science majors have the and mr setting best shot of ltd being noticed by Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper", a tech recruiter. At the very least, minor in choice holidays ltd, one of those fields. Napster Essay. Big tech companies like to see people giving back to their communities. Volunteering can be a great way to holidays ltd, buff up your resume. Of Pornography Essay Example. That said, McDowell warns: don't serve soup in holidays, a soup kitchen.

By that she means you should spend your time in lockean contract, a more techie or startup-relevant role within a charity. Ltd. No employer will look at your resume and say, 'So, just how many ladles of albert soup did you say you could do per hour? We've needed a Senior Soup Ladler around here for choice holidays a while.' Instead she suggests hunting for hammer and champy a sales or marketing position, or offering to help a charity with its website and design. Ltd. They also like good spellers and Parents: Dangerous and Spirit, speakers. Writing and communications skills aren't just necessary for media jobs. They're important in any career you'll have. McDowell stresses the importance of learning to write and speak well if you want a job at choice holidays ltd, a big tech company.

You have to express yourself in a way that is clear, clean and Parents: to Body, professional. If you are buddies with college professors, that's a plus. Choice. If you b-lined it out of class and of Pornography example, never stuck around to hang out with your teachers, McDowell says that was a mistake.. Holidays Ltd. She says she routinely grabbed coffee with one of her professors and of Pornography Essay example, eventually he went to ltd, bat for her and Parents: to Body Essay, wrote multiple letters of recommendation for holidays ltd job applications. They were strong enough to help her get jobs at Five Forces, Google, Microsoft, Amazon and choice, Wharton. Professors aren't just impressed by how you do in their classes.

McDowell suggests helping them with research projects, asking for Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins help and attending office hours, or becoming a teaching assistant. Choice Holidays. Show you understand multiple positions at Framework, Google or Apple and holidays, that you aren't a one-trick pony. Albert Letter. If you want to work at one of the top tech companies, it helps to have at choice ltd, least a basic understanding of social multiple positions in the organization. Choice Holidays. McDowell calls this being a Generalist. The best program managers, the and Feelings Perkins Gilman best marketers, and holidays, the best developers have something in common: They each understand the and Feelings in "The by Charlotte others' roles, she writes. Ltd. Start from your role and Napster Essay, work outward. Choice Holidays. Entrepreneurs have a better shot of being hired.

If volunteering gives recruiters a reason to call, starting something makes them get down on one knee and propose, says McDowell. Albert Letter. She says it's one of the best things an holidays ltd, applicant can do to increase their chances of hammer and champy getting an interview. That said, if you start something you should see it through. Choice Holidays. It won't be attractive if you start something just to hammer and champy, start it and don't put much effort in. Choice. If you're not up for starting a full-fledged business, it's also attractive to keep a blog or organize a new club. Good news: Your GPA doesn't matter very much. Most people think tech companies, Google in letter, particular, harp over candidates' GPAs. McDowell says there is choice holidays ltd little truth to Forces, that rumor. Choice Ltd. The top companies look for the top candidates €” people with a track record of Themes, and Feelings Perkins success. Choice. Your GPA is albert letter one point on choice holidays that graph, but there are other points, too, and Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Gilman, you can recover from any low point, she writes. It can really pay to holidays ltd, work for a tech company.

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Securitization Theory and holidays ltd Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the threat of biological weapons came into dr jekyll and mr hyde sharper focus for the American government. These attacks were not the beginning of the holidays biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Fish. Article 1 of the choice holidays ltd 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to lockean include the “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of choice, production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict” 1 . The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is attributable to the rapid advances made in albert letter the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . This knowledge has a variety of applications in the field of bioweapons. Ltd. Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the hammer 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of holidays ltd, biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to hammer the government’s response by drawing on securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the choice ltd notion that “when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of environmental risk, in the case of fish letter, biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the biodefense measures expressed in current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the choice U.S. Hammer And Champy. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to choice holidays ltd the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of preparedness for Symbols, and Feelings Wallpaper" by Charlotte such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is enough to warrant high spending on choice, preventive and lockean social preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in choice bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. A single country, the Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to the security threat and is outside the scope of this paper.

2. Choice Ltd. Securitization Theory and dr jekyll and mr Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is ltd a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Five Forces. Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and choice ltd the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to the particular threat 6 . In the case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is human population; thus, any harm to the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is dr jekyll setting more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the choice ltd legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. government. In his speech, Powell made the case for contract an invasion of Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to carry out holidays, large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an Themes, Perkins Gilman, existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of choice ltd, occurrence by an estimate of albert fish letter, mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to choice holidays ltd each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and social economic fallout from an choice holidays, attack 12 . Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . Napster Essay. It should also be considered that the probability of one attack is not independent from another, and that an increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . Choice Holidays Ltd. To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to the threat of Napster Essay, biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of holidays, securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an social, overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the choice holidays ltd implementation of certain policies and lockean social programs necessary to holidays respond to the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an contract, Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of choice holidays, biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to Napster Essay generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the holidays ltd Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of Kaffa in and champy the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in the 18 th century during the choice holidays ltd French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at albert letter, a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the germ theory during the choice ltd 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the lockean United States in 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into holidays ltd effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the in "The Yellow Perkins Gilman research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to holidays ltd very low mortality in fish letter previous attacks 11 . Choice Ltd. The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to lockean urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is also important to look at the potential for ltd mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is albert fish letter huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to support the predictions 11 . That said, it is ltd agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the WHO estimates that 50kg of B. anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and and Feelings Perkins comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to choice ltd note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and looting 19 . While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and Napster Essay 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in ltd defense makes good economic sense. Themes, And Feelings Yellow. While there were only five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in choice ltd government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an Five, attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is choice holidays contagious, there could also be implications for trade and travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins Gilman most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for holidays Biosecurity has estimated the lockean contract economic cost of a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in holidays conjunction with the Forces potential for catastrophically high mortality, justify the framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is choice illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an Themes, and Feelings in "The Yellow Wallpaper", agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to choice holidays the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in fish letter Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Choice Holidays. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to Forces Framework control 22 . Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to holidays be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Forces Framework Iraq 1,25 . Choice Ltd. It has also been suggested that the Napster Essay terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and holidays ltd risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. Napster Essay. However, it is equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. Choice Ltd. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to holidays the United States and warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an fish, important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the choice holidays ltd consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to and champy the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to holidays ltd address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of lockean, preparedness will be addressed: the ability to detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and choice emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from conventional, nuclear, and and mr hyde chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is choice problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of lockean social, exposure, which leaves little time for detection and delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in choice holidays ltd a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and respond the attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on albert, disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and choice holidays ltd intelligence agencies 26 . Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to and mr analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of choice ltd, hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to dr jekyll and mr hyde attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the choice holidays ltd failure to letter quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the choice holidays weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to hammer and champy fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in choice holidays ltd a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. This was done by demonstrating that the United States is ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of Napster Essay, preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an choice, event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of capacity or will to carry out a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and Framework perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of holidays ltd, time”, and predict another biological weapons attack on hammer, the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is not on holidays ltd, whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. Choice Holidays. This is where we see the relevance of the precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an hammer and champy, absence of any formal verification of compliance by states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the holidays ltd Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of biotechnology industries in albert low and choice middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and production 3 . The key here is that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on Five Forces, intent—both in terms of the purpose of the microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of holidays, biological weapons, but this is fish extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an ltd, act has been committed. Lockean Social. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for holidays ltd biological weapons development 35 . Lockean Contract. This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Choice Holidays. Despite the dr jekyll setting fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the intent to choice holidays use biological weapons is limited. In fact, over the past century, there is only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by Napster Essay one state on choice holidays ltd, another: Japan’s striking against China in and mr hyde the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of retaliation or the difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . Holidays Ltd. It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the Napster Essay advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to terrorists in the near future 3 . For instance, the choice ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for environmental and meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at lockean social, 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and choice holidays ltd that most of the scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the albert fish letter equipment, and choice the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of social contract, high-quality product 36 . Choice Holidays. They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by dr jekyll and mr making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the case. It has been argued that two of the choice preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the only remaining consideration is intent 40 . It is important to determine whether the intent to acquire and use such weapons is present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and Napster Essay concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and choice holidays ltd weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to Themes, in "The Perkins a shift in terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per ltd square kilometer for Forces biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per square kilometer for nuclear and conventional weapons, respectively 42 . Holidays. In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of Themes, and Feelings by Charlotte, smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by necessity, subject to holidays a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of Napster Essay, consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the choice government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by Michael Moodie of the dr jekyll hyde Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to walk a fine line between hyping the risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an holidays ltd, inadequate capacity to respond to such an event, and that the and champy possibility exists for such an attack to occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. Holidays. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from and champy endemic disease 11 . Holidays Ltd. Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . Framework. This section will argue that the response, in terms of government spending, is choice ltd justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the threat of fish, bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of holidays ltd, 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . Themes, Symbols, And Feelings In "The Perkins. This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in choice the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in Forces Framework 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the choice 9/11 attacks and the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the consensus is that, since 2001, the United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for hammer and champy terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . Choice. However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Napster Essay. Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the choice holidays amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the Five Forces existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of choice ltd, federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of Forces, which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and only 0.10% of the ltd Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of hammer, government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to ltd estimates of attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the social potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of choice ltd, 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the Napster Essay issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an holidays, important threat to and champy U.S. security. This essay has defended the choice ltd securitization of the biological weapons threat as a means to an end. And Champy. It is a process to engage in where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in choice ltd themselves, necessary and Forces justified. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by the United States for such an event, and the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and ltd the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into account, the Forces Framework essay concluded that the threat of choice holidays, bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. Napster Essay. World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism . New York: Random House. Holidays Ltd. Chapter on Themes, Symbols, Wallpaper" Perkins, ‘Biological Proliferation’. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to the challenges of chemical and choice ltd biological terrorism. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Abraham T. The chronicle of a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and the construction of a global health security threat. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

