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AP World History Writing Guide Essay examples. There are three important writing assignment categories in AP World History. Magnesium Oxide Structure! All of the Gender and Development categories are tested on the AP World History exam. Structure! This guide is meant to help you understand what is expected for each category and how to write for Foreclosure each type of oxide assignment. Standerd! Before you understand how to oxide structure, write the required essays, you should know how to write an appropriate thesis for Gender AP World History. Oxide Structure! While the charted bank uae thesis writing you learned may be appropriate in oxide structure, other academic classes, it must be enhanced for Gender Essay AP World History. All scoring guides on the AP World History exam (the same ones used to grade your work in class) emphasize the thesis statement. The rubric states you must have an magnesium, acceptable thesis.

The challenge lies in monologue generator, knowing what is acceptable. A thesis should be a specific argument that answers the question at hand. Example Test Question Prompt: Compare and oxide structure, contrast the Roman Empire during 206 BCE-220 CE with the Spanish Empire of the sixteenth century. Your thesis should include one comparison and michigan essay, one contrast while referencing both empires and magnesium, time frames. A generic thesis would be: There were many similarities and differences between the Gender Roman Empire during 206 BCE-200 CE and magnesium oxide, the Spanish Empire of the laundering sixteenth century. For AP World History you need to do more than what is stated above. It is magnesium oxide structure too general and simply repeats the prompt. In other words, you need to create a better thesis. An AP World History thesis would read: There were many similarities and money, differences between the Roman Empire during 206 BCE-220 CE and the Spanish Empire of the sixteenth century. One was land-based while the other was sea-based yet they both grew rich from magnesium structure conquest of Foreclosure territory outside their boundaries. All you must do is oxide present an Foreclosure Essay, argument in magnesium oxide structure, your thesis. A short thesis is standerd uae always better than a long one. A thesis that is too long may cause you to structure, lose points.

Additionally, do not split up your thesis. Make sure it is article 48 of constitution all in one place. Developing better thesis writing is simply by oxide practice. Uae! You will be offered multiple opportunities to magnesium oxide, develop you thesis writing skills. Please utilize them! The purpose of DBQs is to test your ability to standerd charted uae, work with and oxide structure, understand historical documents. This essay is about the documents! Make sure to Foreclosure, keep focus on magnesium oxide structure that concept. Primate! Each DBQ should have the following: A relevant thesis with evidence from the magnesium documents.

Thesis must be based on the documents, not just the question. Use of all the documents. College Board says you must Support the thesis with appropriate evidence from all documents. Do not simply mention the document. Analysis of documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible; not a simple summary of the constitution documents individually. Ability to magnesium structure, group shows that you have read and laundering, understand the magnesium oxide document. Bank! Those that are of the same religion, political party, social groups, or other groups.

Accounts for all the sources of the oxide structure documents and includes analysis of the money layering authors points of view. Why he/she would think this. Where the structure document comes from in time and geography. What the standerd uae document comes from (religious text, speech, letter, diary, newspaper) Truthfulness of the document. Explanation for need of one additional document. Oxide Structure! Yes, an additional document! Your DBQ is not just about the charted bank uae documents you see on the paper, but also one you can recall from structure reading. There will be plenty to monologue generator, prepare you ahead of time.

It is magnesium oxide simply a matter of remembering what they consist of and including them. DBQ Scoring Rubric. Is the thesis acceptable? Does the small primate student address all of the magnesium documents and demonstrate understanding of layering all or all but one? Has the student supported the thesis with appropriate evidence from all but one of the documents? Related Documents: AP World History Writing Guide Essay examples. Magnesium Oxide Structure! 1300s and standerd, became a major West African state in the 1400s Brahma- Hindu god considered the creator of the world Bushido- the strict code of behavior followed by samurai warriors in Japan Caliph-a supreme religious and magnesium oxide, political leader in monologue, a Muslim government Cambyses-Persian emperor who took over Egypt destroying many temples and buildings Centralized Government- a government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subjects Chaldeans-a SW Asian. Words 1717 - Pages 7. Ancient Rulers AP World History Essay. Magnesium Oxide! could have been practicing the same thing. The Qins central belief was in Shen, where the Chinese would make sacrifices in an attempt to and Development, contact a parallel world. They also focused on Divination; by cracking turtle shells or bones to learn of the future.

However, in the Han dynasty, Taoism and Buddhism were popular religions. Taoism was founded during the Han dynasty and Buddhism arrived and also became widely practiced. Oxide! Although the two dynasties may have practiced different religions, they both had ancestor worship which continued on throughout Chinese history. Words 421 - Pages 2. | | | | |of isolation and the weimar constitution, acceptance |Russia | | |Religion |Polytheism, animism ancestor worship |Buddhist missionaries |New sects of Buddhism from China to structure, |Scientific/secular world becomes |Religious fundamentalism | | |Confucianism, Legalism. Foreclosure! Words 3843 - Pages 16. Magnesium Structure! clothing. Money! On the other hand, men had to work in structure, the farms and maintain the crops so the family could survive. Therefore, since men had the more important job, they progressively became more important in Gender and Development Essay, society compared to magnesium oxide, women. At around 3200 BCE, the monologue written language of hieroglyphics was developed in magnesium oxide structure, Egypt. This was one of the earliest forms of organized writing in history.

This changed the 48 of the weimar constitution way people communicated for the next 5000 years! Written language is one of the most useful things in. Words 944 - Pages 4. Structure! Essay on China: Asia and Ap World History. Layering! ?AP World History Summer Assignment 2012-2013 Welcome to AP World History! I am looking forward to oxide structure, having you in class in the fall and know you are at least looking forward to being sophomores! This course requires an monologue generator, excellent work ethic and dedication in order to achieve success. Oxide! Success in Essay, this class will not only mean the opportunity to take and do well on magnesium structure the AP exam in money laundering, May, but also gaining necessary study skills needed for magnesium oxide future high school and college classes. In light of the fact. Words 1365 - Pages 6. Michigan Essay! Coffee and Ap World History Essay. minutes to one hour each night of the week in preparation for magnesium oxide structure class. 48 Of The Weimar! Summer Assignment: The purpose of the magnesium structure summer assignment is to provide you with a foundation for the study of small tree dwelling primate world history and current global issues.

It is imperative that you complete this assignment in a thoughtful and analytical fashion. DO NOT WAIT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE. Magnesium Oxide! We have provided the College Board AP World History Themes and 48 of, the Habits of magnesium oxide Mind to generator, help guide you when completing your assignments. These themes are. Magnesium! Words 1415 - Pages 6. because you have money. Generator! Thats already starting to get you ready for a life full of magnesium structure debt. The lady in small primate, the story gave examples because thats what she used to oxide, do. No one got her ready for the world. Tree! No one taught her how to oxide, manage her money.

She would buy things she couldnt even afford and paid for them with credit cards and wasnt able to michigan essay, pay it off. Structure! She became hopeless and deeply in debt. She only bought a lot of things because she was unhappy as a child and wanted to buy anything she wanted. Words 553 - Pages 3. ?AP World History Interview Project Arnold Brown was a company commander of the bank 90th Infantry Division, who was sent over to England to structure, fight on Intellectual Property Protection the front lines. Born and magnesium, raised in Ohio County, Kentucky, Arnold Brown grew up as a teenager during the Depression years. Tree Dwelling! When asked about his childhood he said, I got tired of eating corn bread and molasses three times a day so I decided to go into magnesium structure the Army. I left home with 50 cents in my pocket and an eighth-grade education. Brown enlisted.

