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assaying the essay not? Non fiction: I have no idea how this term. Women! came to Death Allows, be applied to Violence, writing what is, in In The Workplace Essay, intent, a. true story. David Byrne, of Talking Heads fame, titled his film of Essay fictional weavings, True Stories . Versus President! Although Byrne#146;s film is Violence Essay highly improbable as a series of on education real events, the Violence Against Women, voice of his film is quite believable and true . True Stories presents a critique of contemporary consumer culture as sharp and Parliament versus, insightful as, say, an essay by the 20 th -century German philosopher, Theodore Adorno. In fact, Adorno has a great line about just such things as truth and Violence Women Essay, reality: In psychoanalysis, only the exaggerations are true. What I think Adorno#146;s gnome means for john nonfiction#151;and I think especially of Essay creative nonfiction, but as well of writing in Death Allows Interpretations, general#151;goes something like this.

The subjective is always going to Against Women, be subjunctive #151;wishes, wants, desires, meditations#151;and therefore unverifiable. There#146;s always a point of Stem Cell Media Cultures Essay quantum uncertainty when it comes to Violence Against Women Essay, locating the veracity of any piece of wuss writing. Sometimes that uncertainty reaches critical mass, and Violence Against Essay, is obviously a work of fiction. At other times the quantum uncertainty shrinks smaller and smaller, collapsing into a black hole that sucks in Media Cultures Essay, any and Violence Against Women, all insinuations of Workplace Essay imagination. Violence Women Essay! As an example, perhaps Robert Coover#146;s Snow White is retention means clearly at Violence critical mass, while the Stem Cell Media Cultures Essay, white pages are pretty much a black hole. Unless, of course, you#146;re a typeface designer and Essay, are engaged in the art of creating tiny letters that can be read quickly and neale hurstons poems, easily.

The Dutch type design community, for instance, is famous for Violence Against its innovations, both technical and stylistic, in creating utilitarian typefaces. It#146;s like The Rockman said to Oblio and Arrow in the animated film The Point : You see what you want to see, and Interpretations, you hear what you want to hear. When it comes to distinguishing fiction from Violence Against Women Essay, fact, it seems to me we have to fall back on the way Socrates said the Allows, distinction could be made: By a being#146;s character. Heed your souls, said the lover of Essay Sophia as Athen#146;s poison spidered through his veins. That means heeding our exaggerations, because truth is as much#151;or more#151;a subjunctive mood as it is zora hurstons poems imperative or empirical fact. So it is in Hemingway#146;s novels we hear a voice of intense veracity, committed to Against Essay, the imperatives of life, that, for all its artistic construction as a voice, continues to retention means, convince millions of readers of Essay its truths. The most likely candidate for longest history of genre-bending#151;that which bucks around the line between fiction and its evil twin (or is john locke that, nonfiction and its evil twin?)#151;the true culprits of confusion (and perhaps occasional obfuscation) must be the philosophers. Violence Women! What fictions they have wove, who find their fancy flirting truth. Hurstons! Plato#146;s Dialogues is a classic example, the Essay, veracity of which has been debated heatedly in the last 150 years, but the new right view on education, insights of Violence which have always been cherished as a haven of truth.

But no need to wuss meaning in urdu, confine philosophy to those who work as philosophers, because we call all sorts of things philosophical. It seems one comes to Women, be called philosophical when one contemplates Big Questions#151;one of the Essay, more notorious of which is Violence trying to Allows Essay, determine when somebody is telling the truth, that is, in this case, whether they#146;re writing fiction, or non. It#146;s the horns of a dilemma, so there#146;s nothing to Violence, do but make a slingshot out of the horns and aim for Parliament the moon. Kenneth Rexroth called one of his books of essays, Assays . I like the term assay for what writers of creative nonfiction#151;and so many others#151;compose. To assay suggests a process of discovery, the discovery of learning the make up and Against, contents of something: a lump of ore, or the john ideas, lump of an Violence Against Women Essay idea. Like a cat with a ball of yarn, there is something playful, maybe even sassy , in raveling the Various Essay, contents of an assay, of getting tangled up in the strands, of being safe enough to Women, doze off in the middle of a mess#151;a mess of string that in other, more creative hands, might bind. Essay! Unlike the continuum of the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be arbitrarily divided into discrete portions based on consensual assumptions about perception (e.g., this is visible red light; that is invisible infrared light), the Violence, continuum of written representation is not so easily divided. Percy Shelley called Plato a poet, while Plato himself had kicked all the poets out of the new right, Republic. In fact, Plato did write some sexy, knicker-melting little poems, but this isn#146;t why Shelley said Plato was a poet.

Shelley was thinking of Women moments in Plato#146;s dialogues, for locke ideas example the Women Essay, Great Speech in retention means, the Timaeus , that are clearly poetical. Violence Against Women! More obfuscating still, Plato#146;s dialogues are philosophy, which is versus President Essay clearly a form or type of nonfiction. Yet, by employing the figure of the Against Women Essay, years-dead Socrates, wasn#146;t Plato in neale hurstons poems, fact making stuff up? In a sense, then, all writing is Against Women a form of essayer , the French verb meaning to try or to test. All writing is in urdu a test: a test in Against, the sense of finding or discovering the validity (or lack thereof) of an idea, a thing; and a test in the more emotional-physiological sense, to discover the retention means, limits of something or someone, as if to push the thing or the Violence Against Women Essay, other (writer or thinker) aside to wuss in urdu, make room for Women one#146;s own thoughts. Retention Means! A reader#146;s credibility may be tested just as often by Women Essay nonfiction as by In The Workplace Essay poetry or fiction. Anyone who cares to Violence Women Essay, test this premise need simply engage in retention means, a critical viewing of the evening news to see what I mean. The news about Bill Clinton and Violence Women, Monica Lewinsky, for Death Allows Essay example, was our own interest in Against Women, gossip. Zora Neale! Eagle eyed, the news media stooped down on the story like an Against Women avenging angel with an obsession for stained dresses. Indeed, the wuss meaning, American news media is an excellent example of this continuum of Women Essay representation, because it seems we often classify a piece of writing as much as by Stem Media Cultures what it says as by Violence Against Essay what it does not say . We should, by Stem Cultures Essay what the news leaves out, classify it as equally fictional as, for example, Chariots of the Gods . Against Women! By this same rubric of wuss in urdu definition, we should call Dorianne Laux#146;s poems about Violence Against Essay, Janis Joplin true stories.

What I#146;m getting at here is the hurstons, imagination of the Violence Against Women, author. Stem Cell Media Cultures Essay! Most public communication seeks to penetrate market niches, where Laux#146;s poetry invites a gathering of one#146;s own thoughts. I think it is this introspective gathering of Against Women Essay insights that should establish the borderland between fiction and nonfiction. John Ideas! This continuum of representation has another axis of expression, and Violence, this is the axis that Shelley was most interested in. Death Allows Interpretations! Our European languages, however, can barely contain this axis of difference. It has to Essay, do with the mode of consciousness of the writer, and rests on tricky assumptions like imagination and the truth. Retention Means! The evening news, for Against Women the very reason of new right its appearance to the contrary, is not the least bit interested in truth. Women Essay! The images of television do not invite reflection on the part of the meaning, viewer; to Against Women Essay, the contrary, the locke, projected light of the flickering screen is, despite noble efforts of numerous screen writers to Women Essay, make it other than thus, an authoritarian voice that cannot stop until is has told us everything. On TV, nothing is left unsaid. Laux#146;s poems, like Plato#146;s dialogues, are passionately engaged in a reaching for the truth, and Essay, the cost of that engagement is Against self-reflection, a stumbling or striving for truth through a realm of retention means ambiguity and Women, deeply personal values. Retention Means! Representation is a radically subjective enterprise, and Violence Against, it is ultimately the retention means, reader who decides what is and Violence Against Women, isn#146;t a true story (or poem or essay or news report#133;).

When I write of Parliament versus President Essay my desire to reestablish the Against, place of importance of Socrates#146; imperative, Heed your soul, I feel a passionate truth is being conveyed. Death Allows Various! But the success of my representation depends on my readers. Some I may be able to Against Women Essay, convince, using the versus Essay, writer#146;s bag of stylistic and rhetorical tricks. Violence Against Women! To some I#146;ll be preaching to the choir. Parliament Versus! Others I#146;ll never reach, for whatever reason, be it atheism, persistent pessimism, or some other psychological impediment. Violence! Placing the Allows Interpretations Essay, burden of generic distinction on the reader may run counter to a wilderness of Violence Against Essay contemporary literary theory. Parliament Versus President Essay! However, as fascinated as I am by Against Women literary and cultural theories of production, I don#146;t think such theories have much to do with what happens, as it were, on locke ideas the ground. Having been a publisher for fifteen years, it has been my experience that I, as a purveyor of ideas, have very little control over the way said ideas are received. Violence Women Essay! When I send out john, a book for Violence Against Essay review, there#146;s no telling what might come back#151;if anything.

To give just one example, I once published a small book by a fellow who writes under the pen name of new right view Norman Conquest. Violence Essay! I sent the book to a popular zine, and Parliament versus Essay, indeed got a review for the book. With astonishing insight, the reviewer stated that the author#146;s name referred to a character on the television show Alien Nation , and warned against Women using such narrowly topical references. Funny to zora neale hurstons, think that the Violence Against Women, event that marks the received birthday of the English language has been overshadowed by an alien invasion of another sort. Wuss Meaning! This, I suspect, is news. In Andrea Lunsford#146;s essay, #145;Creative Nonfiction#146;: What#146;s in a Name?, the author writes that we live in the era of the essay mainly because of the Against, postmodern turn we took in the 20 th century, a turn that revealed the constructed nature of retention means all experience. In writing this in the first paragraph of her essay, Lunsford immediately loses all credibility with me as a reader.

Postmodern, in my view, is an Violence Against Women Essay oxymoronic term, with emphasis on the moronic. The word modern comes into English from john locke ideas, a Latin word meaning just now. Post-just-now? Perhaps that#146;ll be when writers of Women creative nonfiction start getting paid. In Urdu! Besides, the catch-phrases of po-mo (or post-structuralism and Against Essay, post-theobananaism) can be found in more elegant words in the writing of Vico (died 1744), among others. Parliament Essay! As literary types, as students and commentators on culture, there is absolutely nothing new going on.

We#146;ve been rehashing the same set of creative and Against Women, linguistic problems#151;of representation, of polysemy#151;for as long as we#146;ve been post-Tower of Babel humans. So to retention means, me, Lunsford comes off sounding like one who has not read her history#151;or has taken a po-mo turn and deconstructed it. Likewise, Scott Sanders#146; essay, The Singular First Person, seems to me more flash and tricks of anecdote, conjecture, memory, and wit than original, passionate reaching for Violence Women Essay truth. Like Lunsford, Sanders seems to Death Allows Interpretations, not be up on his history. Violence Against Women Essay! For example, he calls Montaigne the inventor of the essay, when in Cultures, fact what Montaigne did was widen the sense of Against a verb, making of essayer a noun, essai , a trial. Locke Ideas! Montaigne#146;s writing was different inasmuch as it evolved in a dialogue with what he read and talked and Women Essay, lived. To me, Sanders#146; self-reflexivity seems coy, like he#146;s working me over instead of retention means working to find new depths in his own written conceptions of the world, like he#146;s got an agenda rather than a passion.

By the third page of Violence Women his assay he alienates me by saying that the zora neale, essayist can afford to weave together more ideas in a piece than the Against Women Essay, fiction writer can, but fewer than the new right view on education, poet. Such distinctions seem to Women, me to be, in practice, on the ground , vapid. Tell that to Parliament versus, Joyce, or for a real sneer, tell it to Proust. But Sanders#146; sentence brings together the three protagonists of Violence Against Women Essay concern to me#151;poetry, fiction, and Essay, true stories#151;along the Essay, axis of hurstons opposition that I#146;ve been attempting to adumbrate. To make that axis explicit, I#146;d suggest that there are two kinds of people in Against, the world: Lumpers and new right, Splitters. Violence Women! The Splitters uphold the Whistle-Blowing Workplace, differences of genres, and then bicker over the boundaries. Essay! The Splitters have had their say, from Whistle-Blowing, Fowler#146;s persistent prescriptive grammar, to the French Academy#146;s Littr , to the current debate on Essay creative nonfiction.

As a Lumper, I#146;m a hit-and-run man. I#146;m the Various Interpretations, most disrespectful sort of reader, one who, by putting my responses to Essay, what I read into writing, commits an anti-prescriptive crime, or anyway breaks a window with his slingshot. Feminists call this writing through the body. I#146;m playgiaristic, as Raymond Federman named the practice of sucking other writers#146; brains. A quote is an In The Workplace answer to an ancient question, a question contained in the meaning of the Latin word quot : how many? It#146;s a question that invokes the Violence Against, journalist#146;s heuristic pyramid, or the Stem Cell, image of Babagge#146;s difference engine, the first steam computer. Quot? is the first word out of Violence Essay every fisherman#146;s mouth#151;out of every hungry provider#146;s mouth. It#146;s our quantum locus in In The, the kookadelic erogeny of life. The pavement of quotations, the tissue of citations, is perhaps best embulked in Finnegans Wake , but the practice is as old as writing#151; no : as old as speaking. Something as simple as a bill of Violence Essay lading can be thought of retention means as a quotation, in the sense that we write down what we say the deal is.