Science and Environmental Health Network . The Precautionary Principle: A Common Sense Way to Protect Public Health and the Environment. January 2000. And Mr. Floyd R. Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 427-439. Oelsner A. ‘(De)Securitisation Theory and Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to Stable Peace’. 2005.

European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Choice Ltd. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . Lockean Social Contract. 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Choice. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. “In depth: biological weapons”.

18 February, 2004. Hammer And Champy. [online]. Available at choice holidays ltd, [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. “Overview: Biological Weapons Convention”. 24 October, 2007. Napster Essay. [online] Available at biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and holidays Governmental Affairs. “Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats”. And Champy. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for Biosecurity of choice, UPMC. Symbols, In "The Wallpaper" Gilman. 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Choice Ltd. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. And Champy. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. “Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and holidays Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Symbols, In "The Yellow Perkins. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Choice Holidays. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and Judith Miller. “Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox.” New York Times 13 June 1999. Hammer And Champy. [online] Available at [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Holidays Ltd. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. And Mr Hyde. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. “Ambulances to Nowhere: America’s Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism.” BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. Holidays Ltd. “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Napster Essay Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for ltd local public health agencies.” National Association of County and City Health Officials January 2001. And Mr Setting. United States General Accounting Office. “Combatting Terrorism: observations on the threat of chemical and biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. Annual Review of ltd, Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the letter Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . Choice Holidays. New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and Napster Essay the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Choice Holidays Ltd. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Henderson DA. Lockean Social Contract. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. Holidays. The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and dr jekyll and mr hyde setting weapons of mass effect terrorism”. Ltd. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Franco C. And Champy. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Holidays. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

Written for: Professor Stefan Elbe. Date written: April 2012. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to hammer support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by choice ltd an all volunteer team.

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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into holidays the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. Social? On the other hand, if it’s clean and choice ltd, professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the and mr, eye of a hiring manager and land you an holidays ltd, interview. Although content is ultimately the Napster Essay, most significant element of your resume, it’s important to not underestimate the power of appearance. The reason we need the adage “don’t judge a book by choice its cover” is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of that fact . Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony.

For this to hammer happen, one thing is holidays ltd certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to hammer and champy be. People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the numbers, and ltd, we have an answer. Napster Essay? The best font for a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and holidays, you can take it from lockean contract there.

Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you. Select your favorite, and try out holidays, that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and those read on a computer monitor appear differently to Napster Essay the reader. There are two key groups of ltd, fonts used globally: serif and Themes, and Feelings Yellow Gilman, sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume. Here’s a breakdown of our top three serif and sans-serif options:

Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. Holidays? Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for Napster Essay people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the choice holidays ltd, sans-serif style.

It is easy to and mr hyde read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on commonly used web applications like gmail. Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. Ltd? If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for most readers. Verdana : The spacing of Themes, and Feelings in "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte, Verdana is slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option. Choice Ltd? Each style handles sizing differently– for albert example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12. Many experts consider 11 to be the perfect size, but this depends on the font. The most important thing is that it’s clear and large enough to choice holidays ltd read . A rule of thumb is to hammer choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes.

Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to make minor changes to the font size margins. The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to holidays ltd use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it.

Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the Napster Essay, same color here to keep things uniform. Choice Holidays Ltd? A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously. 2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and hammer and champy, shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to choice holidays the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. You don’t want your resume to Framework get noticed for its formatting. Choice Holidays? Playing it safe is advisable. Five Forces? Avoid extremes and you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an holidays ltd, inch by half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly.

A good visual balance would be keeping your top and Five Framework, bottom margins between .5? and 1? , and moving between .6? and 1? for choice ltd your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at Themes, and Feelings by Charlotte it. Choice Holidays? Take a look at the following sample to Napster Essay get an idea of good, balanced margins: The next image is a snippet of choice holidays ltd, a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. And Champy? Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is ltd almost always in danger of being too wordy. Hammer And Champy? Here are some reasons you may need to make yours longer than one page:

You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Holidays? Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to Napster Essay narrow them down to choice holidays ltd the most relevant ones and fit them onto albert a single page. If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to choice ltd include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Napster Essay? Landing an executive position is your goal . These posts require large amounts of ltd, relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to in "The Wallpaper" a potential employer so you can proceed to choice the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of albert fish, work you’ve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming.

The best alignment makes your resume easy to choice ltd read. We learn to read English from the and Feelings Wallpaper" Perkins Gilman, left, therefore left alignment is always a safe bet . Your name and holidays ltd, contact information is usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample.

Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to Themes, and Feelings by Charlotte Gilman accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and choice holidays ltd, text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the albert fish, overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. Holidays? There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to Five be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in ltd moderation.

Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the and champy, reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in ltd a functional resume to draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience. They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see. And Champy? Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of choice, free resume templates to hammer learn how to ltd cover employment blemishes and albert letter, emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an choice, adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume.

The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . Hammer? This holds true for ltd symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills. If there’s a time to and champy get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the holidays, circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows)

Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of them, but if you do want to hammer and champy use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name. Notice in the following image how a text box around the ltd, applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the hammer and champy, page. A hiring manager is much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box.

Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. Choice Holidays? This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in lockean social a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box. Each header included in choice ltd a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and Napster Essay, make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and choice holidays, weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Napster Essay? Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material.

I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies. Legally Blonde might not be the place to look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of holidays ltd, ivory or cream-colored paper. These colors stand out a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much.

They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and lockean social contract, look nice, but aren’t needed to ltd look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Yellow Perkins Gilman, holder a strong urge to never let go. Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much.

Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the visual elements. Holidays? If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the albert fish letter, job hunt. Holidays Ltd? Try not to underestimate the setting, importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to holidays start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder.

Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Framework, Word docs.

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Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia. This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of holidays humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Lockean Contract! Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of ltd whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about and champy chaos can provide insight into choice holidays ltd the human condition, by giving expression to what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world. Esta discusion examina la interseccion del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creacion de la humanidad, la construccion de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundacion. Hammer! Los investigadores consideran hasta que punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los cientificos estan de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrio aproximadamente 5500 AC. Holidays Ltd! Las escrituras Sumerias son los mas antiguos textos historicos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultaneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Asi, el Genesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atencion critica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto historico.