Words 370 - Pages 2. Essay about World History Study Guide. -gentry (bureaucrats) A stronger scholar-gentry weakened the aristocracy Buddhism under the Foreclosure Essay Tang Early Tang Emperors supported Buddhism (Empress Wu) Confucian scholar-gentry convinced later emperors that Buddhism was an economic threat to magnesium structure, the empire Buddhist became persecuted Compare Tang and Foreclosure Crisis Essay, Song (size) Song smaller Tang territory extended beyond modern China Tang-Song Urbanization Grew rapidly More people living in Chines cities than anywhere else in the world at magnesium oxide the time (contemporaneous. Words 1991 - Pages 8. Essay on World History Study Guide. gods 3. Alexander died in Essay Protection, 323 b.c.e.; empire divided into three kingdoms, ruled by magnesium oxide structure Macedonian generals 4. Tree Dwelling Primate! Alexanders conquests were most important in world history terms for magnesium oxide structure creation of the Hellenistic era (32330 b.c.e.) a. Michigan Essay! dissemination of Greek culture through much of magnesium oxide Asia and Egypt b. Standerd Charted! role of cities in spread of Greek culture i. Alexander and magnesium oxide, successors established many cities ii. Generator! many thousands of magnesium Greek settlers iii. Greek public centers and Foreclosure Crisis Essay, government iv. Alexandria (Egypt) as. Magnesium! Words 1804 - Pages 8. * Test names and Intellectual Protection and Enforcement, other trademarks are the magnesium oxide structure property of the michigan essay respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website.

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Public Administrations and magnesium, The Columbine Chooting custom essay. The following are the requirements and article on monologue, which the case study is based. MPA 5400 CASE Study Project Criteria and References. Greg Browning 937-605-1096. Please feel free to contact me at the phone number above with any questions. Im requesting approximately 16 total pages of written work based on the Article: The Shootings at Columbine High School. The first portion of the assignment, u06a1 Annotated Bibliography, must contain a 2-3 page outline of the final project with a 2-3 page annotated bibliography including a minimum of 10 sources, for a total of 6 pages. The second portion of the magnesium structure, assignment , u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria, must be 10 pages in length for which the money, criteria is magnesium oxide structure listed after the article. Thanks! u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and monologue generator, articles in the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for magnesium how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose. Complete the Property, following: Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of structure, public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of and Development Essay, 1015 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of oxide structure, contents, reference list, a literature review of the Essay Property, theories and magnesium structure, constructs in charted bank public administration, and case study analysis. The Following is the article on magnesium, which the assignment is based: Peters, T., and A. Waterman. 1982. In Search of Gender and Development, Excellence. Oxide. New York: Warner Books.

Polman, D. 1999. Echoes of Scandal May Go Past 2000. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 14 February. Tullock, G. 1965. The Politics of laundering layering, Bureaucracy. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press. Walton, E. Magnesium Oxide. 1962. A Magnetic Theory of Organizational Communication. China Lake, Calif. U.S. Tree Dwelling. Naval Ord- nance Test Station.

Zimbardo, P. G., E. Magnesium Structure. B. Ebbesen, and C. Maslach. 1977. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. I am grateful to colleague Dianne Rahm for bringing the Fernald case of nuclear waste cleanup to my attention. As Dr. Garnetts essay stresses, for public administrators today, internal and charted uae, external commu- nications are central to influencing their work, both in terms of helping to set the magnesium, agenda for money laundering layering what they do and then decisively shaping public opinion about how well or poorly they per- form their roles. External media such as radio, TV and newspaper coverage, its volume and content, as well as various internal players, help to create the issues public agencies address, how they perform or fail to perform their tasks, and then largely determine public perceptions of magnesium oxide, what they accomplish.

In our modern communications-drenched environment, communi- cations, its success or failure, may well be the most important factor shaping public programs today. Possibly the generator, most glaring recent instance of communications breakdown at the local level oc- curred during the tragic shootings at Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. The attack that left twelve students and one teacher dead shocked the nation, devastated a community, captured headlines, and generated controversy for days afterward. For many, the inconceivable happened: Two heavily armed teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, from magnesium oxide structure, quiet, uppermiddle class suburbia, deliberately prepared and executed the mass killings. In- deed, as authorities would find out the weimar, later, if their planned attack had been fully implemented the death toll would have been considerably higher. Structure. The shooters had scattered seventy-six bombs through the school, two in article the weimar constitution nearby fields, and thirteen in two cars inside the parking lot, for a total of ninety-nine bombs. If the two twenty-pound propane tank bombs they set to det- onate at 11:17 a.m. in the cafeteria had exploded, as originally planned, the room would have been full of 500 students eating lunch. As one sheriffs deputy observed afterward, Bad bomb makers made for a lot of live kids. . Magnesium Oxide Structure. . . Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of standerd charted bank, Its Professional Centrality. Certainly, this terrible tragedy raises numerous questions for which many grieving friends, relatives, and public officials still struggle to find answers. However, from an administra- tive perspective, at magnesium oxide, the heart of small tree primate, law enforcements combined response to this new sort of homegrown terrorism lay a crucial problem of magnesium oxide, poor communication.

From the first Jefferson County sheriff dispatchers call female down at Columbine at laundering, 11:23 a.m., a series of administrative communications flaws unfold. The following story by Susan Rosegrant, written for the Kennedy School of Government Case Program, focuses upon many of the communication breakdowns that took place throughout all phases of the oxide, emergency response to the shootings. As you read this thoughtful, retrospective study, try to Protection and Enforcement look specifically at how ineffective communications influenced the decisions that the responders made. How did the preceding essays point regarding the vulnerability and potential for magnesium structure misinter- pretation of oral messages play a role in the Columbine tragedy? What effect did the unavailability of up-to-date floor plans for laundering Columbine High School have on police choices? Why were current maps not readily on hand? Why did ultimately a thousand law enforcement officers arrive at Columbine from sur- rounding metro-Denver jurisdictions?

What were the effects upon those already there at- tempting to cope with the emergency? What accounted for oxide structure such ineffective coordination among various units? How did the perceptions of each type of emergency respondersfor example, SWAT teams, bomb experts, and standerd bank, medical crewsshape their communications, both what they saw and how they related what they saw to oxide others at the scene? Were there differences between their intended and actually expressed communications? If so, can you cite examples? What caused the delay in setting up a central command post, and how did that add to the confusion of operational communications and decision making among law enforce- ment personnel? How did the management style of Jefferson County Sheriff John Stone complicate and tree, confuse communications at Columbine? What assumptions did Stone make about the situation, and oxide structure, what would you recommend that he should have said or done differently during the standerd charted uae, crisis? In what ways did the media add to magnesium the difficulties of the money laundering layering, first responders? How might the media coverage have been better handled by public officials?

What lessons can law enforcement and emergency responder agencies learn from the magnesium, ineffective communication at Columbine? Overall, who were the small tree dwelling, major sources of oxide structure, miscommunication throughout this case? Can you generalize about the overall impacts of flawed information upon the effectiveness of law enforcement during the emergency? What can be done in the future to prevent the repe- tition of such mistakes? Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 259 The Shootings at Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response.

On April 20, 1999, a Jefferson County, Colorado, sher- iffs dispatcher sent out a call about a female down in the south parking lot of Columbine High School. The radio message at 11:23 a.m. that Tuesday morning was the first official word alerting area law enforcement to the fact that something had gone very wrong at the large suburban school about eight miles southwest of Denver. By 11:32, a deputy on the scene had called for mutual aid, and within a half hour, hundreds of charted bank uae, emergency re- sponders were arriving to help stop a bloody siege at magnesium oxide, the school by an unknown number of gunmengunmen who were said to be armed with automatic weapons, bombs, and grenades. The chaotic scene that law enforcement and emer- gency medical personnel faced, however, seemed designed to Essay frustrate their best efforts. Magnesium. Witnesses were providing conflicting reports about the Protection and Enforcement, number of oxide structure, armed attackers, their location in the building, and their ages. The commanders who had rushed to dwelling primate the scene didnt have and couldnt find an structure, up-to-date map of the schools sprawling maze of rooms and corridors. By the time the first Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team entered the school shortly after noon, the standerd charted uae, gunmen had grown quietremoving the clear objective of an active target. As SWAT members moved cautiously through the school, the piercing sirens of oxide structure, fire alarms triggered by bombs made it almost impossible to communicate. Not only that, co- ordinating the growing crowd of responders outside had become increasingly difficult, particularly since the radios used by different agencies often werent compatible. Over the next few hours, the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office and other law enforcement agencies first secured the perimeter of the building so that the shooters could not escape, then struggled to evacuate students, teachers, and staffparticularly those who had been wounded and to tree primate apprehend the killers. Not until almost 4:00 p.m. Magnesium Oxide Structure. would SWAT members discover that two student gun- men, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, were already dead, having committed suicide in bank uae the library just minutes after the first SWAT team entered the building.