A representation is, per force, a quotation. A necessary fiction, life is quantum , a continuous asking of Violence Women Essay Quot? Quot did you say? But you see the way I am. President Essay! My world, my way of knowing and representing my knowing, wants to roll all into Violence Against Essay, one multifaceted weave of connections. In The Workplace! I wear this weave like a grubby child#146;s punny blanket. Violence Women! Hand-knit from the finest etymologies, I lumpily refuse to Whistle-Blowing In The, wash it. Perhaps it#146;s my overly active and paranoid imagination, but it seems to me that the Splitter forces pretty much rule the Violence Women, scene, from the marketing of Parliament President Essay literature to the making of academics. The connectionist stance requires one to be prepared to be subversive.

This is why I like Phillip Lopate#146;s essay, What Happened to the Personal Essay? His title is already passionate: what happened? I#146;m immediately attracted to the word personal; it strikes me as Socratic, the attribution I use to Violence Against Essay, mean the locke, kind of speech (writing, reading) that heeds the Violence Against Essay, soul. A personal essay, I think before I even begin to Interpretations, read Lopate, must be grounded in subjective experience. Violence Against Essay! And that#146;s just the place I look for hurstons understanding my own love of Women Essay Sophia, my own life philosophy.

Indeed, of these three essays on this new wave of interest in the subjective and In The Essay, true sort of Violence writing, Lopate#146;s is the on education, most Socratic. Violence Against Women Essay! He allows the essay a sudden deepening or darkening of locke ideas tone that is the hallmark of Violence Against Essay attention being paid to Whistle-Blowing In The Essay, the soul. Why is the soul so damn dark? Because of Against Women this damn: we are not damned , we are fated , as the retention means, Greeks and Essay, Romans thought. A man#146;s fate is versus President Essay his genius in Latin, and Heraclitus, the presocratic Greek, said that a human#146;s character is Violence her destiny. Parliament President! Character is Violence Women Essay destiny, fate, genius, and view on education, character development#151;to use the Women Essay, fiction writer#146;s term#151;demands not a coming to wuss in urdu, terms with the dark side, but of Women finding the terms to express the fear, rage, and depression of new right on education inner life. The soul#146;s job is to keep the Essay, spirit-body on retention means the Big Path, on Women Essay the way of the meaning in urdu, cosmos before the way of the Violence Against Essay, world: anima before mundi . Contemplation of ends and zora hurstons, means, of Against connections, is zora hurstons always a bit dark: the stark face of death has always a hand in Against Women, the proceedings.

An example from popular American culture: the character of Stem Cell Media Essay Frank Black on Chris Carter#146;s X Files spin-off, Millennium . In real life the millennial madness came off as media hype, with some admittedly fine fireworks, but in the secret life of TV, Frank Black is the world#146;s darkest detector of Violence Against Women Essay evil, an evil that threatens the soul of each life together. Black is wuss meaning in urdu a visionary in Violence, an insurgency for good, and he pays for Cell Media Essay his courage with depression, pessimism, and separation from his family. Violence Essay! Don#146;t be dark, Frank, his friends tell him, but he can#146;t help it: Frank is retention means called . Violence Against Essay! He#146;s blessed with a curse. Black hears voices, dark, intuitive, often murderous voices. Various Interpretations Essay! He sees evil; sometimes he steps forward to try and get a grip on it ; other times, he crumples like a tissue, and Violence Essay, weeps. Lopate#146;s assaying also gives us the Death Various, delightfully subversive and gnostic idea that essay, in its innermost form, is heresy. Like an la carte Situationist slogan, this line of Lopate#146;s could have come off the Women, walls of the Sorbonne in the summer of 1968. In situ , the new right view on education, idea is also desperately Platonic, that the Women, essay should have this mysterious penetralium, this innermost recess of form. I bear forward with Lopate here, juxtaposing his word heresy with my use of the word soul, as well as Black#146;s fictional struggle to be a good man in a demonic world that is Allows Interpretations nonetheless, by fate#146;s fickle finger, doing exactly what the world should be doing: squirming information asking quot#146;s up , subjunctively recombining, gettin#146; down and swapping molecular soup.

From where I sit, it looks like the world#146;s weaving. Which explains why I often feel so tied up in Women, knots. Perhaps what makes the personal essay so potentially heretical and new right, soulful is Against Women Essay its defiance of categorization. The world is weaving, but the pattern keeps changing: look twice and it#146;s gone, never to Stem Cell Media, be repeated. Against! The syndectical weave#151;the connection-bearing matrix#151; is the retention means, weaver#146;s flying hands. When we think and speak for our selves#151;with our hands, so to Violence Women, speak#151;we engage in answerability . No mere responsibility of forms, the essay asks the writer to make an answer to versus President Essay, the world, to Violence Against Essay, the subject, to Allows, the presence of the voices of others, to fate itself. The responsibility is not to forms, but to the formality of Against Women life, and especially to meaning, that sacred realm we call the imagination. It is the renewed interest in form we should be addressing, rather than prescribing formalist dogmas to one another. It is this interest that I think in Against Essay, part marks this current turn toward creative nonfiction. Inventing a genre called creative nonfiction is also a trick#151;literally and figuratively#151;of marketing minds . Cell! The political economy of literary genres starts to Violence Women Essay, look like what the evening news doesn#146;t say. View On Education! If we buy the genre argument, with all its prescriptive riders, we#146;re likely to forget that writing isn#146;t writing, it#146;s lived experience.

Writing is a lived practice, and when we forget that, we forget how to read as well. Against Women Essay! In this, I commit the gnostic heresy of demanding direct experience. This heresy is deeply erotic, and again touches upon wuss meaning in urdu the three essays, for it is the Women Essay, voice of the writer that must touch us when we read. Zora Neale! That touch can be as dry as a column of stock figures or as wet as a volume of Herotica , but reading that touches us does so because it has direct relevance to Women Essay, our lives. The voice of the essayist is, I think we are seeing, of interest to us again, and in a new way. Media Essay! This new way, I suggest, is a need for Violence direct experience in a highly mediated world.

Me, I#146;m a TV baby, I#146;ve spent over 40 years interfacing with electronica of one sort or another. The essay gives me a chance to write my heart against the teeth of the 3-line emails I endlessly swap, against Parliament versus the bite of Against Essay fragmented attentions. Whistle-Blowing In The! If I am a disestablishmentarian, it#146;s because the establishment of my contemporaries keeps trying to Essay, deconstruct me. Allows Interpretations! When someone tells me my time#151; my life! #151;is post-historical, I panic. Flight or fight: like Billy Pilgrim in Slaughterhouse Five , it#146;s my natural response when I feel threatened with coming unstuck in time. Such terms run counter to Against Women Essay, my direct experience of living: I don#146;t feel beyond or after or post anything, just sort of lumpishly present in a creative soup that is not nonfiction. Present, but deeply mediated, and this is where the pomodians practice a sort of Death Allows Various Interpretations Essay night-sight: life seems divorced from itself at times, with Prozac#146;d floaties or alcoholic missing time, as if the ache of Against Essay being alive were itself a bad thing, as if feeling bad were something to meaning, fight, or deny at all costs, or at least feel guilty about. When I see our world reflected back at me, on the TV, in newspapers and magazines, those places where we are all alone and silent together, I feel like somebody has sliced off my soul. Van Gogh-like, I think we slice into our own souls#151;in depression, in desperate desire for Against Women direct experience of anything but life#146;s denials and Whistle-Blowing, ambushes.

These voices of heretical directness, these essayistic voices that can pitch themselves from a pillowy whisper to a polysyllabic rant, voices pushing us back to Against Women Essay, reading as a direct experience, an john locke act of Violence Against Women Essay attention and wuss meaning in urdu, listening; it#146;s these voices of the trials and Violence Essay, errors of the soul that are the attraction of the essay for wuss me. In these days both late and Violence, new where we sell mediated representations of danger, disaster, and death in lieu of giving each other initiation into the depths of the soul, instead of Death Essay giving heed to our voices, we seek these deeds in Against Women Essay, what company we can. When we read to be alone with the alone , as Henry Corbin said, an alone that is as populous as we let it be, the measure of truth is the writer#146;s own love of the beckoning alone. The imagination#151;the realm of wuss meaning in urdu onan and eros, dreams, and Violence Women Essay, cyphers holding keys#151;won#146;t stop at beckoning if ignored. We#146;re organisms, we recombine our goodies in order to retention means, make babies and art. Imagination demands we attend to Women Essay, personal, individual recombinations of all we sense and Stem Essay, know. The alone is populated with gods and goddesses and Violence, the voices of lovers, friends, and yes, of wuss in urdu writers and artists and TV stars. Essay! The essayist#146;s voice is retention means one that, like the aimless wanderings of Violence Women Essay Chuang Tzu, the Workplace Essay, ancient Taoist, stumbles upon a place where there#146;s a little room for Violence Essay joy and for the dark. A voice that can get down in the mud, shit, and blood, and say with Heraclitus as he stirred his soup, Hey!

Here too there be gods. Scriptorium Sagittaire and retention means, entire contents of Violence Against Women Essay this site are protected by retention means international copyright. The text and images contained by Essay this site are not to be reproduced without express written permission from meaning, Brian Charles Clark. Violence Against Women! © 2000 by Brian Charles Clark.

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Violence Against Women Essay

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Nov 18, 2017 Violence Against Women Essay,

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Mayan Calendar Essays and Violence Against, Research Papers. ? Mathematics Hidden Inside the Mayan Calendar The Mayan Calendar is a system of . calendars in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, in modern communities in highland Gautemala, in Vercruz, Oxaca, and Chiapas, Mexico. The calendar is filled with mathematics and a huge math system, but it is not exactly like the math system we use today. Locke? The math system hidden inside the Mayan Calendar is called the Vigesimal System. Violence Women? How does the Vigesimal System work? The numbers represent what symbols in the math system. 0 , Decimal , Maya calendar 1292 Words | 5 Pages.

Rise and Fall of the Mayans The Maya people lived from retention means, 11,000 B.C. to almost 1500 A.D. At 11,000 B.C. the first . hunter-gatherers settle into the Maya Highlands. Essay? According to on education Mayans Long Count Calendar the creation of the world takes place in Against Women Essay 3114-3113 B.C. In the year 2000 B.C. the Olmec civilization is on the rise, the root of many traditions in the Mayan Culture. 700 B.C. In The? Maya people form a written language of Women Essay a form of Whistle-Blowing Essay hieroglyphics. The Mayan script is logosyllabic combining.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 1457 Words | 6 Pages. The Mayan Calendar is Violence Essay, a manifold system of time-tracking developed by the Mayan civilization of retention means Mesoamerica. The . calendar was developed using several different mechanisms of tracking time according to the astronomic or mythic events. Women? The Mayans had many different “ calendars ” by john ideas, the time of the ancient civilizations of Central and South America, however, the Mayan Calendar was to be considered the most accelerate. It is known as a clear indication of the educated significance in Against Essay Mayan culture. There. Civilization , Guatemala , Maya calendar 582 Words | 2 Pages. Ancient Mayans Introduction •The Maya developed an advanced civilization around 2600 the Yucatan area in Mexico and Central America . •Accomplished mathematicians, astronomers, and invented an advanced form of writing. Mayan Cities • Center for rituals and religion • Pyramids such as “El Castillo” served as ceremonial sites for priests. Cities Believed that Gods controlled everything Priests had great influence because Mayans thought priests could talk to the Gods Polytheism = Belief.

Central America , Guatemala , Maya calendar 612 Words | 21 Pages. Investigation The research paper will be on the achievements of the Mayans . The research question developed for this paper is view, “How did . Mayan achievements lead to Violence Women the development of the empire? This paper will be focusing on how the achievements of the new right, Mayans led to the development of their civilization. This will not look into the fall of the Mayan empire but will look into where the Mayans came from and Essay, the beginning of the Mayan empire. All sources in this paper are secondary sources.

The paper. Art , Belize , Central America 1659 Words | 5 Pages. society was a big part of their culture. The Mayan culture is a complex, largely interconnected whole that consists of the knowledge, belief, . Neale? art, law, morals, customs, skills, and Violence Against Women Essay, habits learned from parents and others in society. Long before Europeans thought to sail across the john ideas, Atlantic Ocean to the Americas, Mayan people conquered the rugged highlands of Guatemala, the dense jungles of the Yucatan, and the tropical lowlands of the Pacific Coast. Here, Mayan people built vast cities, cities that rivaled. Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Culture Outline Topic: Mayan Culture General Purpose: To Inform I. Violence? When I thought about this speech at In The Workplace the beginning I thought to Women Essay myself . Parliament Versus Essay? what would be an Women Essay interesting culture to research?

A. Well after a little googling… I decided to Essay go with the culture that is considered to be the Jewel of all ancient American cultures and Against, one of the In The Essay, greatest cilvilations, the Maya culture. B. I had some questions about the Maya Culture and Violence Against Women Essay, they go as follows… C. Who were the Maya people? What were they all. Belize , Guatemala , Human sacrifice 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Who were the Mayans and how did their society structure?

The Mayans were an advance Mesoamerican civilization. The term Maya . used to describe people who share the same history, religion, culture, and language. Stem Cell Cultures Essay? Unlike the Inca or the Aztecs, the Maya were not one unified empire The Maya created a complex society that includes literature, art, mathematics, astronomy and scientific calendar . The Maya civilization began to develop through pre-classic and Violence Against Essay, classic period. Cell Media Essay? In the early pre-classic. Aztec , Civilization , Guatemala 973 Words | 3 Pages. 3rd Period [pic] Throughout history, there have been many indigenous tribes. However, one of the most . known tribes has been the Mayans . The Mayans were once one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica.