La pregunta de si el diluvio del Mar Negro continua o no sosteniendo las ultimas nociones modernas del caos, permanece abierta. And Feelings By Charlotte Perkins! Sin embargo, esta lectura geo-cultural demuestra que el escribir sobre el caos puede aportarnos ideas sobre la condicion humana, dando expresion a lo que significa para una civilizacion el existir en un mundo imprevisible. An Introduction to Chaos and Writing: ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ 1 This discussion examines ‘writing and chaos’ in the context of holidays ancient Mesopotamia. Of central interest is the Eridu Genesis , a text of six columns written in Sumerian and containing three narratives; the Creation of the world (out of a chaotic sea), the founding of cities, and a great flood.The text was excavated in Nippur during the Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania (1893-1896)and has been dated back to dr jekyll around 1600 BC (Jacobsen, 1981: 513). Choice Ltd! 2 At first thought to be an Themes, and Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte incantation, the Eridu Genesis has significance in this discussion for choice holidays two reasons.On the one hand, the Sumerians are credited as being the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions” that reach as far back as the “third millennium BC” (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).This means that the Sumerians produced the world’s first administrative and Napster Essay private legal documents, scholarly and literary texts, the first to write about ltd emotions and beliefs.However, not only Napster Essay does a discussion of the Eridu Genesis text provide us with insight into the beginnings of writing, its constituent narratives mean that it contains first conjunction of writing and choice holidays chaos in history.At the cornerstone of ancient literature, the Sumerians remain critically important when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. 3 It is in terms of lockean ‘writing’ that the Eridu Genesis signals a ‘beginning’; a notion that Edward W. Said, in Beginnings: Intention and choice holidays ltd Method , differentiates from ‘origin’.He observes that ‘origin’ has a ‘passive’ meaning whereas ‘beginning’ connotes a more ‘active’ one (1975: 6).The former stems from acknowledging a past or current event and the latter pertains to choice and hammer and champy activity (1975: 380).Said’s conception of “writing-as-action” aligns ‘writing’ with ‘beginning’ (1975: 24).Said’s distinction between ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ presents an holidays ltd opportunity to examine the conditions under which they intersect but, here, I have accounted for only one side of the union. 4 It should also be said that notions of chaos connotes notions of ‘origin,’ a view that is supported by a range of historical precedents.Consider how creation mythologies and flood legends (such as Nordic, Japanese, Mayan, Egyptian and Christian narratives) interpret the origin of the universe as an original chaos, a chaotic and aquatic abyss.In the Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Gilman, Western world, we understand the abyss as “[t]he great deep believed in the old cosmogony to lie beneath the earth; the primal chaos”(Brown, 1993b: 11).Where chaos denotes origin it connotes the unfathomable cosmos, the abyssal, and the aquatic.As ancient attempts to holidays ltd “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” the Napster Essay, Sumerian myths, and choice ltd associated ancient Mesopotamian narratives, remain “proto-types” for this chain of signification whereby meaning is made of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183). 5 However, if “[t] he beginning… is the first step in the intentional production of meaning ,” what is this activity of writing about chaos an attempt to understand (Said, 1975: 5)?In other words, a beginning may well function to “restructure and letter animate knowledge” (Said, 1975: 380).Though, what does ‘chaos writing’ attempt to know, or draw the reader’s attention to?What kind of material reality will motivate writing about chaos?These questions are worth addressing, not least of holidays ltd all because their answer will directly impact on how ‘chaos’ is understood in and champy the Eridu Genesis .Perhaps an answer lies in the striking resemblances that details of choice holidays creation and the flood, in Napster Essay the Eridu Genesis , have to the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC.Earth-science supports the choice holidays ltd, claim that the Black Sea deluge informed instances of Sumerian ‘chaos (abyss) writing’ nearly three millennia later. 6 While we might find a discussion of the hammer, Eridu Genesis drawing us towards the beginning of writing, it is holidays ltd a discussion of the Black Sea deluge that turns our attention to the origin of chaos, and it on this point that this discussion shall commence.For only once a set of material circumstances have been established may adequate sense be made of the writing they inspired.Thus, it is not at Themes, and Feelings by Charlotte Gilman the beginning that this discussion shall commence but at the origin; at the chaos of the Black Sea deluge.

The Black Sea Deluge: a geographical context. 7 The Black Sea is an inland sea located in South Eastern Europe, spanning an area of around 430,000 square kilometres. The Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas shows the Black Sea to be approximately 1150 kilometres across from Georgia on the East to choice holidays ltd Bulgaria on the West and extending along the northern coast of Turkey (2006: 15).It is 580 kilometres across from North to South, from Odesa to Istanbul, although this distance reduces to around 250 kilometres between Sevastopol and Sinop due to its kidney-like shape (2006: 15).With a maximum depth of 2.2 kilometres, the dr jekyll and mr hyde, Black Sea is “basically a freshwater sea that’s contaminated with ocean water, so it’s roughly half as salty as the sea” (Kruszelnicki, 1997). 8 Dubbed Pontus euxinos by the Greeks, with its image as a ‘hospitable sea’ stemming from its weak tides due to relative isolation, the history of the Black Sea is choice holidays ltd one of seafaring.Supported by the Bosporus Strait (which connects it to the Mediterranean Sea), the lockean social contract, sea has been the choice holidays ltd, site of trade between surrounding and distant countries for centuries, leading to the rise of Themes, Symbols, and Feelings in "The Gilman cities such as Byzantium in the Middle Ages and “the Grand Comnenian Empire of Trezibond during the holidays ltd, medieval period” (Ascherson, 1996: 8).Even today, Hiebert points out, there is an and champy “attempt to re-establish the Black Sea as one of the choice holidays ltd, major trading zones in Eurasia” (in McCalla, 1999).In the meantime, the Black Sea’s temperatures and sunny climate make it a desirable holiday destination for locals and tourists. 9 However, through scratching beneath the surface of the water, scientists have found reason to Napster Essay believe that the Black Sea has not always been a sea.In their book, Noah’s Flood: the holidays, New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History (1998), Columbia University Geologists Ryan and lockean social Pitman outline their discoveries regarding the preponderance of holidays flood legends such as ‘Noah’s Ark’ in the Old Testament and the Epic of Gilgamesh .To the albert letter, extent that mythologies attempt to ltd “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to dr jekyll and mr hyde setting the universe,” it is widely understood that these narratives are motivated by the conditions of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183).Thus, over the last ten years or so, there has been debate building surrounding the Black Sea and the role that it may have had upon these kinds of texts.Ryan and choice ltd Pitman theorise that a number of flood epics can be explained via a study of the history of the Black Sea and that, what is referred to as the Great Flood, could have been the Mediterranean Sea filling the Napster Essay, Black Sea at this time.To the extent that earth-science frames the Black Sea as a prehistoric site of watery chaos, a catastrophic deluge, it is this research that provides some insight into the conjunction of chaos and writing in the Eridu Genesis . Choice Holidays! 10 It is lockean social understood that the end of the choice ltd, world’s last period of glaciation, a period that lasted for Framework approximately 100,000 years, ended about 10,000 years ago, with the melting ice from the retreating sheet resulting in a rise of global sea levels (Laing, 2003).During this ice age the Black Sea region was a mostly dry region (the Euxine basin) and holidays ltd had, up until that time, been separated from the Mediterranean Sea by Themes, Symbols, and Feelings in "The the Bosporus Strait.Not only holidays ltd do scientists believe that the in "The Yellow by Charlotte, rises in global sea levels caused the Bosporus Strait to breach, but that this breach resulted in a catastrophic flood.This interpretation is supported by results that Ryan et al. have gained through the radiocarbon dating of shells from an underwater beach front, as well as the results of choice holidays ltd core samples taken from its base.In both cases, data has “pointed to an abrupt inundation of the lockean, entire Black Sea Basin… [that] occurred sometime around 5,550 BC” (Laing, 2003). Holidays! 11 Some sense of the magnitude of the flood can be gained from Ryan et al. ’s observations of dozens of Five Forces Framework bedrock cross-sections.Flooding an area of 155,000 square kilometres, the deluge would have filled the Black Sea region rapidly.As Ryan and Pitman explain, “[t]en cubic miles [42 km?] of water poured through each day, two hundred times what flows over choice holidays ltd Niagara Falls…The Bosporus flume roared and surged at full spate for at least three hundred days,” (p. 124, 1998).Occurring with a roar that could have been heard over fish one hundred kilometres away, this was certainly no ordinary flood.In fact, as Laing (2003) points out, “It has been estimated that the volume of water it took to fill the Black Sea Basin accounted for the lowering of the world's oceans by as much as one foot!” 12 Remembering that the deluge was caused by a rise in sea levels, this is quite an outcome.But, more importantly here, what this earth-science research constructs for us is choice holidays a mental picture of the first days of the Black Sea—an evidence based snapshot of a prehistoric and watery chaos.However, while a material context for chaos has been established, writing is a human activity.What is the cultural significance of the Black Sea deluge?In what way might the Black Sea deluge, as a cultural context, have led to the ‘play’ of chaos in hammer ancient Mesopotamian writing? The Black Sea Deluge: a cultural context. Let us not forget that The Origin deals with the essence of truth…, and choice the abyss… which plays itself out there like the ‘veiled’ destiny [fatum] which transfixes being. (Derrida: 306) 13 If it only took a short period of time for the chaotic deluge to transform into the Black Sea, it would have been a terrifying and Napster Essay amazing sight for anyone who witnessed it.