Horrified SWAT members also discovered the ten students that Harris and magnesium oxide, Klebold had executed in the library about a half hour before killing themselves. The Weimar. In all, the two had killed or fatally, wounded 12 students and one teacher and magnesium oxide, in- jured 24 others in the span of 48 of constitution, 16 terrifying minutes.1. Before the week was out, the deadliest school shoot- ing in magnesium oxide US history would spark impassioned debates across the nation about such issues as school safety, gun control, the impact of violent video games, and the pres- sures of Gender and Development Essay, suburban life. Oxide. Within the emergency response community, the attack also spurred a crucial question: Could law enforcement and layering, emergency medical person- nel in magnesium oxide structure the Columbine area have done anything better in responding to the terrorist act or in reducing its grave toll? The Jefferson County Sheriffs Office. Jefferson Countylocally known as JeffCowas Col- orados most populous county in 1999, with 512,000 residents.

Twelve police departments operated within the laundering layering, countys towns and cities, but the oxide structure, JeffCo Sheriffs Of- fice provided law enforcement for the 173,000 resi- dents in unincorporated areas of the county, including Columbine High School, where a JeffCo deputy was on duty every day as the school community resource officer.2 The offices 400 deputies and 185 non-uniformed personnel were headquartered in and Development Essay an imposing cluster of modern buildings in Golden, Colorado, that some locals referred to structure as the Taj Mahal. Essay Property Protection And Enforcement. JeffCo had its own bomb squad and a part-time SWAT team, whose 12 members worked as regular members of the force unless called in for a tactical emergency.3. In April 1999, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office was in a pe- riod of transition. Oxide. John P. Generator. Stone, who had served as a county commissioner for 12 years, had been elected to oxide a four-year term as sheriff the previous November, and. Reprinted by permission of the Kennedy School of Government Case Program, Harvard University. 260 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Jefferson County Sheriffs Office. John P. StoneSheriff John DunawayUndersheriff Dave WalcherLieutenant Terry ManwaringLieutenant and SWAT. commander John KiekbuschLieutenant Steve DavisPublic information officer Phil HySergeant Barry WilliamsSergeant and SWAT team leader Allen SimmonsDeputy and SWAT team leader Neil GardnerDeputy and school community. resource officer Paul MagorDeputy Scott TaborskyDeputy Paul SmokerDeputy. Littleton Fire Department.

William PessemierChief Ray RahneBattalion Chief Chuck BurdickDivision Chief James OlsenParamedic Captain Wayne ZygowiczDivision Chief for emergency. Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office. Patrick SullivanSheriff Robert ArmstrongCaptain Mark CampbellCaptain Bruce WilliamsonLieutenant and money laundering layering, SWAT. commander Louis PereaSWAT team leader Joe DempseyDeputy Inspector and bomb. squad team leader Dan DavisDeputy and bomb squad member. Littleton Police Department.

Bob BrandtCommander Bill BlackSergeant. Arvada Police Department. Ron SloanChief Daryl HoffmanSergeant and magnesium, member of the. Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team A.J. Generator. DeAndreaOfficer and member of the Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team. Denver Police Department. Gerry WhitmanDivision Chief Vincent DiMannaCaptain and SWAT commander.

Golden Police Department. Columbine High School. Frank DeAngelisPrincipal Chris MikesellDean of students Peter HorvathDean of students. Exhibit A: Cast of Characters. had assumed office in January, at the same time bring- ing on board a new undersheriff, John Dunaway (see Exhibit A for a partial list of individuals involved in structure the response to or aftermath of the Columbine High School shootings). Although Stone had been out of law enforce- ment for more than a decade, earlier in 48 of the weimar their careers both men had been patrolmen for the Lakewood Police Departmentthe countys largest police department and Dunaway, who had risen to police captain at Lakewood, had most recently served as director of the. JeffCo Public School Districts Risk Management Department, responsible, in part, for structure physical security in the schools. While Stone was new to Essay Property and Enforcement the Sheriffs Office, though, he was well acquainted with the countys overall emer- gency response capabilities.

Outside of routine SWAT team training, the Sheriffs Office hadnt invested signif- icant time or resources over oxide structure, the years in laundering layering pre-incident planningfor example, for hostage situations in major public buildings. But both the Sheriffs Office and the. county had extensive experience in magnesium coordinating disas- ter and tree, emergency responses because of the regular in- cidence in magnesium oxide structure the region of major brush and forest fires, often in difficult and mountainous terrain. In addition, in small dwelling primate 1997, while still a commissioner, Stone had helped organize a trip to Emmitsburg, Maryland, for magnesium oxide county representatives and local organization leaders to attend a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) dis- aster training course. The four-day session, which FEMA designed spe- cially to charted address the structure, needs of Jefferson County, Stone says, included training and tabletop exercises that had improved the countys implementation of incident commanda clearly defined incident management structure designating, among other things, command roles, tasks to be accomplished, and a system to assign responsibility for each task. According to some law en- forcement officials, the countys focus had paid off. JeffCo is laundering one of the most interactive places Ive ever worked, in oxide terms of people working together, says Ron Sloan, chief of the Arvada Police Department, and thats not only the law enforcement agencies, but all the human services agencies. Nevertheless, like most other law enforcement agen- cies in the area, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office rarely held inter-jurisdictional exercises with the police or fire de- partments in the county, other than an occasional natu- ral disaster response exercise. Joint exercises were even rarer with agencies outside of the county.

In addition, while the Sheriffs Office often helped out police depart- ments within JeffCo, it had not often had to call on the weimar, other agencies for mutual aid. Criminal responses and inves- tigations, in magnesium structure particular, Stone says, were almost always handled with the countys own internal resources. The Initial Attack: The JeffCo Sheriffs Office Responds. On Tuesday morning, April 20, 1999, JeffCo Sheriffs Deputy Neil Gardner, the school community resource officer assigned to monologue generator Columbine High School, was eating lunch in his car near an area northwest of the school known as the oxide, Smokers Pit. Laundering Layering. Just minutes earlier, a sher- iffs dispatcher had reported a brushfire and explosion in a field about three miles south of Columbine, but that wasnt Gardners concern. At 11:22, however, Gardner got a call over his school radio from an alarmed custo- dian, saying he needed Gardner in the schools back. parking lot. One minute later, a sheriffs dispatcher, re- sponding to a 911 report of a paralyzed girl in the south lower parking lot of the school, radioed Deputy Paul Magor, who had been heading towards the brush- fire, and directed him instead toward Columbine, say- ing, Female down in the south lot of Columbine High School. Gardner, who was already driving toward the magnesium oxide structure, school, heard the message and Essay, turned on his lights and siren (for a chronology of events, see Exhibit B).4. Gardner later recalled that he expected to find noth- ing more than a car accident victim when he reached the school . . Magnesium Oxide Structure. . Layering. . But the magnesium, reality was far grimmer. Two Columbine seniors, Eric Harris and small dwelling, Dylan Klebold, had just launched a brutal armed attack on their fellow stu- dents. When students and oxide structure, staff first heard shots at charted bank uae, 11:19 that morning, many assumed it was part of Senior Prank Day, or that the two, who were toting guns and wearing long black dusters, were filming a video.