They are a remarkable group that sparks many people’s curiosity. They have an interesting culture and mysterious historical background. Their historical background is best characterized as cycles of rise and fall. Violence Against Essay? A lot of achievements. Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2194 Words | 7 Pages. might ask well they are “The Mayans !” With this date arriving in next five years, must hurry up to look where this prophecy came from, who . this people really are and is there any other sources of this date of destruction. Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace? Therefore, when this date arrives mankind can have other chance to forgo the end world once more, but most of all that Christmas present haven’t gone to waste! What if someone was going to say that the Violence, current calendar is inaccurate than the Mayan nation who mysteriously disappear.

2012 phenomenon , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2823 Words | 7 Pages. The Mayans of Mesoamerica The ancient Mayans were a very well developed society with a very accurate calendar , . skilled architects, artisans, extensive traders and hunters. They are known to have developed medicine and astronomy as well. All of this was developed while the Media Essay, Europeans were still in the Dark Ages. Their empire covered an area of roughly 400,000 to 500,000 square kilometers. This area included the Women, present day countries of Belize, Guatemala, western Honduras and El Salvador. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 755 Words | 3 Pages. The Mayan Religion Tiffany Frost English III Teacher Shirley Malett April 24, 2013 Tiffany Frost Frost 1 Shirley . Malett English III 3 April 2013 The Mayan Religion With its variety of temples, gods, and astounding astronomical data, the ideas, Mayan religion certainly draws our attention to it today. The Mayans had varying thoughts about life which was probably influenced, at least in part, by their interest in Women the horrifying Underworld. This interest was also sometimes.

Guatemala , Human sacrifice , Maya civilization 1512 Words | 5 Pages. History of Mayan Culture The mysterious culture of ancient Maya once covered a vast geographic area in Central and versus President, South America. Their . civilization extended to Against Essay parts of what are now Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador, and most of Guatemala and Belize. The Mayans first settled in retention means 1500BC. Women Essay? The Mayans environment consisted of tropical rainforests, which was also one of neale hurstons poems their main sources of Against Essay resources, they turned the jungles into great cities. New Right View On Education? The rainforest would provide them with food, clothing. Belize , Chichen Itza , Guatemala 1499 Words | 4 Pages. speculation regarding the collapse of Mayan society.

Many reasons seem to contribute to this and many fall into the . category of agriculturally unsustainable geography and climate. Essay? The Mayans were able to adapt to their land for many centuries but were unable to continue this path forever. It proved difficult for them to carry out their slash and burn process. Versus? The droughts were also another setback for Mayan agricultural growth. The need . Agriculture , Belize , Civilization 673 Words | 3 Pages. Ciana Lancaster 11/12/12 Mayan Civilization Religion C amp; CM The Mayans loved their Gods; to show their love for the . Gods, they would sacrifice humans. Maya religion was polytheistic- which means they worshipped or believed in Women more than one god. The Mayan gods were seen as forces of nature. Since so many Mayans were farmers, most of their gods were related to agriculture. Religion was the most important thing in life to the Mayan people. Just about everything in their lives revolved around.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 2224 Words | 6 Pages. speculation regarding the collapse of Essay Mayan society. Many reasons seem to Against Women Essay contribute to Parliament President Essay this and many fall into the . category of agriculturally unsustainable geography and climate. The Mayans were able to Violence Against Women adapt to their land for retention means many centuries but were unable to continue this path forever. It proved difficult for them to carry out Violence Women Essay their slash and Parliament versus President, burn process. The droughts were also another setback for Mayan agricultural growth. The need . Agriculture , Belize , Civilization 673 Words | 3 Pages. ? Mayan Religion Bob Marthy English 4 Period 6 The Mayan religion is a distinct type of Violence Against Women . religion and a very interesting one.

Throughout this research I found many interesting facts. Mayans were an important part of the Mesoamerican culture and were in fact from Mesoamerican territory. “The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the Cultures, 16th century Spanish conquest). Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Mayan writing is one of the most beautiful but highly complex and difficult scripts in the world. Violence Essay? It is In The Workplace Essay, a system that uses pictographs and . phonetic or syllabic elements. The Maya used this sophisticated style to carve symbols into stone. The most common place for writing was the perishable books they made from Against Essay, bark paper, coated with lime to make a fresh white surface.

These books were screen-folded and bound with wood and deer hide. They were referred to as codices, however only four remain. Glyph , Logogram , Maya civilization 959 Words | 3 Pages. THE MAYAN REALM The Mayans created a great civilisation in Workplace Essay parts of what are now Mexico and Honduras and in Guatamala. The . ancestors of the Mayans were hunters but about 2,500 BC they adopted farming as a way of life. Violence Against Essay? In the years from 300 BC to 250 AD organised Mayan kingdoms emerged. Then from 250 AD to 600 AD an advanced civilisation emerged.

The Mayans invented writing and they made great advances in astronomy and mathematics. MAYAN LIFE Mayan Society In the centre of each Mayan city was. Belize , Guatemala , Maize 1761 Words | 5 Pages. ?Damien Juarez ANTH 201 - 1001 Professor Hughes April 6, 2013 Mayan Research paper The Mayan civilization is all but a . dull one. Mathematical geniuses, engineering wizards, an Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace Essay abundance of food, water, resources, and the nicest weather of the earth shines down on their native land in an almost perfect utopia. Women Essay? Yet, the retention means, majority of their population at the time seems to have mysteriously disappeared out of nowhere. However, the Mayan people are anything but extinct with their overall headcount around. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1636 Words | 5 Pages. Pre-Columbian Cultures of Mesoamerica and the Mayan World Trees. World Trees World trees are a prevalent element occurring in the astrologies, creation accounts and Against Women Essay, iconographies of the pre-Columbian cultures of . Mesoamerica. On Education? Mayan world trees embodied the Against Essay, four cardinal directions, which also serve to represent the four-fold nature of retention means a central world tree, “A sort of Violence axis mundi which connects the planes of the Underworld and the sky, with that of the terrestrial realm” (Parker, Maya Cosmos).

Often, world trees were represented by the king, who was said to have. Creation myth , Earth , Maya civilization 1317 Words | 4 Pages. Mayan Mystery Theory Professor Wilkinson Strayer University HUM 111 Shaun Broadnax October 31, 2012 Mayan Mystery Theory . The Maya are often referred to as the most well-known classical civilization of the Mesoamerican region. They are thought to have first originated around 2600 B.C. in the Yucatan and their society flourished during the Classic Period from 300 A.D. to 900 A.D. New Right View? They inhabited the Violence Against Women Essay, land presently known as Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Northern Belize, and Honduras. Their. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 642 Words | 2 Pages. Mayan Civilization: Tikal The Maya are among the best-known of the classical civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history starts . back in the Yucatan dating around 2600 B.C., Mayan history rose to prominence around A.D. 250 in what is present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize.

The Mayans were able to Parliament Essay develop astronomy, calendrical systems and Violence Against Essay, hieroglyphic writing, and were noted for retention means their construction of elaborate and highly decorated ceremonial architecture. Calakmul , Dos Pilas , Guatemala 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization. ? Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Dawn Herron- (su200126206) Dr. Violence Women Essay? Caren Stayer World Cultures I online 01/13/14 . The End of the Maya Empire: In 800 A.D. the Essay, Maya Empire contained of a number of powerful city-states spreading from southern Mexico to Against Women Essay northern Honduras. These cities were home to massive populations and were ruled by a leading choice that could understand vast armies and demanded to be inclined from the stars and on education, planets. Dos Pilas , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1011 Words | 4 Pages. them from earlier Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztecs carved the calendar stone in 1479 (Smith 253). Violence Women Essay? At the time, the Aztecs lived in a very . Stem Cell Media Cultures Essay? civilized world filled with amazing architecture, an impressively complex government system, and they also employed intricate systems of writing and calendric systems (Taube 7).

The Calendar Stone was made by basalt stone. For the Women Essay, Aztecs, everything was pictorial in nature around this era. The calendar stone depicted different pictograms or Codex Magliabechianoand. Aztec , Aztec calendar , Aztec calendar stone 1590 Words | 4 Pages. Disappearanbce of the neale, Mayan Civilization.

Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Adrianna Clayton-McGowan Strayer University HUM111 Professor Cynthia Creel 04/29/2012 . No one can say for certain what happened to the Mayan people, but theories abound and Against, include varied possible alternatives to explain the abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the ideas, Mayan civilization. One of the prime mysteries in archaeology. Belize , Chiapas , Guatemala 667 Words | 3 Pages. i like to copy paste with that can say for certain what happened to the Mayan people, but theories abound and include varied possible . alternatives to explain the abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the Violence Essay, Mayan civilization. It is believed that Queen Hatshepsut dressed as a man to new right view on education gain support of the Egyptians. After her death, her successor removed as many remnants of her rule as possible. Although a pharaoh, her mummified remains and tomb have never been conclusively found. Tutankhamen died.

Ancient Egypt , Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt , Guatemala 817 Words | 3 Pages. Why Did the Mayan Civilization Collapse? To gaze upon the majestic ruins of the Mayan civilisation which collapsed over a thousand years ago, one is often stirred with wonder and a . deep sense of curiosity (Diamond, 2005, p157-8). What happened to this great empire and what brought about its demise? The tremendous task of erecting such elaborate and Violence Against Women, colossal structures was clearly performed by the hands of a well-organized and adept group of humans (Crist and Paganini, 1980, pg24). Their empire occupied a vast area of roughly 325000 square.

Dos Pilas , Guatemala , Maya civilization 2267 Words | 7 Pages. What Caused the neale poems, Disappearance of the Violence Women, Mayan Civilization? It is still a great mystery how the Mayan civilization disappeared. This complex society reached its zenith around approximately 750 AD. . Retention Means? However, within the Violence Against Women Essay, next two hundred years, this civilization which was epic in its time collapsed and disappeared leaving minimal traces and versus, even more scanty detail about what could have caused this disappearance. Violence Essay? This knowledge gap has led to a lot of debate among scholars over the various possible reasons behind what seems to us to be the abandonment and desertion. Agriculture , Civilization , Guatemala 2592 Words | 7 Pages. How Did the Mayan People Disappear. Normally the in-text citations are short references to items on your References list at the end--but those sources don't focus on the Maya collapse.] . Even after of years of investigating and research of the mysteries disappearance of the Mayan people[,] archaeologists are yet to find the actual cause. The society has reached complexity around 750 AD [drop ago], so over the next several years it will be an epic in zora hurstons poems time [. meaning? grammar?] , with the disappearance which it was barely.

Belize , Central America , Guatemala 784 Words | 3 Pages. The Possible Causes for the Disappearance of the Ancient Mayan Civilization. During A.D. 300 and Against Women, 900 mayans flourished through much of Central America and in Yacatan in Southeren Mexico. It is said that there could be . John Locke Ideas? many reasons for the dissappearance, or the decline of the Against, Ancient Mayan Civiliztion. There are many theories about the mayan civilization that some think was due to lack of food, frequent warfare, and over population. The decline started around A.D. Parliament Versus Essay? 900, the Mayas left thier stone palaces and Against Women Essay, abandond their cities. That soon was barred by the jungle but the. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 958 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper: Mayan Culture There are many great tribes that existed as early as 2,000BC.

One of those great tribes were the retention means, . Mayans . The Maya were a part of Mesoamerica and Women Essay, existed during the classic period. The Maya were decicated to calculating time. View? They lived in city states and they were highly advanced in mathematical calculations. Violence Against Essay? They also were responsible for creating the most accurate calendar in the Americas. This civilization was one of the most advanced of its time. Stem Cell Media Cultures Essay? Furthermore, I. Central America , Guatemala , Maya calendar 589 Words | 2 Pages. Elan Footerman Dr.

Frank SS155 4/9/13 Mayan Astronomy One of the monumental aspects of the Mayan Civilization was . their interest in astronomy and the calendar . The Mayans made predictions in starwatching that are nearly as accurate as our calculations today. They were one of the Against Women Essay, first civilizations to show major advances in the study of the Cell Media Cultures Essay, stars. Violence Against? It is likely that the reason the Mayans wanted to study the stars and other celestial bodies was so that they would be able to predict weather. Civilization , Futurology , Guatemala 398 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss What Different Theories Suggest About the Disappearance of the Mayans. about the disappearance of the zora neale, Mayans . The Mayan civilization began during 2000 B.C. and by 200 A.D. they had reached their peak . of development, with more people per square kilometer than modern day New York. They were located throughout northern Central America, and Violence Women, present day southern Mexico. They continued to Whistle-Blowing In The develop with forms of mathematics and Violence Essay, astrometry, with observatories being built to follow the stars and planets. Retention Means? But during the Violence Women, 8th and new right view on education, 9th century the Mayans abandoned their cities and slowly. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 1773 Words | 5 Pages. of not being able to accomplish your everyday tasks.

First of all you should have a calendar . If you don’t have one, get one. Keeping a . calendar is an essential part to Against keeping track of your schedule. Can you think of a time when you didn’t keep track of President Essay your schedule? Was the day chaotic? Did you accomplish everything you needed to do? Keeping your days organized is easier than you think. Many phones have calendar apps to download, even for college students.

A good one is Student Life Organizer on. 2008 albums , Calendar , Management 1196 Words | 3 Pages. is a person interested in making calendars and raising money for a charitable fund. He wants to feature both men and women in his . calendar . He has previous experience with fund raising with calendars when he when created a calendar featuring Western rugby players to raise money for Violence Essay the team. Stem Cultures? He now wants to focus on charities like Breast Cancer Society (for women) and Jesse’s Journey Foundation (for men) for patients with neuromuscular disease. He wants his calendar to feature seductive pictures of. Calendar , Calendars , Cost 1153 Words | 4 Pages. made of turkey feathers to write in books made of soft bark taken from a type of fig tree. Violence Against? Religion was the center of the Mayan life. . Mayans believed that there were two levels of the world. The first level was the physical world and the second was the Stem Essay, spiritual world, which consisted of the old dead ancestors, gods, and other supernatural creatures.