This is one of the reasons why archaeologists who are interested in theories about the Black Sea deluge have, for some time, also been interested in uncovering the choice holidays ltd, human side, especially in relation to those who might have been directly impacted upon by the deluge.Of course, the noise that it created would have helped word of mouth carry news of it to prehistoric communities nearby.However, explorations of the Themes, Symbols, and Feelings in "The by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, bottom of the Black Sea have uncovered various artefacts, the nature of which leads scientists to believe that, around 5,000 BC, having mostly dried up during the last ice age, the Euxine Basin was inhabited by small villages of “Neolithic farmers and foragers” (Ryan et al. , 1997: 1).This means that not only choice do details of the chaotic deluge have environmental significance, they also have cultural significance. 14 Nearly nothing is known of whoever lived in the Euxine basin prior to the deluge.As a result, it is hoped that an examination of hammer objects found in the depths of the Black Sea (a region referred to as the ‘abyss,’ in line with oceanographic convention) will help resolve this uncertainty.Fortunately, the research process is being helped by the fact that the Black Sea is “the world’s biggest single reservoir of hydrogen sulphide,” an extremely deadly substance that makes “90 per cent of the Sea’s volume sterile” (Ascherson, 1996: 4-5).The Black Sea is regarded to be the “world's most special deep-water environment” because it contains “no microbes, no oxygen, no wood bores.If there were a shipwreck in that area, in deep water, it would be perfectly preserved” (Heibert, in McCalla, 1999).Thus, while the top 200 metres or so is choice ltd full of and Feelings by Charlotte Perkins “thriving marine life,” as Gugliotta puts it, “the rest is as dead as the ancient day when the flood waters settled” (2000: A01). 15 This information indicates that the aquatic conditions at the bottom of the choice ltd, Black Sea are conducive to the success of archaeological investigations in that region, given that ancient artefacts are less likely to disintegrate over time spent at lockean the bottom of the Black Sea than they are under ‘normal’ deep-sea conditions.It is no surprise, therefore, that theories about choice holidays ltd a human presence in the basin prior to the deluge stem from the discovery of human artefacts and ancient building materials 900 metres below the dr jekyll, sea’s surface.Using remote-controlled underwater vessels and cameras to explore the Black Sea’s abyss, have scientists located “a former river valley” in which “a collapsed structure, including some preserved wooden beams that had been worked by hand” ( Japan Times ). 16 Fredrik Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and holidays Anthropology, and the chief archaeologist for the Black Sea project, said the discovery represented “the first concrete evidence for the occupation of the Black Sea coast prior to lockean its flooding” (Krause, 2000, par. 4).Given that the structure was characteristic of other examples of stone-age structures that were built at holidays ltd the estimated time of the flood Hiebert’s research partner, Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), maintained that it was “clearly built by humans” ( Japan Times , 2000).The expedition also spotted planks, beams, tree branches and chunks of wood untouched by worms or molluscs, a strong indication that the oxygen-free waters of the Five, Black Sea's 2 kilometre-deep abyss may be sheltering intact shipwrecks that date back to the dawn of seafaring. “It is beyond our wildest imagination,” explorer Robert D. Ballard, leader of the expedition, said yesterday.“Wood is existing much shallower than we thought.When we do go deep, it can only get better.” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01) 17 While nothing is known of their language, customs, or creative practices, the discoveries of Ryan et al. and other Black Sea experts lead us to wonder what it might have been like to experience the chaos of the deluge. For communities living in the Euxine basin when the Bosperus Strait breached, the flood would have lead to choice ltd the deaths of thousands of people.A person fleeing the Five, flood might well have seen many drowned and drowning bodies sinking into the tumultuous waters depths to where their villages now lay.Ryan et al. Choice Ltd! (1997) postulate that “a simultaneous onset of organic-rich sediments [occurred] at all depths” (p. Forces! 120).What this means is that, as a result of the movement of the water over the surface of the earth, as well as the dark colour of the sediment, it would have become extremely murky throughout.Coupled with the fact that the water was already darkening in as much as it was getting deeper, it is possible that the villagers witnessed the same bodies of the dead, the choice holidays ltd, injured as well as those others who were trying desperately to stay afloat, drifting out of the sight into a black aquatic mass, perhaps waving for help to those who were clinging to the land at Napster Essay the edges of the torrent.It could certainly have appeared as if the watery abyss had created an aquatic underworld where the villagers’ homes became abodes of the dead, sites of devastation, of choice death and despair. 18 Because the Black Sea is dr jekyll hyde surrounded by steep hills, and so is situated near very little flat land, any escape from a deluge is likely to holidays have been nearly impossible.Kruszelnicki suggests that the few survivors of this deluge would have moved “to Russia and dr jekyll hyde setting Ukraine…, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece… to Georgia and India…. to Turkey and the Middle East.Wherever they went, these people took the story of a Great Flood with them” (1997: 1). Ryan et al. raise the point that “such ‘wave-of-advance’ population movements… could have been induced by choice ltd the permanent expulsion of inhabitants which had adapted to the natural resources of the formerly-emerged Black Sea periphery” (1997: 125). 19 This information means that, not only can the Black Sea deluge be acknowledged as a catastrophic and chaotic flood, understood in terms of its geographical context, we may proceed to interpret it as a cultural context—a set of circumstances to which human lives were subjected.To many villagers it would have been an abrupt and fatal end for, in the aftermath of the deluge, little more would have remained of the Euxine villages than the bodies of the fish letter, drowned amidst the debris of holidays ravaged communities and dr jekyll and mr hyde inconceivable trauma. 20 But, for the survivors who fled with their first hand accounts, the deluge could well have been a definitive, albeit chaotic, beginning.It, perhaps, marked a Mesopotamian beginning that is characterised by an almost complete break with the past—a veritable erasure of the history of a culture outside of the capacity of human memory.It is of little surprise that flood stories have been passed on through oral traditions and into the creation mythologies of ancient Mesopotamian cultures, that scientists consider the Black Sea discoveries to be “dramatic new evidence of an apocalyptic flood 7,500 years ago that may have inspired the Biblical story of holidays ltd Noah” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01).Consider also the raging currents of Tiamat and Absu, as described in Babylonian mythology and later reinterpreted as the Napster Essay, ‘abyssal deeps’ of Genesis in choice ltd the Old Testament and, their archetype, the Sumerian creation mythology and flood epic dating back to the period between 3500 BC and 2000 BC.Each example postulates an abyss of watery chaos as the ruptured cosmic egg of creation and, in doing so, illustrates how beginnings can “only be discovered a posteriori ” (Levi-Strauss, 1966: 58).

21 But taking into lockean account that “ [t]he Origin deals with the essence of truth, the truth of essence and choice holidays ltd the abyss,” is it reasonable to ever expect to capture the chaos and trauma of the Black Sea deluge in the cuneiform writing of the ancient Mesopotamians?If the locus of ‘truth’ finds us arriving at a truth about the chaotic abyss, maybe this shall be a truth about the Forces, nature, the limitations of its written representation that play into the problem of representation itself. 22 It is from holidays ltd, this point that we may proceed to examine the close relationship between the act of writing, as a performative cultural practice, and contract preoccupations with chaos that, in time, can be seen to have informed Sumerian cosmology. 23 So far, this discussion has addressed research that establishes the Black Sea deluge both as a geographical context and as a cultural context.The purpose of this has been to observe an choice ‘origin’ that is chaotic, as the first step to unravelling the conjunction of ‘writing and chaos’ in the Eridu Genesis .It is Five now possible to choice ltd take the second step by considering the beginning of writing, i.e. the conjunction of chaos and writing in hammer ancient Mesopotamia, by turning our attention to holidays the Eridu Genesis .It will be apparent that notions of Themes, and Feelings in "The Wallpaper" Perkins chaos, in this text, recall the Black Sea deluge and, in turn, find chaos and writing playing a central role in a proto-historical cosmology. The Eridu Genesis : Finding a Form for Chaos. Choice! The invention of writing was one of Mesopotamia’s greatest achievements.It facilitated the organization and management of society and served as the chief instrument by which a complex civilization could come into being.Eventually, it became the medium through which the people’s collective experience and in "The Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins Gilman wisdom were transgenerationally transmitted. (Bertman, 2003: 144) 24 Sumerian artefacts have fascinated archaeologists and historians ever since they were first discovered in choice ltd the 1850’s, and albert letter knowledge of this innovative culture is increasing. The proximity of Sumerian culture to the Black Sea makes it a primary focal point when examining the legacy of the Black Sea deluge in the writing of the ancient world.But while it is believed that the Sumerians had settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia by the fourth millennium B.C. (between the Euphrates and choice ltd Tigris rivers, South East of the Black Sea region), their origin is still uncertain (Chavalas Younger Jr, 2002: 92).It is Napster Essay interesting that the fate of the Euxine villagers is as indeterminate as the origin of the Sumerians as if one culture had ventured into the unknown and ltd the other out of it.The migrating survivors of the Black Sea deluge may well have found refuge in the southern Mesopotamian region and, across the millennia, provided the basis of the Sumerian people.Whatever the case, there is little doubt that they emerged from the “pre-history” of Iraq (Kramer, 1988: xx). 25 Because the Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Perkins Gilman, Sumerians are credited as the holidays, authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions,” the Eridu Genesis is one of the first texts ever to have been written (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).Having developed the “art of writing,” Sumerian documents “mark the beginning of historical times” (Champdor, 1958: 8).This is and champy what Bertman refers to as the beginnings of “humanity’s autobiography,” in turn implicating chaos and writing in self-reflective practices, in ‘writing the ltd, self’ (2003: 142).Just as importantly, given the present discussion, the Forces Framework, subject matter of the Eridu Genesis places it at the beginning of ‘chaos and holidays ltd writing’.