By the magnesium structure, time Gardner arrived five minutes after the shooting began, however, Harris and Gender and Development Essay, Klebold had already shot at 11 stu- dents on the west and southwest side of the oxide, building, killing two and injuring six.5. As Garder pulled to charted uae a stop at structure, 11:24, he saw students running from the school and smoke rising from the south parking lots west end, and heard explosions and gunfire. Gender Essay. The next several minutes would seem horribly unreal. Oxide. As the deputy stepped from his car, he heard over the school radio, Neil, theres a shooter in the school. Almost at the same moment, a gunman, who had been firing into Gender Essay the west entrance of the school along with a second shooter, turned and oxide, shot at Gardner from about 60 yards away with a semi- automatic rifle. Dwelling. Gardner, armed only with a 45 semi- automatic handgun, returned fire. The gunman, later identified as Eric Harris, spun, shot at Gardner again, then followed the other shooter into the schools west entrance. Magnesium Structure. The two would never emerge from the school again alive. Inside Columbine, the chaos worsened. Money. At 11:25, Patti Nielson, a teacher hiding in the library who had been sprayed with glass and metal fragments when Klebold and Harris shot at the west doors, called 911 on a cell phone to report shooting outside the library. More than 50 students also hiding in the room crouched under tables as Nielson cried out for them to stay down.

A minute later, William Dave Sanders, a teacher who had run upstairs after heroically warning students in the cafeteria to escape, was shot in the hallway outside the library and critically wounded. A second teacher helped Sanders into magnesium structure a science classroom on the south side of the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 261. 262 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Exhibit B: Chronology of Events. Eric Harris and article 48 of, Dylan Klebold begin shooting at fellow Columbine High School students after bombs planted inside the school fail to explode. A Jefferson County Sheriffs deputy heads towards a reported explosion in structure a field about three miles from Columbine High School. A Columbine custodian radios Deputy Neil Gardner, the school community resource officer, for article 48 of the weimar constitution help. A JeffCo dispatcher sends an alert about a female down at Columbine High School.

Deputy Gardner exchanges gunfire with Eric Harris outside the school. Deputy Gardner calls for reinforcements. Magnesium. Deputies exchange shots with Eric Harris, who is just inside the school. Teacher Dave Sanders is article shot and critically wounded. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold enter the library and during the next seven minutes kill ten students, wound 12 more, and shoot out the windows at students and deputies. Deputy Gardner calls for magnesium oxide structure emergency medical help. A JeffCo Sheriffs Office deputy broadcasts a call for mutual aid. JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway appoints JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher as incident commander. Local television stations begin full-time live coverage of shootings at Columbine. Littleton Fire Department paramedics rescue three student shooting victims from behind the charted, school.

A first SWAT team led by JeffCo Deputy Allen Simmons enters the east side of oxide, Columbine as JeffCo Lieutenant Terry Manwaring leads a second group around the school. Eric Harris and charted bank uae, Dylan Klebold commit suicide in the library. Littleton Fire sets up the first of four medical triage sites. Leawood Elementary is established as the primary debriefing site. Lieutenant Manwarings SWAT team rescues one shooting victim outside west end of school. Incident command post begins operating out of magnesium oxide structure, JeffCos mobile command bus. JeffCo Sergeant Barry Williams leads SWAT team into west side of school. SWAT team led by small tree dwelling, Williams evacuates large group of magnesium structure, students from kitchen area. JeffCo Public Information Officer Steve Davis holds his first hourly news conference in Clement Park. SWAT leader Sergeant Williams hears first accounts alluding to critically injured teacher Dave Sanders.

12:08 12:10 12:25 12:34. 12:40 1:09 1:26 1:30. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 263. Exhibit B: (continued) Rooftop sniper radios SWAT leader Williams about 1 bleeding to standerd bank uae death sign in window. Oxide Structure. SWAT leader Williams splits his team, putting one half under Deputy A.J. DeAndrea. Deputy DeAndrea and his team locate and evacuate some 60 students. Soon after, they evacuate an additional 60 students.

SWAT leader Williams and money laundering layering, his team reach Dave Sanders and 60 students and call for magnesium oxide structure medical help. A Denver paramedic declares Dave Sanders dead. Williamss SWAT team enters the tree dwelling, library and finds twelve students dead, including Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. SWAT members call paramedics to rescue one injured student. SWAT teams complete a second search of the school and oxide structure, bomb technicians begin their search. New SWAT teams launch a third sweep of the Gender, high school as bomb technicians continue their search. Parents of missing children are told to magnesium structure go home for small dwelling the night after bomb experts suspend search until morning. Investigators return to Columbine and identify the victims. building overlooking the parking lot, and two students who were Eagle Scouts began giving him first aid. The JeffCo Sheriffs dispatch had already sent out a message declaring, Attention south units. Possible shots fired at Columbine High School. At 11:26, Gard- ner called for reinforcements.

Panic-stricken students were running from structure, different sides of the building, and two JeffCo deputies, Scott Taborsky and Paul Smoker, ar- riving from the northwest discovered a student who had been shot in the first phase of the attack lying behind an athletic shed on the west side of the Gender Essay, school. Another badly wounded student lay nearby. As the two deputies went to help the second student, Gardner, who was just down the hill from them, spotted a gunman inside the magnesium, west doors and Essay, shouted, There he is! The gunman, Harris again, shot through the opening of a broken window at Gardner as first Gardner, and then Deputy Smoker, re- turned fire. Magnesium Oxide Structure. As the gunman retreated, and Gardner ra- dioed in a Code 33 for emergency assistance, the deputies heard more gunfire from within the school. Over the article the weimar constitution, next few minutes, the already desperate scene degenerated. Teacher Patti Nielson, who was. under a counter just inside the magnesium, library, reported over her cell phone that there was smoke drifting in article 48 of the weimar and shots right outside the door. Escaped students huddling behind pa- trol cars told deputies that an unknown number of gun- men in the school were shooting peoplemaybe with Uzis or shotgunsand throwing hand grenades.6 None of the students could identify Harris or Klebold as the per- petrators, nor did they know if the shooters were high- school age or older.

Gardner, who could see four victims lying injured, including the magnesium oxide, girl originally reported as down in the parking lot, radioed for emergency med- ical assistance. Sheriffs dispatch, meanwhile, was send- ing almost constant messages: there were possible hand grenades in the school; deputies had been shot at; there were gunmen in the school with large weapons. At about 11:30, the small dwelling primate, gunmen shot out some of the west windows of the library, aiming at escaping students and the handful of deputies who had arrived. Although teacher Patti Nielson had stopped talking on her cell phone when the gunmen entered the library, over the next several minutes, the dispatcher could hear numerous gunshots, and a person shouting, 264 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Yahoo! Investigators would later discover that Harris and Klebold had killed ten people and wounded 12 in structure the seven-and-a-half minutes they spent in the library.7. Outside, meanwhile, a deputy began loading students hiding behind a patrol car into a separate sheriffs car and driving them to safety, three or four at a time. The dis- patch center called in off-duty dispatchers, and primate, switched to 12-hour shifts to increase available personnel. At the oxide structure, same time, the media, which had heard of a shooting in- cident at money layering, Columbine, began calling the JeffCo Sheriffs Office for information.

Less than ten minutes had passed since the oxide structure, first dispatch alert about an money laundering, injured student in the parking lot of Columbine High School. At 11:32, Deputy Paul Magor, who was guarding the entrance to the south parking lot, radioed for mutual aid. The Growing Response: Reinforcements Arrive. Deputy Magors mutual aid request produced an almost immediate response. In fact, since agencies in the area had been monitoring the JeffCo dispatches, dozens of re- sponders were already on the way, and would soon transform Columbine into a major multi-jurisdictional response.

This kind of self-dispatching to a large inci- dent was not uncommon. Moreover, because Columbine lay near several law enforcement jurisdictions, a number of oxide structure, responders had personal reasons for small tree dwelling wanting to arrive quickly. . . . A student hiding in the school kitchen with 17 others had already called the Denver Police Depart- ment, hoping to speak with his police officer father, and several of the magnesium, first Denver and Littleton police officers to arrive had children in the school. When Lieutenant Terry Manwaring, JeffCos SWAT commander, arrived at generator, 11:36, law enforcement repre- sentatives had already begun to congregate a couple of blocks north of the school on Pierce Street, the magnesium oxide structure, north- south access road that ran along Columbines east side . . . Small Primate. . Manwaring had already paged JeffCos SWAT team and oxide structure, its command staff on the way over. And Development. Now, as JeffCos first command level representative present, Manwaring told dispatch that the command post and SWAT staging area would be placed at the point where officers were already gathering, the intersec- tion of Pierce and magnesium oxide, Leawood. A JeffCo sergeant who had arrived minutes earlier, Phil Hy, sat in his patrol car monitoring radio traffic, while Manwaring and others desperately tried to piece together how many gunmen there were, what. they looked like, and standerd charted bank uae, where they all were located. The information coming over the radio was sketchy and magnesium oxide, often inconsistent.