The Mayan kings and Women, spiritual leaders would tell the lower levels of the society what would please the new right on education, gods. The gods were modeled. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 941 Words | 6 Pages. ?Justine Manigault Mr. Delaney World History 6 17 March 2014 The Mayans The Mayans are a well known civilization that arose . between the years of 250 A.D. and 900 A.D. Violence Women? They were located in Present day Southern Mexico and Parliament, Northern Central America.

They’ve created writing systems and Violence Women, delivered a sense of view on education mathematics, calendars , and astronomy. Most people only know of the Mayans from their greatest achievements but don’t realize how much of the eight features of civilization influenced their lives. Belize , Civilization , Guatemala 848 Words | 4 Pages. The Ancient Mayan civilization stands out from other ancient civilizations and is great because of its outstanding achievements and . developments. Essay? The Mayans are still known to new right on education this day for their exceptional architecture, medical discoveries, astronomy, and Violence Women, military tactics which were very successful.

In this essay I will explain what the Mayans have achieved to zora neale make themselves considered great, why they are great, and Against, why they overcome many of the retention means, other ancient civilizations. Mayan astronomy has. Belize , Civilization , Guatemala 852 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brandon Whittom Mr. Chris Naffziger Humanities 24 Nov 2014 Mayan Civilization The Mayan Civilization was one of Violence most influential . and fascinating cultures in history.

It is so interesting due to its cultural sophistication and its sudden disappearance. Mayan cities were situated on the forest of Central America. History has it that after several decades of glory, they let their world become ruins and fled their cities with no reason. Their creations were vast, and the society was complex, even before. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 3529 Words | 12 Pages. adoption of Cell Media Essay a new calendar in revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period 1789 to 1806. The adoption of the Against Essay, . revolutionary calendar to replace the Gregorian calendar took place on November 24, 1793 by the National Convention. This new calendar lasted until Napoleon I abolished it in 1806.

The new calendar was a adopted in revolutionary France for many reasons including secular ideas and retention means, political reasons. There were also many reactions to the change of calendar between 1789 and. Calendar reform , French Republican Calendar , Girondist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. depicted in the film, history of the Mayans became a lot easier to understand. The movie Apocalypto depicted events that took place during . the time of post-classic Mayan civilization, and Violence Women, also the time of the Mayan Decline (“Apocalypto.” Parliament Versus? Wikipedia, 17 April 2011. Web. 17 April 2011.). The movie was set in Yucatan, Mexico, where Mayan civilizations used to Essay existed (“Apocalypto.”

Wikipedia, 17 April 2011. Web. 17 April 2011.). Most Mayan tribes were polytheistic, meaning. Civilization , Guatemala , Maya civilization 1677 Words | 5 Pages.

?Running Head – THE GREAT MAYAN CIVILIZATION The Great Mayan Civilization 10/25/2012 . Abstract The Mayan is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to AD 250), according to the Mesoamerican chronology. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 2473 Words | 8 Pages. Mayan Civilization with citations! ?Kristie Morris APUSH Summer Work September 1, 2014 Mayans The Mayans were an Stem Media Essay extremely advanced . Mesoamerican civilization. They were located near modern day Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Mexico,1 on Violence Essay, the Yucatan Peninsula.2They were skilled in art and architecture. This is evident by the many pyramids they constructed. 3 This civilization also utilized a great deal of technology. They built magnificent cities with huge stone temples and pyramids.

They also developed. Belize , El Salvador , Guatemala 603 Words | 3 Pages. An Overview of the Ancient Mayan Empire. An Overview of the retention means, Ancient Mayan Empire The Mayan Empire was one of the most innovative and interesting civilizations. It was . an ancient civilization that was one of the most advanced and Violence Women Essay, innovative ones. They inhabited the Yucatan peninsula and the empire lasted for about 300 years.

It is considered the greatest civilization among the original cultures of the western hemisphere. The empire was located in what is now known as Central America. They lived in the area that is now Belize, Honduras. Art , Belize , Central America 668 Words | 2 Pages. god at Teotihuacan and later with the Toltecs and Aztecs. This period was a glorious period of In The Workplace development of crafts and trades, a complex religion, . Violence Women? intensive agriculture and many amazing cultural achievements. Many artifacts suggest that the Mayan society had a hierarchy. Many sculptures and murals left behind represented their rulers and leaders. These murals display their rulers on royal thrones and benches. These types of artifacts strongly suggest that the Mayas had a highly civilized. Aztec , Belize , Civilization 519 Words | 2 Pages.

Post-Classic period until the arrival of the view on education, Spanish. Mayan influence can be detected from Honduras, Guatemala, Northern El Salvador and to as . far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Violence Women Essay, Maya area. In this project we will come in uncover the four aspects of the Mayan civilization:- 1)Social aspect. 2)Economic aspect. 3)Political aspect. 4)Religious aspect. But first we will go through the history of the Mayans . Parliament? T he Mayan Civilization is classified into 3 parts:- 1)Pre-classic.

Belize , Guatemala , Maya calendar 12714 Words | 34 Pages. Disappearance of the Against, Mayan Civilization. Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Tyasheen Anderson HUM111 Dr. H Stansbury July 28, 2013 The Mayans The . View On Education? Ancient Mayan people were located in Mesoamerica which is a term that describes the area from Violence Essay, Mexico to Central America in which they inhabited. The Mayans also occupied the territory along Columbia and parts of Peru. Between the retention means, times of 250 to 900 BC the Mayans were known as dominant culture and very advanced for their time. The Mayans developed two sets of calendars , studied the stars. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 791 Words | 2 Pages. The Mayan Civilization By Muhammad Mustafa Topic I: The Mayans I. Early Settlements a. By 1500 B.C., . Mayans settled in villages, farmed, and traded. 1. They built temples in Violence Against Essay villages by retention means, 500 B.C., became cities.

II. Social Structure a. Most of them lived in Violence Essay city-states, and formed social structures. 1. King were at the top, then noble class of priests, leading warriors, 2. Then merchants and artisans, then farmers, 3. At the Stem Cell Cultures, bottom were slaves, most of Against Women Essay them. Belize , Guatemala , Maya civilization 459 Words | 2 Pages. Quiche Maya The piece of literature, The Wooden People from the Popol Vuh, a Quiche Mayan myth, is poems, a representation of the life, times, and . cultural values of the Violence Against Women, Mayan culture of Mexico in Cell the 16th century. The exact year it was written in Women is unknown. This myth is a Mayan creation story translated by Dennis Tedlock.

The wooden people in the story refer to the first humans that the Maker, the Quiche Mayan god of creation, made out of wood. He grew displeased with his creation however, and Cell Media, so he. Belize , Creation myth , Guatemala 1429 Words | 4 Pages. possessions sold or auctioned , or being sold into slavery or possibly getting thrown into Essay a jail for a very long time.Mayan law was pretty fair. If you . committed a lesser crime, your hair would be cut short. Short hair was a sign of disgrace. The Mayans believed that criminals did not act on john locke ideas, their own but were being controlled by evil spirits. Although they believed this, criminals were still being punished. The most serious offense was murder and the punishment.

They collected evidence and Violence Against Women, presented. Belize , Central America , Guatemala 2278 Words | 7 Pages. Mayan Architecture The City of Tulum Outline I. Intro II. The Mayan Civilization A. Mayan Time . Periods B. Retention Means? Mayan Territory C. Mayan Accomplishments D. Violence Against Essay? Mayan Collapse III. Mayan Architecture A. Intro B. Tulum (Case Study) 1. Tulum's History 2. Tulum's Influences and view on education, Styles 3. Tulum's Design a. Site 1. Economy 2. Violence Against Essay? Social Class Orientation 3. Defenses b. Buildings 1. Parliament President? El Castillo 2. Temple of Frescos 3. Temple of the Wind 4. Temple of the Descending God 5. Temple. Maya civilization , Maya peoples , Mayan languages 2096 Words | 8 Pages.

most anticipated date to come. There are many believers and non-believers of this so-called doomsday. Although scientists and others have argued the end of . the world, closer examination has shown that the Holy Bible (King James version), the ancient Mayan Civilization, and some scientific evidence support the Violence Against Essay, idea of the world ending in zora neale hurstons poems our near future but we are not certain of the exact date. Against Women? Many doubts have occurred about john locke ideas our species dying out on Violence Against Women Essay, Earth. Whether it is believed or not there is evidence. Bible , Earth , Guatemala 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Case Study #2: Campus Calendar Executive Summary Collegiate Images (CI) is zora hurstons poems, a start-up envisioned by eight college students.

They have a . small amount of Violence Against Women Essay starting capital and face a handful of key product and zora neale hurstons poems, operational decisions. They have settled on making a calendar with images of students in it. How they go about this is key, their relative success will be immediately apparent and their initial set of decisions will be critical to Violence Women the entire endeavor. They have collected some data. Calendar , Calendars , Marketing 2368 Words | 9 Pages. ? The Mayan And The Stonehenge Mysteries There are many Mysteries in life and in this world, many of them connected to civilization . which disappeared and vanished and no one really know they why and how also many of ideas those mysteries are connected to Women Essay ancient buildings or fixtures.

Two of Parliament Essay those mysteries which many people still talk about are the mystery of the Maya civilization and the mystery of the Stonehenge monument. Violence Women? Who are the Mayans ?. The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, which. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1535 Words | 4 Pages. mayan -society.html . Zora? Formative or Preclassic Maya mayan -society.html mayan /agriculture.htm Postclassic Maya and Women, Modern Day mayan -decline_N. Maya civilization , Maya peoples , Maya script 965 Words | 6 Pages. Egypt, Ancient Greece, China dynasties, etc.

Besides those big and famous civilizations existed in Europe and Asia, owning to the discovery of American . continent of Whistle-Blowing Christopher Columbus in 1492, one of the greatest civilizations was uncovered: the Women Essay, Mayan empire. As stated in “Maya civilization” (n.d), the Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization which is not only notably well-known for its written language system but also being famous for many achievements in art, architecture, mathematics and locke ideas, astronomy. Guatemala , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 1911 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Mayan calendar was created over 3,000 years ago and compared to the modern calendar was only Violence Against Essay, seventeen . seconds off. How can an ancient society create such a highly accurate calendar ? The Mayans were a very advanced society that used very complex systems of writing, astronomy, and mathematics and with these they created things such as their calendar . The complexity of the Mayan’s culture is very fascinating and unbelievable for such an ancient society. The Maya created the most sophisticated. Civilization , Maya calendar , Maya civilization 451 Words | 2 Pages.

Technologically Advanced Maya Civilization. Discuss the ways in which the Maya Civilization was technologically advanced. The Mayan culture had existed for nearly four thousand years. Versus Essay? . During the period from A.D. 250 to A.D. Violence Essay? 900 the Mayas experienced a growth, when the population and size of the neale poems, settlements reached its peak. This period of time is referred to as the Essay, Classic Period.

During the Classic Period, the Mayan civilization had developed a sophisticated mathematics systems and time measurement systems. Hurstons Poems? They calculated the movement. Maya calendar , Maya civilization , Maya numerals 984 Words | 3 Pages. The Cultural Similarities Differences Between the Inca and Mayan Empires. Though the Inca and Against Essay, Mayan empires existed at Cell Media different times in history, they have a few things in common.

Like other societies throughout . history though, they have many things that set them apart from Violence Against Women, each other. The biggest similarity they share is that they both had control of massive empires that eventually ceased to In The Workplace Essay exist. To start off with, the Mayans existed earlier in history than the Incas. Against Women? The Mayans existed from retention means, 1000 BC to AD 1697 and no one is Violence Against Women, quite certain what wiped out their ancient. Agriculture , Civilization , Guatemala 631 Words | 2 Pages.

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an essay on araby Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story Araby The content consists of brief but condensations of the action of the story. The content tells your reader what happens. Remember that you cannot relate all the action. Your outline willhelp you select only those points necessary to your reader's understanding of your interpretation of the work. Study the summary essay below to discover its organization. Note the proportion given in each paragraph to summary and to interpretation.

Theintroduction identifies the Violence Against, work and poems the author. Violence Against? Then, following back-ground information about the In The Workplace Essay, story, the writer states his thesis. In the bodyof the essay, each topic sentence points to a specific block of action or adevelopment in Violence Against Essay, the story. The content of each paragraph is devoted to Stem Cell Media Essay asummary of a selected block of action, and Violence the last sentence of each para-graph evaluates and interprets the action described. This process-summary followed by Stem Cell interpretation-continues through each paragraph tothe conclusion of the Violence Women Essay, essay. It is the interpretation that gives meaning andsignificance both to the story and to the essay. In the essay that follows, note the use of quotations and how each aids understanding and imparts asense of the style and manner of the work. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany.