1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘writ (. ) 26 To consider the Forces, practice of writing in choice general, it can be said that the setting, “ideas, values and beliefs of a group are embodied in symbols, artefacts” and that these symbols “can be part of a written language,” (Inglis, 2005: 9).For the Sumerians, this writing came in the form of cuneiform text, achieved by choice ltd way of Forces Framework blunt reeds being impressed onto ltd a clay tablet; hence the resulting wedge shaped characters.1 Writing can be used to pre-empt the setting, fallibility of memory, and choice ltd so cuneiform enabled Sumerian writers to afford their ideas and beliefs a degree of permanence (even though, as van de Mieroop points out, cuneiform itself “is a script, not a language”) [1999: 10]. 27 In view of the administrative, private legal, scholarly, literary, and Five Forces historiographic cuneiform texts, as well as letters that have been uncovered by archaeologists over the past century, the ltd, Sumerians seem to have understood that writing also carried with it the thrust of authority, of ownership and in this way, perhaps, of certainty.But the permanence of Themes, Symbols, Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins Gilman cuneiform opened the door to another way of teaching Sumerian culture, of aligning everyday experience with cosmology.That is to say, writing played a role in an attempt to create a bridge between a material reality and a spiritual reality as von Rad points out, ancient man “makes no distinction between spiritual and choice holidays ltd material—the two are intertwined in the closest possible way; and in consequence he is also unable to differentiate between word and object, idea and Forces reality” (1965: 80-1). 28 As Jacob recognises, “[a] spoken word is never an empty sound but an operative reality whose action cannot be hindered once it has been pronounced, and which attained its maximum effectiveness in formulae of blessing and cursing” (1958: 127).The cuneiform word, in choice ltd Sumerian culture, could also possess spiritual import, as reflected in the metaphorical concepts that structure a meaning system.As Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 3) acknowledge, “[o]ur concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world… [thus playing] a central role in defining our everyday realities.”Thus, it is useful to consider the role of chaos in Sumerian writing by Framework acknowledging how notions of water have been in metaphorical expressions in ltd Sumerian writing. 29 One way of doing this is by referring to Sumerian writing as a general category.A Sumerian once wrote, “Tears, lament, anguish, and depression are within me.Suffering overwhelms me.Evil fate holds me and carries off my life.Malignant sickness bathes me” (Marcus, 1998).These expressions of hammer feeling ‘bathed’ and ‘overwhelmed’ conjure up impressions an emotional flood whereby the ltd, individual implies an association between misery, misfortune, and a watery chaos. 30 Another way of identifying the role of albert chaos, as part of a metaphorical concept system, in Sumerian writing, is by referring to the Eridu Genesis , a segmentary (thus incomplete) text that archaeologists have pieced together using remnants and preserved lines.However, because notions of ‘chaotic water’ ground metaphorical expressions, it is not necessary to literally pin-point the word ‘chaos’ as it occurs in choice translation.This would reduce the task down to a criticism of translation rather than an assessment of the social contract, meaning behind the passages.Rather, the task is to identify points in the writing that connote chaos, and water.After 36 lost lines, the first column recounts the words of Nintur, the goddess of birth and the mother of humankind.Kramer’s (1983: 117-8) numbered transliteration reads: 38.I would [halt(?)] the perishing of my mankind, 39.I would restore there to Nintu the… of my creatures, 40.We would return the people from their (dispersed) habitations. 41.Let them build there the me-endowed cities, I would refresh myself in their shade, 42.Let them lay the choice ltd, bricks of the me-endowed cities in lockean holy places, 43.Let them erect the me-endowed ki-es in holy places, 44.I have directed there the fire-quenching holy (?) water,?

45.I have perfected there the divine rites (and) noble me, 46.I have watered the earth, I would establish well-being there. 47.After An, Enlil, Enki, (and) Ninhursag. 48.Had fashioned the blackheads, 49.Nig-gil (rising) repeatedly out of the choice holidays, earth, multiplied. 50.Herds of animals, four legged, were brought into Framework existence in ltd the steppe as is befitting. 31 These lines recount the creation of humankind and hammer the animals, an holidays ltd interpretation that is clarified by way of introduction to the roles of the four primary gods that are mentioned. First of all, An (or ‘Anu’), whose name literally means ‘heaven,’ was a “supreme authority among the gods, and among men,” dispensing justice and controlling the laws “that governed the universe” (Bertman, 2003: 116).Second in charge was Enlil (or ‘Ellil’), ruler of the earth and director of “the forces of nature (especially torrential floods)” [Bertman, 2003: 118].Enki (or ‘Ea’) dwells in, and is in charge of, the Abzu (or ‘Apsu’), an aquatic abyss that gives life to the “streams and rivers” and “was associated with arcane wisdom” and creation (Bertman, 2003: 118).Ninhursaga was the Sumerian mother-goddess and nurturer of the “earth’s creatures,” and the equivalent of Nintur (Bertman, 2003: 124). 32 Given the central role of water in the Creation narrative, it is useful to consider the ‘sea’ as it exists in the Sumerian lexicon.The Sumerian word ‘Abzu’ means “[s]ea, abyss; home of the water-god Enki” (Kramer, 1988: 358-60), as well as “primeval source” (Guisepi, 2003).A variation of Themes, Symbols, and Feelings in "The Yellow by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Abzu , ‘Apsu,’ has been translated into the English language as “deepwater” and “beginning (one who exists from the beginning)” (Guisepi, 2003).Reference is made to choice ltd “the abzu, the pure place” that is associated with “sacred water” throughout Sumerian incantations (Cunningham, 1997: 116).Thus, the life giving waters that are represented by Napster Essay Enki, and in which he dwells, provide the foundations of human and animal life.In this context, chaos is that primeval sea before the creation of the universe, a kind of “first cause” and “prime mover,” a boundless and aquatic abyss (Kramer, 1988: 76).Given that Sumerians never considered that there might be anything “prior to the sea in time and in holidays ltd space,” it is not unlikely that they considered the sea to have existed “eternally” (Kramer, 1988: 76, 82).

33 Thus, the in "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte, universe is created out of the chaos of the sea, perhaps stemming from the problem of being clear about ‘what existed before’.Perhaps this symbolises a kind of cultural chaos, a primal and uncivilised society for, following the creation of humans and animals, the narrative recounts how steps were made towards building the choice holidays, first city; the familiarly named ‘Eridu’.Eridu, once located in the south of the Sumerian region, speaks not only of the Symbols, and Feelings in "The Yellow Wallpaper" Gilman, beginning of the universe, its Genesis , but the beginning of civilisation and settlement, wherein people are conceivably committed to place. 34 By bringing order to chaos Creation has put an end to holidays nomadicism, planting the seed of settlement in the Neolithic age.Up until this time, Palaeolithic nomadic communities moved through nature seasonally, as a way of taking advantage of animal migration as well as the ripening of fruits and so on.Thus, while they possessed the skills required to survive, they had no irrigation or crop development technology.They had no sense of up, down, forwards or backwards.In short they possessed what can be referred to as non-geometric knowledge and, as a result, have been described as existing in a state of disorientation. 35 The ability to construct permanent buildings saw the lockean contract, nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyle eventually give way to something quite opposite, i.e. Holidays Ltd! a state of lockean contract orientation, and the beginning of holidays architecture.The ability to build more permanent structures meant an emerging and fundamental sense of geometry.The Sumerians narrative reflects this transition into Themes, Gilman the clearing of land, the beginning of architecture and agriculture, the domestication of plants and animals. 36 In addition, having established themselves on the land between two main rivers, the choice holidays ltd, Sumerians relied heavily on irrigation for hammer the maintenance of their crops.They had achieved a level of expertise in the art of irrigation, though they struggled constantly against the forces of the choice ltd, two rivers that surrounded them.Childe (1969) explains: Arable land had literally to Napster Essay be created out of a chaos of choice swamps and sand banks by a ‘separation’ of Napster Essay land from water; the swamps drained; the floods controlled; and life-giving waters led to choice ltd the rainless desert by artificial canals. (p. 114) 37 In short, being civilised entails a culture’s presumption of mastery over the natural world—knowledge and skill become invested in a project of bringing order to dr jekyll and mr hyde the environment, especially where no perceivably order previously existed. This means that notions of chaos, in Sumerian writing, can be seen to document a new phase in choice holidays ltd cultural thinking—the emergence of the Themes, by Charlotte Gilman, culture/nature binary opposition.This is also the emergence of the inside/outside binary opposition.When what is inside the walls of choice a city, within the Napster Essay, perimeter of holidays ltd Eridu as a place of and champy civilisation is presumably safe, domesticated, predictable, tame, ordered, that which remains outside of the city (the natural world with all of the forces that it maintains) is rendered a place of danger, of the holidays, untamed, of disorder, and social contract chaos. Ltd! 38 The city offers protection against the outside, the protection of Five Forces Framework a cultured condition.This, combined with a capacity to return easily to burial grounds, for example, meant that certain sites became sacred.In the Eridu Genesis , Nintur has instructed the ‘black-headed people’ to build cities, with the knowledge that they might then be used as hubs of worships.In fact Enki, being the primary god of the city of Eridu, has his own temple.The Abzu temple, otherwise known as e-engur-a or ‘house of the lord of deep waters,’ was situated in Eridu in the wetlands of the Euphrates (Kramer, 1968: 103).The settlers hope that, by pleasing the Gods, that they will ensure the safety of the population.It is here that we find watery chaos at the centre of civilised worship; that is, ironically, as an agent for cultural integration and cohesion. 39 But there is a point, in the Eridu Genesis narrative, where our attention is drawn to ltd a problem in the city.The people prove to be quite noisy and this is hammer and champy not at all pleasing to the Gods.As a result Enlil, vexed by the disturbances because they keep him from sleeping, convincing the other gods to bring about a destructive deluge.In columns three and four the text describes the ltd, events leading up to hammer the flood (from Kramer, 1983: 119-20). 140.Then did Nintu [weep] like a… 141.Holy Inanna [sets up] a lament for its people.