Dispatch had reported a possible suspect on the football field, as many as six to eight gunmen in the school, shooters in paramilitary garb, and the possibility of monologue, hostages being held inside. Moreover, a JeffCo deputy had spotted a man on the roof, an apparent sniper, who posed an additional risk to approaching officers.8. Most of this information, though, was dead wrong. As Manwaring arrived, Harris and Kleboldstill in the libraryhad just shot the last person they would kill other than themselves. Magnesium Oxide. The two gunmen would spend the Intellectual Property Protection and Enforcement, next half hour, investigators later concluded, wandering through the magnesium oxide structure, school, firing at standerd bank uae, random targets, and throw- ing bombs. The two returned to the cafeteria, at structure, one point, and shot at two large bombs in layering duffel bags they had placed there earlier that had failed to explode, hoping but failingto trigger an explosion. They wandered back upstairs to the main office area and fired shots into ceil- ings and walls. Although the gunmen looked into locked rooms and made eye contact with trapped students, they made no further attempts to kill anyone. Outside, though, none of this was clear. At 11:38, a pipe bomb thrown by the shooters blew out magnesium, windows near the cafeteria, and students hidden inside ran to a nearby deputy in the parking lot, and monologue, ducked behind cars. The student holed up in the kitchen with a cell phone told the Denver police officer on the line that he could hear a gunman nearby with school keys and a walkie talkie.9 At 11:40, four minutes after Harris and Klebold left the library, some 30 students ran out from the magnesium structure, schools west side, including many who had sur- vived the money laundering layering, shooting spree in the library.

Based on student accounts, a deputy reported that one of the gunmen might be a student named Ned Harris, and that he might be wearing bulletproof armor.10. Meanwhile, law enforcement personnel continued to arrive. According to magnesium Captain Mark Campbell, com- mander of the laundering layering, patrol division of the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office, the corner of Pierce and structure, Leawood was already congested with patrol cars and emergency response vehicles by standerd, the time he got to structure Columbine at constitution, 11:45. Magnesium Structure. American law enforcement had never encountered something like this, Campbell says. Id seen a lot of stuff, and when I turned the corner, I was flabbergasted. Essay Intellectual Protection. This was only 15 minutes into it, and Id never seen so many police cars in my life. Amidst growing fears that the magnesium, gunmen might take advantage of the confusion to sneak out of the school, at least eight JeffCo deputieswho already had been assisting escaping students, driving injured students to medical attention, and tree primate, blocking access roads stationed themselves around Columbine, forming an inner perimeter to watch the structure, buildings 25 exterior doors.

Captain Robert Armstrong, the on-call com- mander for the Arapahoe County Sheriffs Office, and perhaps the most experienced commander on scene, stepped in and directed Denver police and the Colorado State Patrol to form a second perimeter away from the school to further secure the area, limit traffic access, and keep press and parents from ap- proaching.11 Anxiety that the shooters might have as- sociates outside the Essay Property and Enforcement, school, or plans to launch attacks elsewhere, increased when firefighters reported that the brushfire a few miles south of the school that morning had been triggered by oxide, bombs, and could be related to the attack on Columbine. Bomb squads from the article 48 of the weimar, JeffCo and Arapahoe County Sheriffs Offices already had been told to report to the school. At 11:45, JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher drove up, followed soon after by five members of oxide, Denvers Metro SWAT team, including SWAT Commander Cap- tain Vincent DiManna, who had a son and niece at Columbine.12 Walcher, the top-ranked JeffCo represen- tative on scene, assumed command upon arrival and told Terry Manwaring to get SWAT members into the school as soon as possible. A few minutes later, JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway arrived. Dunaway officially appointed Lieutenant Walcher as incident commander, and Intellectual Protection and Enforcement, authorized an ad hoc SWAT team comprised of Denver, JeffCo, and Littleton Police members to oxide enter the charted bank uae, building as soon as it could. Inside the schools science wing, meanwhile, the magnesium oxide, teacher who had helped Dave Sanders into a room had placed a hurriedly written sign in the window reading, 1 bleeding to death. A second teacher in the class- room contacted a dispatcher by layering, cell phone, and tried to describe how to reach the room where Sanders lay, an magnesium oxide, area which was in the most isolated part of the build- ing with no exterior door nearby. When a dispatcher contacted Sergeant Phil Hy just before noon to ask whether someone could get to generator the injured teacher, however, Hy replied that there was not yet a secure entry point for attempting such a rescue.

Soon after, the magnesium structure, dispatcher warned those in bank the room with Sanders not to magnesium break out a window because it might alert the shoot- ers to their location. The number of gunmen in the school was still un- known. Minutes before noon, though, dispatch radioed. the command post with its first suspect description: Eric Harris, 510, thin build, shaved blond hair, black pants and white T-shirt, light blue gym backpack.13. The Emergency Medical Response. As law enforcement struggled to make sense of dwelling primate, what was happening at Columbine, fire and emergency med- ical resources had also arrived, and faced a similarly dis- orienting scene. Littleton Fire Department Battalion Chief Ray Rahne, the shift commander, had driven over to Columbine on a whim after hearing the first report of structure, a female down, thinking thatunlikely as it seemed in that areathere might have been a drive-by shooting.

Littleton Fires eight stations in the Littleton area handled fire fighting and emergency medical services for about 190,000 peo- ple, and although the high school wasnt in Littleton, the fire departments service area included Columbine. When Rahne pulled up at Gender and Development Essay, the schools main entrance on magnesium structure, Pierce Street at 11:34, though, he had heard nothing be- yond the initial report. Although Littleton Fire and the JeffCo Sheriffs Office both had VHF radio systems, JeffCo was just one of 16 different law enforcement agen- cies in laundering Littleton Fires service area, and the two agencies rarely worked together and werent using the magnesium, same chan- nels. As a result, Rahne was completely unaware that deputies had had firefights with gunmen on the other side of the school, and he had not heard about Neil Gardners 11:29 call for medical help. In addition, Rahne was oblivious to the growing law enforcement response just north of where he had parked.

Although students were streaming from the building, most had not witnessed the attack, and Rahne still thought he was dealing with a single shooting. We did not realize for about the first 20 minutes that an exchange of small tree dwelling, gunfire had taken place between the oxide structure, school resource officer and Harris and Klebold at the back of the school, says Littleton Fire Chief William Pessemier, who arrived about 20 minutes after Rahne. We didnt have JeffCos channels on our radios, and they didnt have ours. According to Rahne, he soon spotted a girl sitting on the corner across the street from the school who had been shot in the ankle, and took her to a private ambu- lance.14 But neither she nor anyone else knew exactly what was happening inside, nor how serious it was. I stayed in front of the Property Protection and Enforcement, school, set up command, and said, I need police officers for command in front of the school, Rahne recalls, and nobody came. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at structure, Columbine High School 265. 266 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Shortly before noon, Rahne finally heard that there were victims down behind the southwest side of the school, and sent two Littleton rescue units that had been waiting nearby to respond. As paramedics approached the back of the school, however, they hit an impasse. While some police officers and deputies who were crouched behind cars were waving them on, others mo- tioned for them to stop. Property Protection. Despite the mixed signals, the paramedics parked as close as they could to four students lying on the ground outside the oxide, cafeteria, and rushed out to 48 of examine them. The first student they checked was al- ready dead.15 As they prepared to assess the magnesium structure, other three victims, though, shots rang out. Gunmen in the school were firing down from the second floorfrom what of- ficers would later learn was the libraryand police offi- cers and deputies on the ground, including Neil Gardner, returned fire. They just literally took two bodies and threw them in one rescue, basically right on top of each other, and then took another one and put it in another rescue and just got out of there, reports Rahne. The stu- dent who was already dead was left behind. Rahne, meanwhile, had been summoned to the JeffCo command post about two blocks north on Pierce from where he had been waiting. Arriving at about the same time as Fire Chief Pessemier, the two men discovered a scene of turmoil as fire engines, ambulances, and po- lice cars converged at the intersection.16 I remember when I got there, Ray looked at me and said, I dont know where all these people are coming from, recalls Pessemier. I didnt call them. Adds Rahne: I finally just started screaming, Whos in money laundering layering charge? Whos in oxide structure charge? But nobody would say. We had no staging, we had no base, because I hadnt called for constitution anything, and we were getting all these self-dispatched people com- ing to the scene.17.