Each of the fifteen stories in James Joyce's Dubliners presents aflat, rather spatial portrait. In The Workplace? The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and Against Essay each story culmi-nates in zora neale poems, an epiphany. In Joycean terms, an epiphany is a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on Violence Against his life converge, and versus Essay we can, in that instant, understand him.Each story in the collection is centered in an epiphany, and eachstory is concerned with some failure or deception, which results in re-alization and disillusionment. Araby follows this pattern. Themeaning is revealed in a young boy's psychic journey from first love to despair and disappointment, and the theme is found in the boy'sdiscovery of the discrepancy between the real and the ideal in Against Essay, life. The story opens with a description of North Richmond Street, ablind, cold . .. Essay? silent street where the houses gazed at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. It is a street of fixed, decaying conformity and false piety. Violence Against Women Essay? The boy's house contains the samesense of a dead present and a lost past. The former tenant, a priest,died in Stem Cell Cultures Essay, the back room of the house, and his legacy-several old yel-lowed books, which the boy enjoys leafing through because they areold, and a bicycle pump rusting in the back yard-become symbolsof the intellectual and Against Women Essay religious vitality of the past. The boy, in themidst of such decay and spiritual paralysis, experiences the confusedidealism and dreams of first love and his awakening becomes incom-patible with and in ironic contrast to the staid world about hurstons him. Every morning before school the boy lies on the floor in thefront parlor peeking out through a crack in the blind of the door,watching and waiting for Women Essay the girl next door to emerge from her houseand walk to school.

He is shy and Stem Cell still boyish. He follows her, walkssilently past, not daring to speak, overcome with a confused sense ofsensual desire and religious adoration. In his mind she is both a saintto be worshipped and a woman to Violence Essay be desired. His eyes are often fullof tears, and one evening he goes to the back room where the priesthad died. Clasping the palms of new right, his hands together, he murmurs, 0love! 0 love! in a prayer not to God, but to the concept of love andperhaps even to the girl, his love. Walking with his aunt to shop onSaturday evenings he imagines that the girl's image accompanies him,and that he protects her in Against Women, places the most hostile to romance. Inthe mixed symbolism of the Christian and the Romantic or Orientalmyths Joyce reveals the epiphany in the story: These noises con-verged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore mychalice safely through a throng of foes. He is unable to talk to thegirl. Drifting away from his schoolmates' boyish games, the Parliament, boy hasfantasies in his isolation, in the ecstasy and pain of first love. Violence? Finally the girl speaks to the boy.

She asks him if he is retention means going toAraby. Against? He replies that if he does he will bring her a gift, and fromthat moment, his thoughts upon the mixed imagery of the saintly lightupon her hair and the potential sensuality of the white border of apetticoat, the boy cannot sleep or study. The word Araby cast anEastern enchantment over him, and then on the night he is to go tothe bazaar his uncle neglects to return home. Neither the aunt noruncle understands the boy's need and anguish, and thus his isolationis deepened. We begin to see that the story is Whistle-Blowing Essay not so much a story oflove as it is a rendition of the Violence, world in which the boy lives. The second part of the story depicts the boy's inevitable disap-pointment and realization. In such an atmosphere of blindness-the aunt and neale uncle unaware of the boy's anguish, the Essay, girl not con-scious of the boy's love, and Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace Essay the boy himself blind to Violence the true natureof his love-the words hostile to romance take on retention means ironic overtones.These overtones deepen when the boy arrives too late at the bazaar.It is closing and the hall is in darkness. He recognizes a silencelike that which prevades a church after a service but the bazaar isdirty and disappointing. Two men are counting money on Women a salverand he listens to the fall of the coins. A young lady, bored withhim and interested in two men who are flirting with her, cheapensand destroys the boy's sense of an Eastern enchantment. His love,like his quest for a gift to ideas draw the girl to him in an unfriendly world,ends with his realizing that his love existed only in his mind.

Thus. the theme of the Violence Essay, story-the discrepancy between the real and theideal-is made final in the bazaar, a place of view on education, tawdry make-believe.The epiphany in which the boy lives a dream in spite of the Women Essay, ugly andthe worldly is brought to its inevitable conclusion: the john locke, single sensa-tion of Violence Essay, life disintegrates. John Locke Ideas? The boy senses the falsity of his dreams andhis eyes burn with anguish and anger. Violence Against Essay? Essay #2 Using Setting and Atmosphere. Remember that setting is usually a part of atmosphere and that atmo-sphere consists of the prevailing tone of the neale poems, work and its resultant meaningor effect. Some works will not warrant an Against, essay devoted to setting and at-mosphere; others, like Joyce's Araby, will be so profoundly dependentupon a particular setting that to ignore its importance will be to miss muchof the meaning of the work. Dream Versus Reality: Setting and Atmosphere in neale poems, James Joyce's Araby Convinced that the Dublin of the 1900's was a center of spiri-tual paralysis, James Joyce loosely but thematically tied together hisstories in Dubliners by means of Against Essay, their common setting. Each of thestories consists of a portrait in Stem Media, which Dublin contributes in some wayto the dehumanizing experience of modem life. The boy in Violence Essay, the storyAraby is intensely subject to the city's dark, hopeless conformity,and his tragic yearning toward the exotic in the face of drab, uglyreality forms the center of the locke, story. Against? On its simplest level, Araby is a story about Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace a boy's first love.On a deeper level, however, it is a story about the world in which helives-a world inimical to ideals and dreams. This deeper level is in-troduced and developed in several scenes: the opening description ofthe boy's street, his house, his relationship to his aunt and uncle, theinformation about the priest and his belongings, the boy's two trips-his walks through Dublin shopping and his subsequent ride toAraby.

North Richmond Street is described metaphorically and presentsthe reader with his first view of the boy's world. The street is blind; it is a dead end, yet its inhabitants are smugly complacent; the housesreflect the attitudes of their inhabitants. The houses are imperturba-ble in the quiet, the cold, the dark muddy lanes and darkdripping gardens. Violence Essay? The first use of situational irony is introducedhere, because anyone who is aware, who is not spiritually blinded orasleep, would feel oppressed and retention means endangered by North RichmondStreet. The people who live there (represented by the boy's aunt anduncle) are not threatened, however, but are falsely pious and dis-creetly but deeply self-satisfied. Violence? Their prejudice is dramatized by theaunt's hopes that Araby, the bazaar the boy wants to visit, is not14some Freemason affair, and by old Mrs.

Mercer's gossiping overtea while collecting stamps for some pious purpose. The background or world of blindness extends from a generalview of the street and its inhabitants to the boy's personal relation-ships. It is not a generation gap but a'gap in the spirit, in empathy and conscious caring, that results in the uncle's failure to arrive homein time for the boy to go to the bazaar while it is still open. Theuncle has no doubt been to the local pub, negligent and locke indifferent tothe boy's anguish and impatience. The boy waits well into Women Essay, the eveningin the imperturbable house with its musty smell and old, uselessobjects that fill the rooms. Parliament President Essay? The house, like the Violence Women, aunt and uncle, andlike the entire neighborhood, reflects people who are well-intentionedbut narrow in their views and blind to higher values (even the street lamps lift a feeble light to the sky). The total effect of such settingis an atmosphere permeated with stagnation and isolation. The second use of Workplace, symbolic description-that of the dead priest and his belongings-suggests remnants of a more vital past. The bi-cycle pump rusting in Violence, the rain in the back yard and the old yellowedbooks in the back room indicate that the priest once actively engaged in real service to God and man, and new right on education further, from the Against, titles of thebooks, that he was a person given to both piety and flights of imagi-nation. But the priest is dead; his pump rusts; his books yellow.

The effect is to deepen, through a sense of a dead past, the spiritual and Media Cultures Essay intellectual stagnation of the present.Into this atmosphere of spiritual paralysis the Violence, boy bears, withblind hopes and romantic dreams, his encounter with first love. Retention Means? In theface of ugly, drab reality-amid the curses of laborers, jostled bydrunken men and bargaining women-he carries his aunt's parcelsas she shops in the market place, imagining that he bears, not parcels,but a chalice through a throng of foes. The noises converged in asingle sensation of life and in a blending of Romantic and Christiansymbols he transforms in his mind a perfectly ordinary girl into anenchanted princess: untouchable, promising, saintly. Setting in thisscene depicts the harsh, dirty reality of life which the boy blindly ig-nores. The contrast between the real and the boy's dreams is ironi-cally drawn and clearly foreshadows the boy's inability to keep thedream, to remain blind. Violence Against Women Essay? The boy's final disappointment occurs as a result of his awaken-ing to the world around him.

The tawdry superficiality of the bazaar,which in his mind had been an Oriental enchantment, strips awayhis blindness and locke ideas leaves him alone with the realization that life andlove differ from the dream. Violence Against Essay? Araby, the symbolic temple of love, isprofane. The bazaar is dark and empty; it thrives on the same profitmotive as the market place (two men were counting money on asalver); love is represented as an empty, passing flirtation. Araby is a story of first love; even more, it is a portrait of aworld that defies the ideal and the dream. Thus setting in this storybecomes the true subject, embodying an atmosphere of spiritual pa-ralysis against which a young boy's idealistic dreams are no match.Realizing this, the boy takes his first step into adulthood. INSTRUCTIONS. It is possible in an essay to write about an isolated symbol-onewhich seems unusual, or appealing, or particularly apt. More often,though, you will deal with a central or recurrent symbol (like water inThe Great Good Place).

If you write about an isolated symbol, your thesis should be a strong statement of the existence of the symbol in the work,and, the body of your essay should be composed of statements that actuallyconstitute evidence of the existence of the symbol. As you develop paragraphs in john ideas, the body of the essay, make clear your reasons for Women Essay ascribing the symbolic significance you do, show the function of the symbol in the work, and above all, prove that awareness of the Workplace Essay, symbol enriches understanding or appreciation of the work. The Central Symbol of the Church in Joyce's Araby Joyce's short story Araby is filled with symbolic images of a church. It opens and Violence Against Women Essay closes with strong symbols, and in new right, the body ofthe story, the images are shaped by the young), Irish narrator's impres-sions of the effect the Church of Ireland has upon the people of Ire-land. The boy is fiercely determined to invest in someone within thisChurch the holiness he feels should be the natural state of all withinit, but a succession of experiences forces him to Against Essay see that his determi-nation is in vain. At the climax of the story, when he realizes that hisdreams of holiness and love are inconsistent with the actual world,his anger and anguish are directed, not toward the Church, but to-ward himself as a creature driven by vanity.

In addition to the im-ages in the story that are symbolic of the Church and its effect uponthe people who belong to it, there are descriptive words and phrasesthat add to this representational meaning. The story opens with a description of the Dublin neighborhoodwhere the boy lives. Strikingly suggestive of Whistle-Blowing In The Essay, a church, the image shows the ineffectuality of the Church as a vital force in Violence, the lives ofthe inhabitants of the neighborhood-the faithful within the Church.North Richmond Street is composed of two rows of new right view on education, houses withbrown imperturbable faces (the pews) leading down to the tall un-inhabited house (the empty altar). The boy's own home is set in Violence Against Essay, agarden the Stem Cultures Essay, natural state of which would be like Paradise, since it contains a central apple tree; however, those who should have caredfor it have allowed it to become desolate, and the central tree stands alone amid a few straggling bushes. At dusk when the boy and hiscompanions play in the street the lamps of the street lift their feeblelanterns to the sky of ever-changing violet (timid suppliants to thefar-away heavens). Since the boy is the Violence Against Women, narrator, the inclusion ofthese symbolic images in the description of the setting shows that theboy is sensitive to the lack of spiritual beauty in his surroundings.Outside the main setting are images symbolic of those who donot belong to the Church. The boy and his companions go there attimes, behind their houses, along the dark muddy lanes, to where the rough tribes (the infidel) dwell.

Here odors arise from the ash pits--those images symbolic to James Joyce of the moral decay of his nation. Even the house in which the youthful main character lives addsto the sense of moral decay. The former tenant, a priest (now dead),is shown to have been insensitive to the spiritual needs of his people.His legacy was a collection of books that showed his confusion of thesacred with the secular-and there is evidence that he devoted hislife to gathering money and furniture. He left behind no evidenceof a life of spiritual influence. Despite these discouraging surroundings, the boy is determined to find some evidence of the loveliness his idealistic dreams tell himshould exist within the Church.

His first love becomes the focal pointof this determination. Retention Means? In the person of Essay, Mangan's sister, obviouslysomewhat older than the Stem Cell Media, boy and his companions, his longings find anobject of worship. The boy's feelings for the girl are a confused mix-ture of sexual desire and of sacred adoration, as examination of theimages of her reveals. He is obsessed at one and the same time withwatching her physical attractions (her white neck, her soft hair, themovement of the brown-clad figure) and with seeing her always sur-rounded by light, as if by a halo. He imagines that he can carry herimage as a chalice through a throng of Violence Against Essay, foes-the cursing,brawling infidels at Stem Media Essay the market to which he goes with his aunt. Allother sensations of life fade from his consciousness and he is awareonly of his adoration of the blessed image. He spends his days feel-ing her summons to his foolish blood, a summons that is both astrong physical attraction and a strong pull to Violence Against Essay the holiness missing inhis life and in the lives of the people he knows. In all his watching ofher he is thankful that he can see so little, as men of his Churchhave ever been filled with holy dread to look upon the Virgin. When the girl finally speaks to him, her words are of ordinary concerns: she asks if he is going to Araby, a bazaar in another part ofthe city.

But the boy's imagination seizes upon the name Araby andinvests its syllables with an Eastern enchantment in which his soulluxuriates. Araby becomes a place where his soul can find the mysti-cal beauty lacking in his own mundane Church. The girl cannot at-tend the bazaar because of a retreat her convent is having that week.As a consequence the boy feels a summons that has symbolic over-tones of new right, a holy crusade: he is determined to go forth to the en-chanted place and bring back a gift worthy to lay at the feet of his adored one. Violence Against? The aunt and uncle with whom he lives are insensitive to zora hisburning need to fulfill his crusade. They are presented as persons living decently within the confines of their Church rules, but lacking avision of concerns higher and holier than mechanical conformity torules. They do, finally, though, provide the florin to allow him to go to Araby. Alone, he makes his way to the place of Eastern enchantment.When he arrives, he is struck by a silence like that of a church.This is followed by another image that calls up the image at the be-ginning of the story, that of the aisle leading to an altar. Violence Women? In this case,it is a hall leading to the booth displaying porcelain vases (chalicesfor the Eucharist), and flowered tea sets (the flowers on the altar).The great jars guarding the stall can be interpreted as symbols of themysticism standing guard over the Church.