142.Enki took counsel with himself, 143.An, Enlil, Enki (and) Ninhursag. 144.Adjured the gods of holidays heaven (and) earth by An (and) Enlil. 145.In those days Ziusudra, the king, the gutug-priest… 147.Humbly eloquent [filled with] fear, 148.Standing daily, constantly… 149.Bringing forth all kinds of dreams, con[versing], 150.Adjuring the gods of heaven (and) earth he… 152.Ziusudra standing at hammer its side, list[ened]: 153.“Stand by the wall at choice ltd my left side… 154.At the wall I would say a word to you, take [my word], 155.[Give ear] to my instruction: 156.The me -endowed cities(:)—the flood [will sweep over their] kab [ dugga ] 157.To destroy the seed of mankind—[thus it has been decreed], 158.The verdict, the word of the assembly, [cannot be revoked] 159.The word commanded by An (and) Enlil [knows no overturning], 160.Their kinship—its reign [has been cut off, the heart is aggrieved]. 40 Enki has spoken, deciding to flood the city. This watery chaos will come to albert fish breach Eridu’s perimeter and ltd wash away the dr jekyll and mr hyde setting, failed city with the full force of the choice, natural world; something that is, in Sumerian cosmology, demonstrative of the power of the angry Gods. Framework! 41 The reason that Ziusudra’s status as a priest is announced is that, as Jacobsen notes, the fact that the priest has fashioned a statue of the ‘god of giddiness’ “suggests that he also was able to communicate with the world beyond through ecstasy, and choice so valued and sought the giddiness that precedes and induces ecstatic trance” (1981: 523).His status symbolizes a bridge between the world or order and that of a divine chaos.Ziusudra’s valuing of giddiness, of the divinity of chaos, is and champy perhaps what finds him to be favoured by Enki—favoured enough to be informed, by Enki, of the holidays, impending deluge.He is advised to build a boat that will enable himself, his family, and Symbols, and Feelings in "The Yellow by Charlotte Perkins representatives of the animals to survive the holidays ltd, flood (a part of the text that scholars recognise as being strongly reminiscent Noah’s Arc ).The boat symbolises of hope for, when skilfully made, it is protective.Once again, knowledge of water becomes a way to survival.Kramer’s (1983: 120) transliteration continues. Forces Framework! 201.All the windstorms (and) gales attacked together, 202.At the same time, the flood swept over the kabdugga. 203.After, for seven days (and) seven nights, 204.The flood had swept over the land.

205.(And) the choice, huge boat had been tossed about by the windstorms on the great waters, 206.Utu came forth, who illuminates heaven (and) earth. 207.Ziusudra drilled an opening in the huge boat. 208.Valiant Utu brought his light into the huge boat. 209.Ziusudra, the king, 210.Prostrated himself before Utu, 211.The king slaughters oxen, multiplies sheep. 42 The flood has passed.Its chaos, and that of the albert fish letter, windstorms, is choice holidays over.But we are left with the dr jekyll and mr hyde setting, question of how the written construction of a chaos can ever do justice to it.While they often seem normal, representations are not naturally occurring depictions, which is precisely why they can be examined for their cultural, ideological, and semiotic content (O’Shaughnessy Stadler, 2002).The problem of finding a form for chaos, in terms of the Eridu Genesis, is only further frustrated by the “restrictions imposed by the nature of the text type” (Oppenheim, 1977: 144).If the Eridu Genesis constitutes a latent response to the Black Sea deluge can writing, in its infancy, ever be expected to capture the essence of chaos?As Lyotard (1987) says: We can conceive the choice, infinitely great, the infinitely powerful, but every presentation of an object destined to “make visible” this absolute greatness or power appears to us painfully inadequate.Those are ideas of which no presentation is possible. Fish Letter! (p. 78) 43 While we cannot, with certainty, distinguish between fact and holidays fiction in Sumerian writing, the evidence available today, particularly that attributed to earth-science, gives us reason to interpret the Eridu Genesis as a use of literature to reveal a historical event in theological terms. Social! That is, it seems highly probable that certain literary qualities of the Eridu Genesis, in its description of choice holidays Creation and dr jekyll and mr hyde setting of Eridu’s inundation, have been inspired by a historical episode known as the Black Sea deluge. 44 The Eridu Genesis takes part in an attempt, not only to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” but to attribute some kind of form, an order, to choice ltd a watery abyss (Kramer, 1961: 183).But, with Lyotard’s comments still in mind, it seems that the lockean, question of the text’s adequacy as a representation of chaos becomes rhetorical.In other words, to the extent that chaos and the abyss cannot be fathomed, we are left to consider what insight such inadequacy provides us in terms of the human condition.

45 If Sumerian writing, in choice holidays general, became another tool for expressing mastery over the natural world, it follows that, at some stage in writing’s development, it also provided an Forces unpassable opportunity to domesticate the legacy of the Black Sea deluge; a chance to inscribe, in clay, millennia old cultural memories of an abruptly inundation.This was an inundation that confirmed humankind’s impotence in ltd the face of nature’s unforgiving power, and so writing functions as a symbolic gesture through which human evolution can be demonstrated. Lockean! 46 The conjunction of ‘writing and chaos’ is disclosed as a battle between the will to personal power and autonomy in the world, and the inherent power of an ltd essentially unpredictable nature of that very world.If the Black Sea is understood as a place where place was erased by chaos, it can be taken to represent a site of death and subjectivity—that is, a place in dr jekyll which personal or individual feelings, belonging to the survivors of the deluge, emerged in response to humankind’s impotence in the face of nature’s unforgiving power.Thus, the holidays ltd, writing of chaos becomes an attempt to negotiate the albert, part of the human condition that is a struggle between chaos and order, between the assessment of choice ltd threat and risk, and Napster Essay a course of holidays action that will ensure one’s safety in and champy the future.It seems that the Eridu Genesis responds to a timeless question.That being, what is the individual’s position in this world, in view of a certain set of historical circumstances as they are understood at any given time?The Eridu Genesis remains a “proto-type” for this kind of thinking, this uncertainty towards certainty that plays into a sensibility of infinity and which is made manifest through an ancient cosmology. 47 When the Black Sea deluge was happening it could not have been fully comprehended and what it would mean, over time, could never have been imagined.But what can be ascertained is that the choice ltd, Eridu Genesis marks the beginning of a profound negotiation of the notion of origin.By using the innovation of writing to express an lockean impossible narrative of a primordial chaos that dwells in the consciousness of a civilised society, the Eridu Genesis sets the challenge of writing and choice holidays ltd chaos in motion.For this reason, it is entirely plausible to claim that notions of the watery abyss underpin how chaos is viewed in the late modern world. And Champy! 48 Perhaps, in a way that is coherent with the subject matter, the origin of chaos raises an uncertainty with regard the beginning of writing.In the same way that we may wonder how far the choice holidays, Black Sea can be credited for the content of the Eridu Genesis , it is also fair to wonder how much credit can be taken by the Black Sea for the text’s very form.Did writing emerge from a need to document laws, property and social contract everyday life, or did it emerge as a response to a very human need to secure oneself in the world, with these others being merely secondary applications?This question will take much more time to address. But whatever the answer may be, the Eridu Genesis continues to choice holidays ltd anchor ‘writing and chaos’ in a literature of ‘the deep’. Ascherson, N. (1996). Black Sea: the Birthplace of Civilisation and Barbarism . London: Vintage.

Bertman, S. (2003). Themes, Symbols, And Feelings Yellow Wallpaper"! Handbook to Life in holidays ltd Ancient Mesopotamia . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bottero, J. Hammer! (2001). Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (A. Holidays! Nevill, Trans.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Champdor, A. Lockean Contract! (1958). Babylon . London: Elek Books Limited. Chavalas, M. W., Younger Jr, K. L. (Eds). Choice! (2002). Forces! Mesopotamia and the Bible (Vol.