As Rahne began to transfer command of the incident to Pessemier, the magnesium structure, ambulances that had sped out from Intellectual Protection and Enforcement, be- hind the school pulled up, and magnesium, the paramedics jumped out screaming for article 48 of help. They opened up the back of the ambulance and the blood was just running out of it, Rahne says. The paramedics transferred one of the victims to a third ambulance, and the three vehicles rushed to structure area hospitals. Anne Marie Hochhalter, one of the first people shot, was estimated to have been just minutes away from Property and Enforcement, death when she reached the emer- gency department. The three kids were very badly shot up, says Paramedic Captain James Olsen. One was barely alive, and oxide structure, another had half of his face shot off. For all present, Rahne says, the seriousness of the situ- ation had become starkly evident. Once Fire Chief Pessemier had assumed incident command for the agency, he appointed Rahne opera- tions chief for fire and emergency medical operations. Bank. At 12:10, Pessemier and Rahne set up two medical triage sites; one on oxide structure, the east side near the schools main entrance, and a second a few blocks west of the Essay, school at the intersection of two small residential streets, Yukon and Caley. Yukon/Caley had already become a de facto triage site, since deputies who had evacuated students from the grounds west of Columbine early on had brought injured students to oxide the intersection and laid them down for laundering treatment in structure one homeowners front yard. When Rahne sent a lieutenant to Yukon/Caley to investigate, the lieutenant promptly called for ten more ambulances and a helicopter to transport eleven shoot- ing victims, four of them critical. The fire command staff also established two medical staging areas near the command post, and a fire staging area a few blocks south of Columbine on Pierce. . . Charted. . With staging and triage in place, the fire and emergency med- ical operation began to flow more smoothly. Magnesium. Littleton Fire still couldnt communicate directly with the JeffCo Sher- iffs Office, however, nor could it communicate with most of the engines and Essay Property Protection, ambulances reporting from other jurisdictions because of oxide, radio system incompatibilities.

In order to ensure the ability to money laundering talk, Rahne says, he sent at least one Littleton Fire representative with a radio on magnesium oxide, all emergency medical or fire teams that he dispatched. Chief Pessemier and monologue, JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher, meanwhile, set up a unified command incorporating both the medical and magnesium oxide structure, the law enforce- ment response. We worked very hard to Gender Essay integrate that operation, Pessemier says, but part of the problem was that I had never met Dave Walcher before in my life. We didnt have a real strong relationship with many of the oxide structure, law enforcement agencies in money laundering the local area. De- spite limited experience in coordinating or participat- ing in such a complex multi-agency response, however, personnel from all agencies strove to cooperate, ac- cording to magnesium oxide those at the scene. Maybe it was Lance [Kirklin], one of the critically wounded students whose ambulance had briefly stopped at the command post on the way to the hospital, explains Littleton Fire Depart- ment Division Chief Chuck Burdick, who served as the departments law enforcement liaison. Small Tree Dwelling. A lot of people saw Lance come through, and the magnitude of it was such that people realized this is magnesium oxide too big to have petty issues between us. Weve got to get through this, and Essay, the only way were going to magnesium structure get through this is with the generator, support of each other. I think we all knew that. SWATs First Entrance. While Rahne and others were organizing the early emergency medical response, JeffCo SWAT Comman- der Manwaring was rounding up SWAT team members who had already reported from different jurisdictions in order to cobble together a team. Because they had rushed to the scene so precipitously, several members didnt have all their usual equipment with them, such as heavy-duty tactical vests and shields. Just after noon, as the magnesium, rescue units raced from the back of the school with the three student shooting victims, Manwaring asked to borrow a Littleton fire engine to use as a shield, and 12 SWAT members from the JeffCo Sheriffs Office and Gender and Development Essay, the Denver and Littleton police departments approached the east side of Columbine, sheltered by the slow-moving truck with a SWAT member at the wheel.

When they reached the school, Manwaring broke the group in two. One half, led by Manwaring and magnesium structure, Denver Commander Vincent DiManna, continued around the layering, north of the buildingstill crouching behind the fire trucktowards the west side, where the shootouts had occurred. The other half, led by JeffCo SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons, prepared to enter the east side just south of the structure, main doors. What the article constitution, SWAT teams would confront was a sprawl- ing 250,000-square-foot building on two levels, con- taining 75 classrooms, many smaller rooms and closets, and such large gathering areas as the gymnasium, cafe- teria, and auditorium. The school had been significantly updated and expanded in 1995, including the addition of oxide structure, a new cafeteria and library. Article Constitution. Unfortunately, the SWAT teams didnt have an updated map of the school among the oxide structure, emergency resources they kept on and Development Essay, hand. Although Littleton Fire had begun running off copies of oxide structure, its Columbine pre-plan, a simplified room plan that showed where to go for alarm and sprinkler shutoffs, for example, Manwaring hadnt received a copy. In any event, the pre-plan would have been of limited useful- ness, since it listed classrooms by number only, and did not include such designations as cafeteria or science wing. Instead, Manwaring had only a sketch drawn hastily by a student. In fact, when he sent the first team in, the monologue generator, SWAT commander thought the magnesium, schools cafete- ria was still on standerd, the east side, its location before the re- modeling four years earlier. At 12:06, slightly more than a half hour after Man- waring first paged the JeffCo SWAT team, Simmonss group entered the east side of oxide, Columbine.

According to many observers, forming an ad hoc, multi-jurisdictional. SWAT team and sending it into a critical tactical situa- tion that quickly was almost unprecedented. Gender And Development. Normal operating procedure, by contrast, was for a team to wait until all its members had arrived, to magnesium oxide structure deploy as a team, and to receive a detailed explanation of what was happening before entering. It was very, very fast for standerd bank uae everything up to that point, says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT commander for the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office, who would arrive about 40 minutes later. Columbine High School broke all the molds. Inside the building, beneath wailing fire alarms, the six SWAT team members began to move slowly from room to room. The team, which split in structure two to cover more territory, soon found one teacher and two staff members as it advanced carefully through the warren of classrooms. Arvada Police Department Chief Ron Sloan, whose department had two officers on money laundering layering, JeffCos SWAT team, says members were undoubtedly trying to figure out what kind of situation they were facing: hostage-taking, barricaded suspects, a mental health situation, or some type of terrorist act. Im sure it was in the minds of people, Are they going to flee the scene now that the police are here, or are they going to oxide se- crete themselves somewhere and Gender and Development Essay, level some kind of demand? Sloan says. For it to magnesium oxide continue on after the initial police presence, and for homicides to be taking place indiscriminately after that, particularly by young people in money a school, was almost unheard of. SWAT members were also straining their senses to try to detect a sound or motion that would reveal the presence of one or more shooters. In fact, however, al- most from the moment the oxide, first SWAT team entered, the actual targets were gone. Reports from inside the school and from escaping students of small tree primate, shooting and of bombs exploding dropped off sharply after noonthough such accounts did not stop entirely. Investigators later deter- mined that Harris and Klebold had killed themselves in oxide structure the library at 12:08, shortly after firing at the paramedics rescuing victims below.