For the boy, the girl attending the stall, like Mangan's sister, be-comes an object of faith. But when she speaks-again like Mangan'ssister-her words are trivial and worldly. In a sudden flash of insightthe boy sees that his faith and his passion have been blind. He sees inthe two men counting money on a salver a symbol of the moneylen-ders in the temple. He allows the pennies to fall in his pocket.

Thelights in the hall go out; his church is in retention means, darkness. Tears fill hiseyes as he sees himself a creature driven and Against derided by vanity,whose foolish blood made him see secular desires as symbols oftrue faith. In this moment of disillusionment he feels that he himselfis at fault for being so bemused by his ideals that he failed completelyto see the world as it is. He has discovered in his Church and in love(both traditional symbols of Parliament versus, ineffably sacred loveliness) only a shoddyimitation of true beauty. Understandably his disillusionment causes him anguish and Violence Against anger.

Using Myth and In The Essay Archetype. The heart of myth is rooted in Violence Against Women Essay, religion, in attempts to explain creation, thesoul, and man's place in the world. A discussion of myth, therefore, mustbe preceded by your discovery of retention means, its presence in a work; and for Violence Essay your dis-cussion to zora neale hurstons be meaningful, you must understand the origin or source of theideas you decide to ascribe to myth. (In Araby, we perceive the clearpresence of a reference to Christianity.) Remember that archetype can be generously applied to a num-ber of man's values, dreams, and beliefs, but that myth comprises only apart of Against Women, archetype. Archetype is a much larger term, and if you perceivesome universal experience in a literary work, it can quite logically form apart of our racial past. Family, marriage, war, peace, the need to be lovedand to live forever: these are patterns, emotions, and drives we share withour ancestors. They change little with time, and Parliament versus President Essay each generation respondsto them with deep emotions. The presence of archetype in Violence Women Essay, a work givesthat work added importance and an essay defining the archetype, its effectand resultant added meaning will be of value to readers who may have re-sponded but have not discerned why. Essay? To write an essay using myth and Women archetype, determine how theirpresence influences and reveals the meaning of the work.

If myth or arche-type becomes the basis of a work (as they do in Araby), an essay point-ing out poems, their meaning will provide you with a ready-made thesis. Orderingthe development of your essay will become relatively simple, for the stagesof the reenactment of the archetypal pattern will direct your presentation.If, on Against Women Essay the other hand, the use of john ideas, myth does not form the basis of the Violence Against Women, entirework, but is only an enrichment of another pattern, your order of Whistle-Blowing Essay, develop-ment will be somewhat more complex. In this case you will need to deter-mine the Against Women Essay, precise function the retention means, single use of the Violence, mythic element serves andthen center your thesis on this function. The Lonely Quest of retention means, James Joyce's Araby Probably no other twentieth century short story has called forthmore attention than Joyce's Araby. Some universality of Essay, experiencemakes the story interesting to readers of all ages, for they respond in-stinctively to President Essay an experience that could have been their own. It is apart of the instinctual nature of man to Violence long for what he feels is thelost spirituality of his world. In all ages man has believed that it ispossible to search for and find a talisman, which, if brought back, willreturn this lost spirituality. New Right View? The development of theme in Araby re-sembles the archetypal myth of the quest for a holy talisman.

In Araby, Joyce works from a visionary mode of artisticcreation-a phrase used by psychiatrist Carl Jung to describe the,'visionary kind of literary creation that derives its material fromthe hinterland of man's mind-that suggests the abyss of Violence Against Essay, time sepa-rating us from prehuman ages, or evokes a superhuman world of con-trasting light and darkness. It is Cell Cultures Essay a primordial experience, which sur-passes man's understanding and to which he is Against Essay therefore in danger ofsuccumbing. 1 Assuredly this describes Joyce's handling of the mate-rial of Araby. The quest itself and its consequences surpass the Media, un-derstanding of the young protagonist of the Violence Against Women, story. He can only feelthat he undergoes the experience of the quest and naturally is con-fused, and at zora neale poems the story's conclusion, when he fails, he is anguishedand angered. His contrasting world of light and darkness containsboth the lost spirituality and the dream of Against Women Essay, restoring it.

Because ourown worlds contain these contrasts we also feel, even though theprimordial experience surpasses our understanding, too. It is true, as a writer reminds us, that no matter the work,Joyce always views the order and Stem Cell disorder of the world in terms ofthe Catholic faith in which he was reared. Violence Against Essay? 2 In Araby, however,there is, in addition, an overlay of Eastern mysticism. Zora Hurstons Poems? This diversity of background materials intensifies the universality of the experience.We can turn to the language and the images of the story to see howthe boy's world is shown in terms of these diverse backgounds. There is little that is light in the comer of Women, Dublin that formsthe world of the story, little that retains its capability to evoke spiri-tuality. North Richmond Street is blind; the houses stare at one an-other with brown imperturbable faces. The time is winter, with itsshort days and its early dusk. Only the retention means, boy and Violence Against Women Essay his laughing, shoutingcompanions glow; they are still too young to have succumbed tothe spiritual decay of the adult inhabitants of Dublin.

But the boysmust play in zora neale, dark muddy lanes, in dark dripping gardens, neardark odorous stables and ashpits. Joyce had said of Dubliners,the collection of stories from which Araby comes, that he intendedto write a chapter in the moral history of my country and Women I choseDublin for the scene because that city seemed to john ideas me the Against Essay, centre ofparalysis. 3 The images of the story show us that the spiritual envi-ronment of the boy is paralyzed; it is musty, dark. Everywhere in his dark surroundings the boy seeks the zora neale poems, light. He looks for it in the central apple tree-symbol of religiousenlightenment-in the dark garden behind his home. The gardenshould be like Eden, but the tree is Against Women overshadowed by the desolationof the Whistle-Blowing In The, garden, and thus has become the tree of spiritual death. Helooks for light in Against Women Essay, the room of his home where the ideas, former tenant, apriest, had died, but the only objects left by the priest were books,yellowed and damp. Here, too, the quest has failed. No evidence ofspiritual life remains. Decay and rust have taken over all the treasures the priest had laid up on earth for himself.

Into this world of Women, darkness appears a girl, Mangan's sister. Be-cause of her the boy feels a surge of retention means, hope that now in her love he willfind light. Even though he has never spoken to her, except for Violence Against a fewcasual words, her name is like a summons to all his foolish blood.His youthful imagination sees her always surrounded with light; sheis the contrast to Cell Media Cultures his dark world. She becomes an image to him of allthat he seeks. Against Women Essay? That image accompanies him even in places the mosthostile to Whistle-Blowing romance: the market and the streets, among the drunkenmen and bargaining women, amid the curses of labourers, the shrilllitanies of shop-boys. In this unlikely place occurs what Joyce calls an epiphany, which to him means a sudden spiritual manifesta-tion, when objects or moments of Violence, inconsequential vulgarity can betransfigured to something spiritual.4 The boys says, I imagined that Ibore my chalice safely through a throng of foes.

Plainly he has feltthe summons to cherish the holy, the light, in this dark world ofthose who are hostile to Cell Cultures the sacred. However, what he feels is beyond his understanding. His lovefor the Violence Women Essay, girl is part sexual desire, part sacred adoration. In The Workplace? He is, he says,confused. He loses interest in his school and in Violence Against Women Essay, everything about him; hethinks of nothing but the girl. He can see her dark house, herbrown-clad figure touched by lamp-light.

He feels that he has foundone image of Media Cultures Essay, holiness in his world of lost spirituality. If he can gainthe girl, he feels, the Women Essay, light will be restored to Cell Media Cultures his dark existence. In his one conversation with her she reveals that she cannot goto Araby, a bazaar she would like to attend. She suggests that itwould be well for him to go. He speaks impulsively: If I go I willbring you something. His opportunity has come. He can go toAraby-his soul luxuriates in the very syllables of the mysticallymagic name-and he can bring back a talisman to Violence Women secure his favorwith her. Retention Means? The lost light of his world will be restored. Violence Women? Undoubtedly, as a writer suggests, Araby is Arabia, which is associated with thePhoenix, symbol of the renewal of new right, life.

5. Over half the story is concerned with the delays and frustrationsin his plans for his quest, and with his final journey to the en-chanted place, where the talisman will be procured. Significantly, he must go to Araby alone. The train is deserted; when throngs of buy-ers try to press their way onto the train the porters move them back,saying this is a special train for the bazaar. All who go on a questfor the high and the holy must go alone.

Arriving, he finds the bazaar nearly empty. Violence Essay? He recognizes a si-lence like that which pervades a church after a service. The churchis empty; it is not attended by zora neale hurstons the faithful. Two men count money ona silver salver. The young lady who should attend him ignores himto exchange inane vulgarities with two young gentlemen. Suddenly from the trivialities here the boy experiences anotherepiphany, a sudden showing forth in which his mind is floodedwith light, with truth. He can see the parallel that exists between thegirl here and his girl; he can see his feeling for her for what it is-physical attraction. Her brown-clad figure is one with the drabworld of North Richmond Street. Here, instead of Women Essay, Eastern enchant-ment, are flimsy stalls for buying and Cell selling flimsy wares.

His grailhas turned out to be only flimsy tea sets covered with artificial flow-ers. As the upper hall becomes completely dark, the boy realizes thathis quest has ended. Gazing upward, he sees the vanity of imagininghe can carry a chalice through a dark throng of foes. 1 Carl G. Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soid. trans. W. S. Dell and CaryF. Baynes (New York, 1933), pp. 156-157. 2 William Bysshe Stein, Joyce's 'Araby': Paradise Lost, Perspective, X11,No.

4 (Spring 1962), 215. 3 From Letters of James Joyce, Vol. II, ed. Richard Ellmarm (New York,1966), p. 134. 4 James Joyce, Stephen Hero (New York, 1944), pp. 210-211. 5 Marvin Magalaner, Time of Apprenticeship: The Fiction of Young JamesJoyce (London, 1959), p. 87. USING POINT OF VIEW. If we draw an analogy of a multistoried house withwindows on all sides, we can understand that a person's view of the worldcan vary greatly, depending on which window he views it from; whether heis outside looking in; or whether, distantly, he looks at the house and the surrounding countryside simultaneously. Certainly our view of a characterwill depend upon our position in relation to the scene, just as his view islimited by the author.

Henry James considered the positioning of both characters and narrator crucial to fiction, and in recent years (in fact since his detailed studiesof point of view) critics have considered the artist's use of point of Violence Against Women Essay, view the central focus for interpretation. Look at the questions point of view provokes. Does the viewpoint allow for irony? Does it limit sympathy or does it evoke greater sympathy? Does it causeattitudes to be formed?

What are they? Does choice of this particular nar-rator or persona influence the reader's view of the retention means, situation? How? Does itcontrol imagery and Violence Essay symbolism? In your conclusion, reaffirm your thesis by showing the overall effec-tiveness of the point of view on the work. Did the work gain much or littlefrom its use? Study the following essay to better understand how point ofview in retention means, Araby frees language, achieves psychic distance, and intensifiesthe experience portrayed. Women? THE IRONIC NARRATOR OF JAMES JOYCE'S ARABY Although James Joyce's story Araby is told from the view, first per-son viewpoint of its young protagonist, we do not receive the impres-sion that a boy tells the story. Instead, the narrator seems to be a manmatured well beyond the experience of the story. Violence? The mature man re-minisces about his youthful hopes, desires, and frustrations. Morethan if a boy's mind had reconstructed the events of the story for us,this particular way of telling the story enables us to perceive clearlythe torment youth experiences when ideals, concerning both sacredand earthly love, are destroyed by a suddenly unclouded view of theactual world.

Because the man, rather than the boy, recounts the President Essay, experi-ence, an ironic view can be presented of the institutions and personssurrounding the boy. This ironic view would be impossible for theimmature, emotionally involved mind of the boy himself. Only an adult looking back at the high hopes of foolish blood and its resul-tant destruction could account for the ironic viewpoint. Throughoutthe story, however, the narrator consistently maintains a full sensitiv-ity to his youthful anguish. Violence Against Women Essay? From first to last we sense the reality tohim of his earlier idealistic dream of beauty. The opening paragraph, setting the scene, prepares us for In The Workplace theview we receive of the conflict between the loveliness of the ideal andthe drabness of the actual. Descriptive words show the narrator's con-sciousness of the boy's response to beauty and Violence Women the response of retention means, theneighborhood people, who are blind to beauty: North RichmondStreet is blind; its houses, inhabited by decent people, stare un-seeingly at one another-and all this is under a sky of ever-changingviolet, in a setting of gardens marred by Women the odours of Parliament President, ash-pitsand dark odorous stables. The boy's own house, which had form-erly been inhabited by a priest, is placed in a garden like that ofEden. It is a place of potential holiness, shown to us in the irony ofthe garden's barrenness and the priest's worldliness: the Violence Against, garden hasnow only a central apple tree and a few straggling bushes; thepriest had died and left behind him evidence of his preoccupationwith secular literature and with collecting money and furniture.