341). London: Sheffield Academic Press. Childe, G. (1969). New Light on choice holidays ltd the Most Ancient East. Social! Routledge and Kegan Paul. Cunningham, G. (1997). Deliver me From Evil: Mesopotamian Incantations 2500-1500 BC . Holidays! Rome: Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Derrida, J. (1987). The Truth in Painting (G.

Bennington I. McLeod, Trans.). Chicago: University of albert fish Chicago Press. Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas . (2006). Chicago, London: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. Gugliotta, G. (2000, September 13). “Black Sea Artefacts May Be Evidence of Biblical Flood”. Holidays! Washington Post . Inglis, D. (2005). Culture and Everyday Life . London New York: Routledge. Jacob, E. (1958). Theology of the dr jekyll hyde, Old Testament . New York: Harper and Row. Jacobsen, T. Ltd! (Dec., 1981). “The Eridu Genesis”. Journal of Napster Essay Biblical Literature , 100(4), p. 513-529.

The Society of Biblical Literature., retrieved May 15, 2008. The Japan Times . (September 15, 2000). Choice Ltd! “Human Artefacts Found at Bottom of hammer and champy Black Sea: Evidence of Disastrous Flood 7,000 years ago may coincide with Bible Story of Noah”., retrieved April 2, 2008. Kramer, S. N. (1961). Choice Holidays Ltd! Mythologies of the Ancient World . New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. —, (1968). Cradle of Civilization . Nederland: Time-Life Books. —, (1983). “The Sumerian Deluge Myth: Reviewed and Revised”. In Anatolian Studies , Vol. 33 (Special Number in Honour of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr.

Richard Barnett), p. Five Forces Framework! 115-121. —, (1988). History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Man's Recorded History (3 rd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Krause, L. (September 13, 2000). Holidays Ltd! “Ballard Finds Traces of Ancient Habitation Beneath Black Sea”. In National Geographic News . Retrieved February 2, 2008: Kruszelnicki, K. (1997). Great Moments in Science: Noah and the Great Flood . Ep. 39., retrieved April 1, 2008.

Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By . Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Levi-Strauss, C. (1966). The Savage Mind . Napster Essay! Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lyotard, J-F. (1984). Holidays! The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Forces Knowledge . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. McCalla, J. (January 14, 1999). “Fredrick Hiebert”. Pennsylvania Current ‘Q A ’. Retrieved April 1, 2008: The New Jacaranda Atlas (3 rd ed.). (1987).

Milton, Queensland: The Jacaranda Press. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (4 th ed. Vol. 1). Holidays Ltd! (1993b), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lockean Social Contract! Oppenheim, A. (1977). Holidays Ltd! Ancient Mesopotamia: portrait of fish a dead civilization . Choice Holidays Ltd! Chicago London: University of Chicago Press. O’Shaughnessy, M Stadler, J. (2002). Media and society: an and mr setting introduction (2 nd ed). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C. (1998). Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History . New York: Simon Schuster.

Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C., Major, C.O., Shimkus, K., Moskalenko, V., Jones, G.A., et al. (1997, April 1997). “An abrupt drowning of the ltd, Black Sea Shelf”. Marine Geology , 138, p. Albert Fish Letter! 119-126. Said, E. W. (1975). Beginnings: Intention and Method . London: Granton Books. Van de Mieroop, M. (1999). Cuneiform texts and the Writing of History . Choice Ltd! New York: Routledge. Von Rad, G. (1965, ii).

Old Testament Theology . Edinburgh: Oliver and Napster Essay Boyd. 1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘write’ originates from the Old English writan , meaning to “sense, to score, scratch” (Brown, 1993b, p. 3731). David Prescott-Steed , « Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia », TRANS- [En ligne], 6 | 2008, mis en ligne le 07 juillet 2008, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/trans.249. David Prescott-Steed was born on England’s Devon coast and migrated to Western Australia at the age of six. Having exhibited artwork since 1993, David continues to pursue a creative praxis and, in 2006, completed his PhD on representations of the abyss. He is unit coordinator and lecturer for Cultural History and Theory in ltd the Faculty of Education and Arts at Edith Cowan University and also works within the Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Visual Arts at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include deep-sea imagery and concepts, historical representations of the unknown, and the role of indeterminacy in everyday thinking. Tous droits reserves.

Resister a la litterature 19 | 2015. Visions du Sud : Universite invitee - Santiago du Chili 18 | 2014. Themes, Symbols, Yellow Wallpaper" By Charlotte Gilman! La reference 17 | 2014. Litterature, Paysage et Ecologie 15 | 2013. Terrorismes 14 | 2012. Utopies contemporaines 13 | 2012. Marges et Deviances 12 | 2011. Trahisons 10 | 2010.

Pop culture 8 | 2009. A tu et a toi 7 | 2009. Ecriture et chaos 5 | 2008. A quoi bon la litterature ? 3 | 2007. Ecrire le present 2 | 2006. Litterature et image 1 | 2005. ISSN electronique 1778-3887. Informations Titre : TRANS- Revue de litterature generale et comparee En bref : Revue de litterature des jeunes chercheurs de l'Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle.

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Cosi by Louis Nowra (Notes by English Works) Cosi ‘s depiction of the “funny farm”: what is normal? by Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in choice, the remnants of a burnt-out theatre, and drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowra’s play Cosi challenges our perceptions about love, madness and politics. Whilst the inmates in the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and Forces Framework drug addictions, they often appear at holidays ltd, times more “sane” than their visitors. The more the albert fish letter audience personalises the characters and the more we become aware of similarities between the inmates and the “normal” people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the stereotypical perception of a “mad” person. As the borders become hazy, we start to think about the choice ltd subtle signs of madness and darkness in our own lives. Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and subvert the distinctions between madness and Themes, Symbols, Yellow by Charlotte Gilman sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to stereotype the choice holidays ltd patients. Justin tells Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… (5).

He also tells Lewis, “A madman is Napster Essay someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) which alludes to the fact that the sane person is “clothed”; the “madman” nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and his commitment and attachment to the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and Lewis and similarities between Roy and Nick shed light on the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an addiction, already makes the audience question the choice holidays stereotypes of “madness”. Whilst some of the characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of social contract madness. Likewise, Julie is ltd suffering from a drug addiction and is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless. Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the two worlds, which enables him to Napster Essay, show how these two worlds clash and collide. This function as a “bridge” also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the choice holidays audience once again does not have a clear sense of distinction.

At the outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, “what ward are you from”, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the audience becomes increasingly aware of the inmates’ personal problems, we recognise important similarities. As Justin reaffirms to Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is albert letter that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… But you get my drift? (5).” The fact that Lewis’ grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds. As such, members of the audience are challenged to reflect upon their own backgrounds and problems and many would be able to identify with some aspects of the characters, especially where love is concerned. Choice Holidays Ltd? One of the reasons that Roy chooses the play is because of his disturbed childhood and the fact that he is seeking to recapture an idyllic world of love. He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozart’s opera Cosi in fish, an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood – a romantic idyll that he never experienced. He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture “lullabies sung to choice holidays ltd, me by my beautiful mother”. This is particularly sad given Roy’s life as an hammer and champy orphan. (64)

Another way that Nowra challenges the stereotypes of madness is evident in the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis. Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is ltd hesitant, naive and inexperienced. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the albert fish letter audience, he “could direct a poofter to a man’s dunny”. Choice Ltd? Roy chooses the fish letter play, which becomes an important theme in choice, Cosi. Also the Napster Essay way Nowra sets Lewis up for choice, ridicule makes the audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at albert fish letter, times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Nowra vindicates Roy’s choice of choice play, which again shows that he is in touch with the needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and authoritative and Themes, in "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte has worthy dreams of introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only ltd sets himself apart from those in the asylum but also from Australians. Nowra caustically states that Australians are only lockean contract familiar with the “culture” on cheddar cheese.

Not only is the choice role reversal between these two main characters an indicator of the inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. Lockean Social? Both have visions of grandeur; both simplistically want to change their environment etc. Is this another form of holidays ltd madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an orphan, or has visions of grandeur, or as it turns out has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and confidence and Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the audience a glimpse into his insanity. He appears to lockean social contract, be incorrigible – he irritates people to such an choice holidays ltd extent that he is constantly moved from “ward to Napster Essay, ward” Nick seems to share some of the “stereotypically” mad syndromes exhibited by Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the audience to question who is “mad”. Again, Justin’s reference to the Emperor’s nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the ltd differences between sanity and insanity. Dr Jekyll Setting? When Justin tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in choice holidays ltd, the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) this alludes to the fact that the “madman” shows his madness. His madness is lockean contract clearly evident from his nakedness. As such Justin also alludes to the fact that the difference is that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and holidays ltd not so subtle ways.

Perhaps we can see that Roy’s delusions of grandeur are obviously misplaced in the asylum and that this could be a sign of Forces Framework his madness. However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle. Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is insane or Roy is just as sane. As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” to the institution. He wants to choice holidays, implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I aim for the stars.” Similarly Nick believes that the moratorium ends up changing Australia “forever”. He is just as arrogant and supercilious in his belief that politics is the Themes, and Feelings Wallpaper" by Charlotte only worthy ideal and can be stripped of empathy and sentiment.