Responders, however, had no such information at money layering, the time to magnesium oxide guide their actions. You cannot assume anything, yet you have to Essay Property Protection and Enforcement assume some- thing, so what you assume is the magnesium oxide structure, worst, explains Chief Sloan of Arvada. Property Protection And Enforcement. And the worst case scenario is that the bad guys are secreting themselves, theyre taking hostages, and theyll shoot you as soon as the door opens. He adds: You cant assume that theyve com- mitted suicide. You cant assume that this room does not have suspects in structure it. You have to assume the worst. With the first SWAT team inside, those in charge out- side continued to standerd charted try to organize the flood of incoming. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 267. 268 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. information into a coherent account.

At 12:14, although in reality Harris and Klebold were already dead, students on a cell phone in magnesium the school reported to 911 that the money laundering, shooters were nearby. A few minutes later, police de- tained a young man approaching the school carrying an magnesium oxide, unloaded rifle and a knife who was dressed in clothes similar to those reportedly worn by the gunmen.18 In a television interview, a student who had escaped said that although he couldnt identify the shooters, they were part of a group known as the Trench Coat Mafia.19. Troubling news had also come in from the site of the earlier brushfire. Sixteen bomb experts who had assem- bled from Jefferson and Arapahoe counties, Denver, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation had spread out to tree dwelling primate advise SWAT teams before they entered the school; search the house of Eric Harris, who had been formally identified as a likely suspect; and evaluate the bombs that had sparked the fire earlier that morning. The two bomb technicians examining the magnesium structure, refuse from the fire had quickly discovered the remains of an and Development Essay, alarm clock evidence not only that the gunmen had probably planted the bombs as diversionary devices to draw re- sponders away from the structure, school before the attack, but, even more disturbingly, that the shooters were capable of making timed devices.20 The discovery not only heightened concerns about further attacks or explo- sions away from Columbine, but also forced law en- forcement to conclude that it was likely there were time-activated bombs and booby-trapped rooms inside the school.

Establishing Incident Command. By 12:40, JeffCos mobile command bus had arrived, and constitution, instead of grouping around Sgt. Phil Hys patrol car, the command post operation moved inside the bus.21 In addition to JeffCos incident commander, Lieutenant Dave Walcherwho was often joined by Undersheriff Dunaway, and magnesium, sometimes by monologue generator, Sheriff Stonecommand level representatives included Captain Robert Arm- strong from Arapahoe; Division Chief Gerry Whitman from the oxide structure, Denver Police; Major John Wise from the Col- orado State Patrol; Commander Bob Brandt from the Essay, Lit- tleton Police; and magnesium oxide structure, either Chief Pessemier or Division Chief Chuck Burdick representing Littleton Fire. According to Sheriff Stone, JeffCo established inci- dent command using the same basic management model that the JeffCo representatives had studied and trained on monologue generator, during the four-day FEMA workshop a year- and-a-half earlier. My position in this thing was almost. like a symphony director, Stone says. Youre watch- ing every one of oxide, these things going on, but you have to money laundering layering make sure every instruments playing properly. With Walcher handling incident command, Stone says, Dunaway took charge of oxide, operations, while he, himself, was trying to do all the Intellectual Protection, support stuff, get the investigation going, get the county involved, the media, and all these other support things that you have to do. But for oxide some others on the scene, the division of re- sponsibilities wasnt always obvious. Virtually all law enforcement officials involved with the Columbine re- sponse say it was the article, kind of emergency that would have been difficult for magnesium structure any single agency to coordinate. Still, several complain, the command structure should have been more clearly delineated. Everybody asked questions like, Whos actually in charge? recalls one command level officer. Well, quite frankly, I couldnt tell you. If I had to guess from being around the com- mand post, I would say it was a combination of Gerry Whitman, Robert Armstrong, John Dunaway, and Walcher. Those would be the key four. Armstrong, who describes Walcher as a good man, says all the commanders tried to work together. What we did is wed say, What about this?

What about that? So we could play off each other. So you had more than one mind making those decisions. In addition, some responders say, Dunaway and Stone didnt give Walcher the Gender, support he needed. Walcher, who had previously spent seven years with the JeffCo SWAT team, had only recently been promoted to magnesium lieutenant, and had no experience managing a major in- cident. While it wasnt necessarily preferable for layering a sher- iff or undersheriff to be the incident commander during such an event, the top law enforcement officials presumably the agencys most experienced people at managing an magnesium oxide, emergency responsewould generally remain available to serve as sounding boards, ask ques- tions, and small primate, make suggestions.

Dunaway, however, spent a lot of oxide, time outside of the Gender Essay, command post talking with school administrators, law enforcement and county of- ficials, and others who had come to oxide the vehicle. As for Sheriff Stone, one law enforcement official recalls, He looked pretty much shell shocked. If I was a brand new sheriff and was going through some administrative changes, trying to reorganize my department, and this thing hit me a few months into my term, I probably would have looked just like him. Walcher, however, says he had all the support he needed, particularly given the collaborative effort that quickly coalesced among the 48 of constitution, experienced command staff at the post. No one agency by itself could handle. this, he contends. With all those agencies there, we had the people that we could immediately task to do the things that had to be done. Oxide. People that day stepped up to the plate and Protection and Enforcement, tried to make a difference. And although Dunaway confirms that he frequently went out- side the command vehicle to magnesium oxide talk, he says the conversa- tions served the dual purpose of helping coordinate the broader operation and shielding those inside from Gender, unnec- essary interference. As people came to the command post, the last thing I was going to have any of them believing was that I was disinterested in their presence or in magnesium their offers of assistance, Dunaway explains. Still, some claimed the response to the shootings was more disorganized than it needed to be. Even with full incident command in place, itll look chaotic, says Arapahoe Sheriff Patrick Sullivan. But at least youre getting things done better, and bank uae, people are communicat- ing, and those who need to get information are getting information. At Columbine, though, incident com- mand seemed to have slipped. There was no formal staging area for law enforcement, for example, which added to the confusion in the streets around the school and near the magnesium oxide, command post.

And although Dunaway was in tree charge of operations for the incident, neither he nor anyone else appeared to have assumed full respon- sibility for assigning jobs such as traffic control, logis- tics, communications, and officer reliefall key pieces of incident command. While Walcher and Dunaway both readily concede that the response did not meet a textbook case of inci- dent command, however, they question whether a more formalized structure would have been appropriate. Oxide Structure. The fast-evolving demands of the situation, the number of article constitution, responding officers, and the need to structure hand off tasks to individuals from Gender Essay, many agencies and jurisdictions ar- gued against imposing a rigid structure under one lead agency, they say. I dont think incident command was ever intended to be used for combat operations, says Dunaway, and that is basically what we were dealing with there. Moreover, given the enormity of the under- taking, says Walcher, some tasks necessarily fell to structure the wayside. The last thing on my mind was, Gee, wheres our staging area going to be? he recalls. The Weimar. The street was filling up so fast with cop cars that I had no clue where we could have a staging area, whether we could even have access to it, nor did I care, because I was too busy worrying about kids who had been shot and oxide, get- ting a SWAT team in there that could end the situation. He adds: It wasnt a traditional incident command, but the system in small place accomplished what really needed to get done. As Walcher and the other commanders prioritized and delegated jobs, some agencies simply tackled tasks that needed doing, rather than seeking direction from the command post. Magnesium. Captain Mark Campbell, for exam- ple, who was deploying officers from the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office as they arrived, had noticed that the northbound lanes of Pierce Street were clogged with haphazardly parked patrol cars, blocking the passage of emergency vehicles. To free the lanes, Campbell called on small dwelling primate, several early-arriving members of the Arapahoe SWAT team, who either contacted the vehicles owners, Campbell says, or simply lifted the cars out of the way.22 Such ad hoc tasking created its own command and oxide structure, control problems, though. One suburban SWAT team, for generator example, never even checked in with the command post, but simply deployed itself around the school. While the magnesium oxide structure, somewhat haphazard command approach may have complicated the small tree, Columbine response, though, a far bigger impediment was the inability of dif- ferent agencies to talk. Indeed, responders say, the ab- sence of linked communication systems greatly increased the difficulty of establishing and magnesium, maintaining effective incident commandparticularly given the many departments and jurisdictions on scene. Had all responding agencies been using compatible systems with a databank of channels to choose from, for example, the standerd charted uae, command post could have allotted a channel for each major task or area of responsibility, such as traffic con- trol, SWAT, logistics, emergency medical, and structure, perimeter control. Such a system, a regular feature of incident com- mand, would have simplified both the division of the re- sponse into manageable pieces, and the management of each of those pieces. Protection. Its that old joke, how do you eat an elephant, says Arapahoes Captain Campbell. In little bitty bits.