Into this setting appears a figure representative of all that isideal, the girl. Stem Media? The narrator shows us in a subtly ironic manner thatin his youthful adoration of Mangan's sister she is, confusedly, theembodiment of all his boyish dreams of the beauty of physical desireand, at the same time, the embodiment of his adoration of all that isholy. In his dark environment Mangan's sister stands out, a figure al-ways shown outlined by light, with the power to set aflame in him azeal to Against Women Essay conquer the uncaring and the unholy. Her image, constantlywith him, makes him feel as though he bears a holy chalice througha throng of foes-the Saturday evening throng of drunken men,bargaining women, cursing laborers, and all the others who have noconception of the versus, mystical beauty his young mind has created in thisworld of material ugliness. He is alone as a boy, the man narrator shows us, with his viewof the possible loveliness of the world. Even the aunt and uncle withwhom he lives are callous to his burning need to go to the bazaar,which looms in his imagination as a place of mystical Eastern en-chantment, to purchase a gift worthy of his loved one. Looking back,the narrator can see that his uncle had been concerned with his daily,worldly tasks, his aunt with maintaining a decent observance ofthis day of our Lord, although she does not want him to be disap-pointed in his wish to go to the bazaar. From the vantage point ofmaturity the narrator can realize that the aunt and the uncle perhaps once possessed an awareness of the romantic, an awareness that hassince been clouded by the drabness of North Richmond Street.

Like Stephen Dedalus of Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as aYoung Man, the boy, then, must seek for the high, the inviolate, byhimself. And, also like Stephen, he finds instead the world. When heenters Araby the boy sees its resemblance to an emptied church, andthat is the irony so far as maturity can view it: Araby is not a holyplace because it is not attended by the faithful. He has come alone on a deserted train; the bazaar, full of spu-rious wares, is tended by uncaring people who leave him even morealone than he had been before; the young lady who should havewaited on him ignores him to Against joke with two young men. The younglady's inane remarks to the young men have a ring in the memory ofthe mature narrator reminiscent of his adored one's remarks. Both areconcerned with the material, the crass. The narrator can, with his backward look, supply us with twoapprehensions: one, the In The Workplace Essay, fully remembered, and thus fully felt, anguishof a too sudden realization of the disparity between a youthful dreamof the mystic beauty of the world and his actual world; and two, theirony implicit in a view that can see the dream itself as a vanity. In his brief but complex story, Araby, James Joyce concen-trates on character rather than on plot to reveal the ironies inherentin self-deception. On one level Araby is a story of Against, initiation, of versus President Essay, aboy's quest for the ideal. The quest ends in failure but results in aninner awareness and a first step into manhood. On another level thestory consists of a grown man's remembered experience, for the storyis told in retrospect by a man who looks back to a particular momentof intense meaning and insight.

As such, the Against Women Essay, boy's experience is notrestricted to youth's encounter with first love. Rather, it is a portrayalof a continuing problem all through life: the incompatibility of theideal, of the Parliament President, dream as one wishes it to be, with the bleakness of Violence Against, real-ity. This double focus-the boy who first experiences, and the manwho has not forgotten-provides for the dramatic rendering of retention means, astory of first love told by a narrator who, with his wider, adult vision,can employ the sophisticated use of irony and symbolic imagery nec-essary to Women Essay reveal the story's meaning. The boy's character is indirectly suggested in the opening scenesof the story. Zora Neale Hurstons Poems? He has grown up in Violence Against, the backwash of a dying city. Sym-bolic images show him to be an individual who is sensitive to the factthat his city's vitality has ebbed and left a residue of Whistle-Blowing Workplace Essay, empty piety, thefaintest echoes of romance, and only symbolic memories of an Against Essay, activeconcern for neale hurstons poems God and fellow men. Although the young boy cannot ap-prehend it intellectually, he feels that the Against Essay, street, the town, and Irelanditself have become ingrown, self-satisfied, and unimaginative.

It is In The Workplace a. world of spiritual stagnation, and as a result, the boy's outlook is se-verely limited. He is ignorant and Against Women therefore innocent. Lonely, imagin-ative, and isolated, he lacks the understanding necessary for evalua-tion and perspective. He is at first as blind as his world, but Joyceprepares us for his eventual perceptive awakening by tempering hisblindness with an unconscious rejection of the spiritual stagnation ofhis world. Zora? The boy's manner of thought is Against Women also made clear in the openingscenes. Religion controls the lives of the retention means, inhabitants of Violence Against Women Essay, North Richmond Street, but it is a dying religion and receives only lip service.The boy, however, entering the Media, new experience of first love, finds hisvocabulary within the experiences of his religious training and the ro-mantic novels he has read. The result is an idealistic and confused in-terpretation of love based on quasireligious terms and the imagery ofromance. This convergence of two great myths, the Violence, Christian with itssymbols of hope and sacrifice and the Oriental or romantic with itsfragile symbols of heroism and escape, merge to form in his mind anillusory world of mystical and ideal beauty. This convergence, whichcreates an epiphany for the boy as he accompanies his aunt throughthe market place, lets us experience with sudden illumination the tex-ture and content of his mind.

We see the futility and stubbornness ofhis quest. But despite all the evidence of the dead house on locke ideas a deadstreet in a dying city the boy determines to bear his chalice safelythrough a throng of foes. He is blindly interpreting the world in theimages of his dreams: shop boys selling pigs' cheeks cry out in shrilllitanies; Mangan's sister is saintly; her name evokes in him strangeprayers and praises. The boy is extraordinarily lovesick, and fromhis innocent idealism and stubbornness, we realized that he cannotkeep the dream. Violence Against Women Essay? He must wake to the demands of the world aroundhim and react. In The? Thus the first half of the story foreshadows (as the Violence Against, manlater realizes) the boy's awakening and disillusionment. The account of the boy's futile quest emphasizes both his lonelyidealism and his ability to achieve the locke, perspectives he now has. Thequest ends when he arrives at the bazaar and realizes with slow, tor-tured clarity that Araby is not at Essay all what he imagined. It is zora neale tawdryand dark and thrives on the profit motive and the eternal lure itsname evokes in Against Essay, men. The boy realizes that he has placed all his loveand hope in a world that does not exist except in his imagination.

Hefeels angry and betrayed and realizes his self-deception. He feels he isa creature driven and derided by vanity and the vanity is his own. New Right View? The man, remembering this startling experience from his boy-hood, recalls the moment he realized that living the dream was lost asa possibility. That sense of Violence Women Essay, loss is intensified, for view its dimension growsas we realize that the desire to, live the dream will continue throughadulthood. At no other point in Violence Women Essay, the story is characterization as brilliant asat the end.

Joyce draws his protagonist with strokes designed to let usrecognize in john locke ideas, the creature driven and derided by vanity both a boywho is initiated into knowledge through a loss of innocence and aman who fully realizes the incompatibility between the beautiful andinnocent world of the imagination and the very real world of fact. InAraby, Joyce uses character to embody the theme of his story.

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Critical Studies in Improvisation / Etudes critiques en improvisation. Edited by Jim Tuedio and Stan Spector. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. It is not at all surprising that the field of improvisational studies has, for Against Women Essay the most part, concentrated its attention on Workplace Essay manifestations of Violence Against, improvisation in avant-garde contexts, given the still pervasive suspicion of the value of popular culture within the scholarly community. Although those who study popular music have made great strides in establishing its importance within academic circles, avant-garde art has an undeniable de facto legitimacy that popular varieties still lack. It is therefore a welcome opportunity for me to review this recently published collection of essays concerning a musical group that over 30 years and new right some 2300 performances likely performed for more people than any other in history. This is not the first edited volume to focus on Women Essay the Grateful Dead (see also Weiner, Dodd and Essay Spaulding, Gimbel, Meriwether), but it is the first to specifically focus on the improvisational character of their music and Against Women Essay the broader “deadhead” culture that came to so thoroughly define them. For despite the critiques of the Whistle-Blowing In The Essay value of improvisation to, and indeed its actuality in, popular music (Frith, Adorno), its importance to the Grateful Dead (hereafter simply the Dead) would be difficult to overstate.

Although its ideals were not always lived up to in their practice, improvisation did define them in a myriad number of Violence Against Women, ways that the essays in this volume explore. Passion and care for the music of the Dead and its attendant “deadhead” culture are clearly evident throughout The Grateful Dead in Concert ; producing this volume was obviously a labor of love for those involved. John Ideas! Such feelings can certainly be very beneficial to researchers in Against Women Essay, helping to Parliament President motivate and inspire their work. However, one of the perennial problems faced by scholars of Violence Essay, popular culture is sufficiently disengaging from their emotional attachments in order to give a scholarly, as opposed to fan-based, account of their object of study. Retention Means! For the most part, the authors in Violence Essay, this collection accomplish this detachment.

A notable exception, however, is Stem Essay, David Malvinni who—in what is overall an interesting and provocative discussion of the Against Women ways in which the Dead’s usage of the blues and musical technology can be understood as realizing a Heideggerian “saving power” of reconnection to the ekstasis of Being—lapses more than once into view on education uninterrogated fan-speak. Perhaps the most egregious example is where, discussing the broader context of the Violence Essay appropriation of the blues by white musicians in the 1960s, both in the USA and the UK, he states: “The music produced in john, this blues revival was essential, authentic, and beautifully wrought” (74-75). Beautifully wrought some of it might well be, but how is one to plausibly conceive of any variety of Violence Against Women, music as “essential”? (To whom? And how?) In addition, to Cell Cultures invoke a particular music’s purported authenticity (as he does a number of other times), without qualification, is baffling given the voluminous amount of work that has appeared in recent decades critiquing the application of Violence Essay, this concept to music (see, among others, Taruskin, Kivy, Peterson, and Moore). Essay! One wishes that Malvinni had avoided such hyperbole, because despite the many interesting points he does make, it puts his overall judgment into question and serves to reinforce prejudices against the study of popular culture as lacking in seriousness and objectivity. In her essay “Examining Grateful Dead Improvisation as a Catalyst for Creating Sustained Communitas ,” Amanda Diederich-Hirsch uses Victor Turner’s description and Against Women Essay analysis of the liminality of ritual processes through the concept of communitas to explain what was (and continues to be today) one of the most fascinating aspects of the Dead: the passion, loyalty and communal involvement of their many “deadhead” fans. Eschewing the conventional essay form, Deiderich-Hirsch instead uses a loosely related series of short sections that explain the history, motivation, experience, dilemmas and conflicts of deadhead culture. There is much that is interesting and worthwhile in Diederich-Hirsch’s essay, but there are also some aspects of it I must question.

First, the ostensible apolitical nature of the Dead and their music has often been remarked upon (most notably Brightman), and Diederich-Hirsch follows suit, writing that though they “seem to personify counterculture ideals [. . Stem Cell Cultures! .] they were staunchly committed to nonaction, and chose not to confront politics, injustice, or social values like other bands from the Violence Against 1960s” (296). Retention Means! Although it is true that the Dead were in Violence, general quite reticent about explicitly addressing politics, on locke more than one occasion they did indeed do so. The song “Throwing Stones,” for example, written in the early 1980s, addresses quite directly the specter of Violence Against Essay, nuclear war; and “We Can’t Run” does the same for the long-term effects of environmental degradation. The Dead also performed many benefit concerts that often had quite explicit political goals. One could argue that these are the exceptions that prove the rule, but they, at the very least, complicate the conventional blanket denial of the Dead’s political interventions and suggest a deeper questioning of what was understood as politics by Cultures, them and their fans. Can we not understand the continuation and propagation of the counter-cultural ideals of the Against Women Essay 1960s through the Whistle-Blowing Workplace Essay 1990s and beyond, that the Violence Against Women Dead facilitated (through their nearly constant touring) and the deadheads realized (though often imperfectly), as implicitly political? Therefore, rather than simply denying the john role of politics within the Dead community, it would be more useful to Violence Against Essay think through how the Dead might have suggested a political understanding through their improvised musical practices, despite the generally apolitical character of their lyrics. Diederich-Hirsch also argues, following Turner, that Dead concerts “facilitated transformative experiences between participants by enabling them to step outside of their structural roles” (297). That is, rather than being defined by john locke ideas, differences of Violence, class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and so forth, within the communitas of the Parliament President Essay Dead concert experience, the individual experiences of attendees transgressed these normally stable categories. Diederich-Hirsch goes on to state, “that the population in the Grateful Dead’s following bore a strong resemblance to the rest of Violence Women Essay, twentieth-century America’s population” (298).

Much as I, as both a fan of the Dead and someone with liberal political views, would like this to be the retention means case, however, such a description does not match my experience. Instead, what has often struck me in my experiences in this community is how unrepresentative it is of America’s actual demographics: overwhelmingly white and from generally middle and upper economic classes. Women Essay! Although Turner’s account of the socially transgressive possibilities attendant to the liminal-dimensions of communitas is of some use in Stem, explaining the, in some ways, quite remarkable difference, diversity, and flux of the Women identities that make up the locke individuals at a Dead concert, it seems naively utopian to Violence Against Women Essay think that structural social processes, and the identities that make them up, do not affect its constitution. Zora! Indeed, Pamela Hunt’s research indicates that there does seem to be a strong connection between ethnicity, class, and Dead fandom. So although Turner’s understanding of communitas is Violence Women Essay, explicitly at odds with the universalism of Pierre Bourdieu’s account of neale hurstons, aesthetic distinction, Diederich-Hirsch’s essay would have greatly benefited by taking Bourdieu into consideration—even if only to argue for the limited application of his theory within liminal states. Jay Williams’ essay, “Bears and Flags: The Grateful Dead’s America and Violence Bohemian Nationalism,” complements Diederich-Hirsch’s discussion by versus, both contextualizing the Dead and their counter-cultural ideals within a history of bohemianism in California and by exploring the Violence Women ways in which they negotiated their assertion of new right view on education, these ideals within late 20 th -century America. Williams brings together a fascinating mix of materials, references, and theories to show that the Dead did indeed have a politics of a sort. It is, however, precisely in the redefinition of the political that they and Violence other bohemians before them operate and, therefore, why they are so often, ironically, either accused or celebrated as non-political. Jim Tuedio’s “‘Pouring its Light into Ashes’: Exploring the Multiplicity of Becoming in Grateful Dead Improvisation,” is a very interesting and neale hurstons provocative Deleuzian account of the Dead’s practices. Following Deleuze and Guattari’s discussion of rhythm and musical improvisation in A Thousand Plateaus , Tuedio deftly explores the many ways in which the Dead deterritorialized their audience through their purposeful embracing of Against Women, chaos in the continual on-going re-creation of their music. Rather than live performances characterized by set lists that stayed more or less the same, made up of retention means, songs that as closely as possible reproduced their studio recorded versions, the Dead’s sets were “assemblages,” in the Deleuzian sense of agglomerations of highly heterogeneous elements (from the most simple folk/country songs to Against Essay the furthest reaches of the 20 th century musical avant-garde), as their always improvised songs remained in versus President Essay, a perpetual state of “becoming” (Deleuze and Against Essay Guattari).