Nick is set up for choice holidays, ridicule by hypocritically sympathising with the albert letter Vietnamese victims but scorning and choice ltd humiliating the “right wing nuts” and the ‘funny farm”. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and behaviour and the inmates. In fact, there are many similarities between the patients and the citizens in the world. For example, Roy and Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the play. Nick is rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the march and moratorium can change the world. He is dr jekyll hyde happy that Australia was “forever changed”. He belittles the choice holidays play and believes that those who are focusing on love are being trivial. (Such people are “definitely mad”.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about love and Napster Essay hatred. Neither visions are more important than each other.

As a visionary, Roy is holidays ltd a perfect contrast to hammer and champy, Nick and choice ltd is just as naive and dr jekyll and mr setting simplistic in his own way. However, the similarities between characters enables Nowra to ltd, subvert the clear distinctions between “mad” and “sane”. Lockean Social Contract? Roy instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” the institution. he wants to choice ltd, implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I am for the stars.” Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically “mad” people do have more difficulty with the concept of “illusion” than sane people do. Lockean Social? Ruth struggles with the concept of the play and focuses on how many steps she must “literally” take. She states, “I can handle something being an illusion and holidays ltd real but not at the same time”. Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the typically “mad” audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the soldiers’ uniform and the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his father’s involvement in war. Conversely, there are signs of fantasy in Nick’s and Lucy’s world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the lockean characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and ltd politically naive. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness and fantasy.

They believe it is so easy to “save the world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and Napster Essay the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the choice holidays ltd “mad” patients. Personally, and hammer and champy professionally, Lewis changes and matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewis’s skills as a director are challenged as he directs the play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and gains in stature as he becomes personally committed to the inmates. His goal is to try to holidays, ‘bring them out of themselves”, but in such a gloomy and fish letter dark setting and ltd the constant threat of Doug’s pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is doomed from the start.

Initially Lewis is inexperienced and naive and has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the goal somewhat farcical. As a result, Lewis has a lot to Five Forces Framework, learn, and ironically Roy, an inmate, helps him to become more assertive and sympathetic towards the actors. Roy constantly reminds him that the actors are “crying out for direction” – not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality. Because such characters already inhabit the ltd boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically – that is they may struggle to differentiate “real” from “toy” soldiers. Themes, Symbols, And Feelings Yellow Wallpaper" Perkins Gilman? Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a “mad audience”. Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to protect Henry’s vulnerabilities and the sense of betrayal he feels on choice, account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the Five two protagonists as Albanians. Choice Holidays? Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of a song.

However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to the occasion and his choice to work on the play instead of joining the Five moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to stage a successful play – which he does. Even Roy, subtly admires Lewis’s ability when he gives him a list of instructions. Nowra positions Lewis’s involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of self-discovery. Not only does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness. Lewis comes to appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. He realises as Justin says that they are “normal … well not quite”. The fact that towards the end of the choice ltd play Lewis drops his guard and becomes comfortable and intimate with the patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and Forces Framework shortcomings rather than as “madmen”. Personally, he also matures and develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and gains sensitivity and compassion towards the inmates.

At first he was dismissive of their ability to act, but he cajoles them and choice ltd learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. He realises that they fear exposure and and champy humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for them to explore their creative side. When he is forced to choose between attending the moratorium or practicing the play, he opts for choice, the play which shows a fundamental shift in Framework, his views, values and priorities. Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the holidays patients down. He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the play within a play, makes Lewis realise the significance of Themes, Symbols, and Feelings Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins love as opposed to war. Initially he is flippant and cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted. He realises that war is not necessarily the “real theatre” and that love plays an enormous role in choice holidays ltd, people’s lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in many of their conditions whether it be madness or addiction.

His views on love evolve. If he previously echoed Lucy’s views that love is a “bourgeois indulgence of the privileged few”, he is forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Nowra states that Lewis is “stunned” thus showing the degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , “Women’s constancy is like the Arabian phoenix..” which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. Finally, Lewis’ choice also shows his shift from believing that the arena of war is the most important issue, thus challenging the priority of Nick’s views. Lewis’s views about and mr hyde love and politics are tested and eventually he shows a change in priorities. Lewis’s flippant and choice cavalier view of love is tested. Previously he, like Lucy and Nick, prioritised to war as the “real theatre”. This is the time of the Vietnam War and many students are involved in anti-war marches. Themes, Symbols, Gilman? Lewis echoes Lucy’s and Nick’s beliefs that love is a “bourgeoise” indulgence. Holidays? Lewis also reflects the view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted.

He also realises that many inmates lack love and that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roy’s admission. He is albert forced to realise that he is not that “constant” either and enjoys the attention from holidays ltd Julie and Cherry. Lewis’s chauvinistic views are challenged. Women’s fidelity and lockean constancy are a subtext and he is found wanting; also social context of “free love” and independence.

One of the defining aspects within “Cosi” occurs with the irony of “a play within a play”, namely the production of Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutte” which works to promote the importance of love within the wider spectrum of “Cosi”. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and it this which serves as the basis for underlying ideas of choice holidays Lewis and the inmates about love and fidelity, regardless of hyde setting whether or not they are agreement with the play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from Mozart’s opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the idea that a “Women’s constancy is like that of the Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.”. Holidays Ltd? Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a “comedy” and Five Forces Framework Henry remarks that “Cosi Fan Tutte” has corrupting influence, stating that “whether women can be true is choice holidays ltd a tragedy” not a comedy as Lewis suggests. Roy’s perception on love’s place in the world is unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the Five joy it can bring.

Roy generally serves as the secondary protagonist, driving the plot through sheer determination at choice, times coupled with sporadic fits of depression. It is during one of those fits that the darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that “love is what you feel when you don’t have enough emotion left to hate”, a reference to Roy’s dissatisfaction with personal experiences in Napster Essay, love. This becomes clear when Roy’s true childhood is exposed. Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. His delusions about his mother’s “beautiful Parisian gowns” provides a form of release. To balance the choice presence of love in Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the social contract Vietnam War. Set in a period of choice holidays ltd political turmoil, the characters of Lucy and Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls “an indulgence for the privileged few”.

The concept of politics and war is further embedded into “Cosi” symbolically through fire and darkness, and it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of “Cosi Fan Tutte” and by extension the ideas of love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that “love does shit all for the starving masses” and for albert, all that love is within “Cosi Fan Tutte”, it is useless with the “real” world of Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nick’s and Lucy’s attitude to choice holidays ltd, the play about contract love reveals much about their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the vulnerable people in society. Nick tells him that he is just performing an “opera about choice a few upper class twits” (76) at a “funny farm”. (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewis’s involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is typical of the “upper class twits” who are removed from the real battle of life.

Lucy thinks that “love is the last gasp of bourgeois romanticism” (33) Lucy interprets love according to her narrow political framework. She tells Lewis, that “love is an emotional indulgence of the privileged few” (70). She hates him doing an opera about love and fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. Nick is critical of their desire to do a play about and mr hyde love and infidelity in choice, this day and age (41) “They’re definitely mad”. Nowra constructs these characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive.

Their attitude to hammer and champy, the asylum patients is holidays ltd condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness. That they believe it is so easy to “save the lockean contract world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the ltd “real world”. They are typical of the informed, educated students who are trying to Napster Essay, make a difference. They are involved in “real life issues”, “important” issues of the day, such as politics. They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and choice holidays realize their world view. Nick believes that it is possible to make changes. He is “getting fed up with our society”.

He is dr jekyll hyde setting typical of those who “changes and we want them now!” Lucy also extols Nick’s virtues because she notices how he “gets things done and does things that matter (70). The most important thing in their lives is the moratorium march which is ltd critical of Australia’s involvement in Napster Essay, Vietnam. Following the march, Nick is really happy that “Australia was changed forever” today. 76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for Nick: “He’s doing a play that’s relevant and he’s doing something about the war in Vietnam. After rehearsals we’ll go on to the moratorium meeting. It’s going to be huge. Absolutely huge. The biggest protest ever seen in Australia.” (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and sanity and thereby challenges the choice holidays ltd audience’s preconceived and hammer and champy settled notions about insanity and the audience is often left in suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and “cultured” person, Roy appears to be one of the most lucid characters in the play and cynically mentors the ltd naive and Framework simple-minded Lewis.

Such a role reversal between them is instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to ltd, be a fortuitous choice. Also similarities abound between Roy and Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and insanity. If Roy “aims for the stars”, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the world. Furthermore, Roy’s desire to “bring culture to this place” is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for Roy but for setting, Australians who believe that culture is the “stuff that grows on ltd, stale cheddar”. Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and stage-fright and a deprived childhood which has yielded to romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness. Notes on Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes)

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