Given such an exploration of the Dead in Stem, Deleuzian terms, however, it is strange that in an introductory discussion of the group’s practices Tuedio approvingly quotes a 1969 article on the Dead (by someone named Lydon) that, “Each time it is Jerry [Garcia their lead guitarist] who leads them [the group] out” on their improvisational journeys (134). Although Garcia was often the group’s musical leader, there were many instances in which it was quite clearly bassist Phil Lesh, rhythm guitarist Bob Weir, or their various keyboardists, who were leading the band. This was, in fact, one of the most interesting qualities of the group. Despite Garcia’s status as the group’s first-among-equals and leader in all but name, they realized a highly democratic musical conversation that did not depend on a single, stable source of authority, but was instead characterized by a remarkably non-hierarchical, horizontal multiplicity that remained open to change and diversity. Despite the many problems that arose from Garcia’s refusal to use his authority (David Gans discusses this in his essay, 329-31), it is, I think, no coincidence that of all the psychedelic musical groups to come out of the 1960s, only the Dead remained together and continued to tour year after year until Garcia’s death in 1995. Exploring the connections between their musical and cultural longevity and their use of Deleuzian practices would be a fascinating continuation of Tuedio’s work. Graeme Boone, the author of two essays in this volume, should be familiar to music specialists interested in Women Essay, the Dead, as he is the author of Parliament versus Essay, a 1997 article that is notable as one of the first published attempts to apply traditional methods of musical analysis to the Dead’s music. Women Essay! In “Mandalas and the Dead,” Boone explores the Dead’s connection to the widespread shift towards, and increasing interest in, Eastern spiritual traditions in the West in the 1960s.

He points out that although the Dead came out of the San Francisco “hippy” scene of the mid-to-late 1960s, which was suffused with aspects of Eastern spirituality, they had a decidedly ambivalent relationship toward its various ideas, beliefs and influences. On the one hand, the In The album covers of their first three albums all feature imagery that strongly invokes Eastern spirituality; on the other hand, lyrical references to any Eastern spiritual traditions are notably absent from their songs, even those on the above-mentioned albums. And although different band members did, at various points, discuss their music in spiritual, transcendent terms, they never used specifically Eastern concepts to do so. What music from Asia might have influenced the group, however, is a more difficult question to Violence Against Women Essay answer. Boone states categorically, “Despite the imagery on these early album covers, the Dead did not plumb the view sounds of the Essay East for the music of the records themselves” (33)—and he is Stem Media Cultures, correct—up to a point—with the notable exception of the prominent use of Women Essay, a tamboura on the 1968 single version of “Dark Star”—but they did realize its musical evocation in other ways, perhaps most explicitly with a musical section generally referred to as “Spanish Jam.” First performed in early 1968, it appeared periodically in concert until the group’s demise in 1995.

Although its title refers to Spain rather than anywhere in Asia, this is a distinction without much meaning given that the specific “other” that it connotes can hardly be so specifically identified (although research into the origins of versus Essay, its name might be highly useful in understanding the discursive implications of musical structures within the deadhead community). Women! Also, although “Spanish Jam” never officially appeared on a studio album, a brief hint of it does occur within the song “Born Cross-Eyed” on Anthem of the new right Sun ; the same basic chords are used, only here with a trumpet solo in addition to guitar (Light Into Ashes). Given the well-known disdain of the Dead’s members, however, as well as many of their fans, for their studio albums in comparison to their live performances, 1 it would be useful to consider their live musical material that did not appear on Women Essay studio albums in Parliament, a discussion of their relation to the influences of the East. In this regard, I would venture to include not only Against Women Essay “Spanish Jam,” but also their various odd-time signature songs and jams (“the Seven,” “the Eleven” and “the Main Ten”) that came out of drummer Mickey Hart’s studies of Hindustani rhythmic principles. Furthermore, given the familiarity of the view Dead’s members with Indian music, one could well argue that the harmonically-static, modal type of improvising that the Dead so often made use of was derived not only from the modal jazz of Miles Davis and John Coltrane (as is often acknowledged), but also from Indian music’s lack of harmonic movement and its similar melodic and rhythmic inventiveness.

The possibility of these influences suggests that as valuable as Boone’s essay is, further research is necessary in order to definitively explain the Dead’s complex relationship with the East. Boone’s other article, “Dark Star Mandala,” follows through on a suggestion he made in his earlier article on “Dark Star”: “If ‘Dark Star’ is considered to be a cumulation of many performances, or a distillation of them, comparison of all available recorded versions might uncover its essential nature” (172). Violence Against! However, given its 200+ live versions, such a task would be at least a book-long project; therefore, Boone here limits himself to 63 “Dark Stars” from the song’s embryonic studio recordings from zora hurstons, late 1967 to April 1969 when a high level of abstractness from its formal elements (what Boone refers to, appropriately, as “space”) were realized “as an Against actual sonic dwelling place within [it]” (100). In a table, he lists these versions and the various musical elements that make them up, thereby giving unparalleled insight into the diachronic development of an improvisationally based piece of Whistle-Blowing In The Essay, music. He also creates two mandala-like images in order to portray the synchronic interrelationships between the various elements: a lesser one for the more limited versions up till early 1969, defined by Violence Against Women Essay, the antipodes “stability” and “tension”; and a greater one for those that came later, in which the realization of an expanded pallet of retention means, possibilities necessitated a wider antipodal relationship that Boone labels (respectively) “cosmos” and “chaos.” Because of the array of symbols used, interpreting these graphics required some degree of effort on my part, but the Against Essay process was quite valuable in furthering my understanding of the musical relationships that make up “Dark Star,” and that Boone has done such a remarkable job analyzing and john locke ideas describing. Anthropologist Eric Silverman’s “‘Mysteries Dark and Vast’: Grateful Dead Concerts and Initiation into the Sublime,” is an Against Women especially important work of locke ideas, scholarship on Violence Essay the Dead because it so effectively takes on versus two unfortunate tropes concerning the Dead: (1) that their music was facile and unserious; (2) the prominence of insufficiently critical comparisons and appropriations of non-Western myths and cultural practices (most notably those of Joseph Campbell) in understandings of Women Essay, their music and its relationship to the broader deadhead culture. Against the first, Silverman rightly insists on the integral role that invocations of the sublime played in the Dead’s musical practice.

Although many of the Dead’s songs are structurally quite conventional for pop-rock music (though not at all in Essay, their often highly improvised realizations in Essay, live performance) and positive in their emotional expressivity, in Parliament, almost every one of their concerts they performed music far outside standard song structures and of a very “dark” variety. Violence! Whether referred to as “Feedback” (as on the 1969 album Live/Dead ), “Seastones,” “DrumsSpace,” or understood instead as a particularly far-out section of one of their more improvisationally adventurous songs, these more exploratory aspects of their musical vocabulary used the sonic palette of the 20 th century avant-garde to retention means create music that, depending on one’s mental state, could be bafflingly bizarre, hilariously weird, or absolutely terrifying. Despite the prevalence of this kind of Violence Essay, sonic experimentation in their repertoire, however, these explorations have received little attention from music critics, journalists, or even scholars of the retention means Dead. I hope that this article will prompt further study of the fascinating stylistic musical melange that the Dead achieved through their improvisational practice. Silverman’s critique of the second trope is, in fact, related to the first. Violence Women! The mythologist Joseph Campbell has been a favorite reference point for deadheads since he attended a Dead concert in 1986 and later compared it to a neo-pagan, Dionysian celebration of communal ekstasis (215). As Silverman rightly points out, however, Campbell’s structuralist reduction of local, higher-order differences in myths and religious practices to ostensibly universal, lower-order sameness does violence to the importance of difference to locke ideas the vast array of cultural practices among which he sought commonalities: “To this ‘world ecumenist’ who reduced all myths and rituals everywhere to the same spiritual oneness, the devil was indeed in the details! His exegetical method was thoroughly modernist by reducing all local voices, meanings, motivations, and interpretations to a univocal, universal ‘monomyth’” (215-16). Silverman perspicaciously draws a connection between the appropriation of Campbell’s denial of difference by Violence Against, deadheads with the denial, or at Parliament versus President Essay, least effacement, of the importance of terror to an understanding of the experience of their concerts. Silverman here turns to Victor Turner’s conception of communitas to insist (in contrast to its usual use by scholars of the Violence Against Essay Dead who stress only its ecstatic, carnivalesque character) that it “must also include an element of sheer terror and fright.

Communitas entails a radical, typically traumatic shattering of john locke ideas, everyday social and psychological norms—a literal deconstruction of the normative content and categories of thought. Violence Women Essay! [. . Locke! .] Communitas is Violence Against Women, serious ritual violence” (218). Rather than an all-embracing feeling of peace and love within the Campbellian rubric “All Is One,” Silverman brilliantly illuminates the fear that Dead concerts at their best conjured, as a mirror of that which psychedelic experiences themselves almost always involve. This is not to deny the Parliament Essay validity or importance of “the overt ethos of peacefulness, compassion, family, collaboration, and kindness that suffused the Grateful Dead experience” (225); rather, it is only by coming to terms with their ever-present darkness and terror that the full phenomenological power of the Women Essay group, and the remarkable loyalty of zora neale, its fans, can be fully understood. This volume represents perhaps the strongest evidence to date that far from being simply another pop-rock group, the Violence Grateful Dead were one of the most important American musical-cultural phenomena of the retention means late 20 th century and are of significant import to the study of improvisation. Its editors did a remarkable job in Violence Essay, gathering such a wide ranging and high quality collection of essays; I only wish they had been more careful in their editing, as I did find a number of small problematic details that I do not have space to go into here. Despite these quibbles and my various stated critiques, I unhesitatingly recommend this volume as an intellectually stimulating, worthwhile contribution to popular culture scholarship and improvisational studies. Its disciplinary breadth and diversity of viewpoints is extremely welcome and will, hopefully, serve as an example of how scholarship can benefit from such interdisciplinary efforts. Retention Means! The field of Grateful Dead studies is very young, but the appearance of this volume suggests not only its vitality, but also its promise as a particularly fruitful arena for the study of improvisation, popular music and culture. Adorno. Theodor W. “On Popular Music.” Essays on music . Trans.

Susan Gillespie. Violence Women Essay! Ed. Richard Leppert. Berkeley: U of California P, 2002. 437-469. Print. Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984. Retention Means! Print. ---.

The Field of Against, Cultural Production: Essays on Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace Essay Art and Literature . Violence Against! Ed. Whistle-Blowing In The Workplace Essay! Randal Johnson. New York: Colombia UP, 1993. Print. Brightman, Carol.

Sweet Chaos: The Grateful Dead’s American Adventure . New York: Pocket Books, 1998. Print. Boone, Graeme M. “Tonal and Expressive Ambiguity in ‘Dark Star.’” Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis . Ed. John Covach and Women Essay Graeme M. Boone. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. 171-210. Print. Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari.

A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia . Trans. Brian Massumi. Cell Media Cultures! Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987. Print. Dodd, David G. and Diana Spaulding, eds. The Grateful Dead Reader . New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Print. Frith. Simon. Violence! “Art Versus Technology: The Strange Case of view, Popular Music.” Media, Culture and Society 8 (1986): 263-79. Print. Gimbel, Steve, ed.

The Grateful Dead and Philosophy: Getting High Minded About Love and Haight . Chicago: Open Court, 2007. Print. Hart, Mickey. Drumming at the Edge of Magic: A Journey into the Spirit of Percussion . San Rafael, CA: Grateful Dead Productions, 1998. Print. Hunt, Pamela. Against Essay! “A Quantitative Approach to Studying Subculture.” Diss. Kent State University, 2008. View! Print. Kivy, Peter. Authenticity: Philosophical Reflections on Musical Performance . Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1995. Print.

“Light Into Ashes: The Dead’s Early Thematic Jams.” Grateful Dead Guide: An Ongoing Series of Articles on Songs Performances of the Against Early Grateful Dead . Web. 25 Nov. 2010. Meriwether, Nicholas G, ed. All Graceful Instruments: The Contexts of the Grateful Dead Phenomenon . View On Education! Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2007. Print. Moore, Allan. “Authenticity as Authentication.” Popular Music 21.2 (2002): 209-23. Print. Peterson, Richard A. Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.

Print. Taruskin, Richard, et al. “The Limits of Authenticity: A Discussion.” Early Music 12 (1984). Print. Turner, Victor. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure . Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1969. Print.

Weiner, Robert G, ed. Perspectives on Violence Women Essay the Grateful Dead: Critical Writings . Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press, 1999 . Workplace Essay! Print.