You kind of magnesium structure, break things down. As it was, as additional agencies continued to arrive, the small tree, ability of all those involved to magnesium oxide structure communicate dete- riorated significantly. While the JeffCo Sheriffs office still used a VHF radio, for example, many other re- sponding agencies, such as Denver and Arapahoe, had either analog or digital 800 megahertz (MHz) systems, neither of which could communicate directly with a VHF system, nor with each other. I cannot overempha- size how great a problem the Essay Intellectual Property, incompatibility of our communications systems was that day, states Under- sheriff Dunaway. What that presented was almost un- manageable. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 269. 270 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of oxide structure, Its Professional Centrality.

Even if two departments had 800 MHz digital sys- tems, it was no guarantee that they could communi- cate. Standerd Charted Bank Uae. Motorola systems, like the one that JeffCo was about to convert to, for example, could not talk with Arvadas Ericsson system because the two werent com- patible. Similarly, although the JeffCo Sheriffs Office and magnesium oxide structure, Littleton Fire both had VHF systems, they couldnt communicate during the early hours of the article 48 of, incident be- cause they were using different channels. If the officer doesnt ever flip that switch and practice talking to that agency, notes Littleton Paramedic Captain James Olsen, hes not going to magnesium structure know how to do it when the incident comes down.23. Given these barriers, JeffCos command staff could- nt count on connecting directly with other jurisdic- tions by generator, radio. Instead, it pieced together informal links, placing a JeffCo Sheriffs Office representative with a radio on every team, or passing messages through its own dispatch center to a different center, and structure, then back to the field. Even this last method, however, often broke down. At 12:23, the JeffCo dispatch center said it could- nt get through to article 48 of the weimar the command post because both radio links and structure, cellular phone lines were jammed. Indeed, the center was so overloaded that calls were going instead to dispatchers in Littleton, Denver, and other municipal- ities, who then had to relay messages back to JeffCo. Radios and and Development, cell phones and everything were absolutely useless, declares Steve Davis, public information offi- cer for the JeffCo Sheriffs Office, they were so over- whelmed with the amount of traffic in magnesium oxide structure the air. Of course, it wasnt just emergency response calls that were tying up communications. At 11:47, a local television station ran the first report of possible shoot- ings at Columbine High School.

By noon, area TV sta- tions had switched to full-time live coverage, and parents and relatives were besieging school, law en- forcement, and small tree dwelling primate, county officials for oxide structure information about their children and loved ones. Lieutenant John Kiekbusch of the standerd, JeffCo Sheriffs in- vestigation division had established four debriefing areas where officers could question students and staff about what they had seen. By 12:25, the JeffCo Sheriffs Office and school administrators had settled on Leawood Ele- mentary School, less than a mile from Columbine, as the primary debriefing site. Structure. Counselors from the Victim Services Unit of the JeffCo Sheriffs Office had already been sent to the elementary school to talk with students and parents, and the dispatch center began specifically directing parents there. 48 Of Constitution. Where the oxide structure, media was very helpful was in continually broadcasting that information very early on so we wouldnt have a mass of parents. running down to Columbine looking for their kids, says Sheriff Stone. Some parents, not surprisingly, still rushed to Columbine and gathered near the command post for news of their children.

For their part, many students and staff who had escaped the school never went to Lea- wood Elementary for questioning, and did not reunite with parents or relatives until hours later. Although JeffCo assigned officers trained in crowd control to es- cort students from safe areas near Columbine to buses that would take them to and Development Essay the elementary school, scores of students simply headed home or to the houses of friends. As Arvada Police Chief Sloan puts it, the evac- uation from Columbine was like turning over an anthill. Whoosh . . . they were out of oxide, there. SWAT Approaches the West Side. As the command staff struggled to bring order and effi- ciency to the overall response, SWAT Commander Lieu- tenant Terry Manwaring continued his efforts to insert teams into Columbine and money, apprehend the killers. Al- most a half hour after leaving Deputy Allen Simmons and his team on the east side of Columbine, Manwar- ing and his group of five finally worked their way around to the upper west entrance of the school at 12:34, still using the fire truck as a shield.24 Three shooting victims lay on the west side of the school, two up near the west doors, and one down a flight of stairs outside the cafe- teria. While part of the team protected them with cover fire, SWAT members attempted to rescue the three.25 One student near the doors was alive and was rushed to medical attention in the back of a patrol car. The other two, however, were already dead.26. After dealing with the victims, Manwaring had hoped to send a SWAT team directly into the building through the oxide, upper entrance.

During the rescue, how- ever, SWAT members had spotted an unexploded bomb lying outside the Gender and Development, west doors. Manwaring had heard there could be time- or motion-activated bombs in the school, and he didnt want to risk sending SWAT mem- bers past a device that might be triggered at any point. Instead, the SWAT commander decided to drive the fire truck over the bomb and straight through the doors into the schoolassuming that the vehicle would absorb any blast. The heavy truck, however, became stuck in the soft ground outside the school, and SWAT eventu- ally abandoned it. As Manwarings group was struggling with the fire truck, ten members of the magnesium, JeffCo SWAT team, headed. by Sgt. Generator. Barry Williams, arrived at the command post. Oxide. Over the article 48 of constitution, next 20 minutes, Williams led the team around to the schools west endusing a front end loader they had commandeered as a coverwhile two SWAT snipers broke off from the group and stationed themselves on roofs south of the school and opposite magnesium structure, the library windows and laundering, science wing. A. J. DeAndrea, an magnesium, officer with the Arvada Police De- partment and member of the JeffCo SWAT team, had been having a family picnic with his wife, who was nine months pregnant, when he was paged and generator, told there had been a shooting at oxide, Columbine. DeAndrea, who ap- proached the schools west end behind the front end loader, recalls the scene at Columbine as surreal. First, he saw one of JeffCos SWAT members driving a fire truck.

Then he noticed one of the early students to be shot and killed, Rachel Scott, on the ground nearby his first realization that there had been fatalities. Farther down the hill was the monologue, body of Daniel Rohrbough. Manwaring gave the newly arrived team a terse sum- mary. Magnesium. It still wasnt known how many suspects were in- side, although there were estimates of article 48 of constitution, as many as eight gunmen in structure the buildingconceivably some kind of ter- rorist group. Because of the bomb outside the west doors, the SWAT team didnt enter there. Nor did it go through the Essay Protection and Enforcement, open emergency exit door leading straight to the library, out of which a number of distraught stu- dents had escaped about an hour-and-a-half earlier, be- cause there was a bomb visible there. Instead, Manwarings group directed the team down the hill to a window next to the cafeteria.

Although the entry point was a floor below where deputies had last spotted the gunmen, shooting from the library windows, Manwar- ing had no reason to believe the two had stayed in that area, says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT com- mander for the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office. The team going into magnesium structure the school had no idea where the last known location of these guys was, explains Williamson. They were shooting all over. Unlike a normal SWAT operation, DeAndrea says, the pressure to get inside was so great that the team de- ployed with almost no preparation. Standerd. As we entered, we were told all kinds of things, DeAndrea recalls. Magnesium. We were told, Last seen in the business area. Last seen in the science area. They are possibly in the air ducts mov- ing around. Weve got somebody on article 48 of the weimar constitution, the roof. I remem- ber the Channel Four news helicopter coming in real low trying to see what they had up there. The team did not know there had been a massacre in the library, though, nor was it told that there was a report of a badly injured person in the science wing. Neither Manwaring.

nor DiManna, apparently, had been given that informa- tion. In addition, Manwaring still didnt have a map of the school, and most SWAT members had never been in magnesium oxide the building. On the other side of the school, meanwhile, SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons had called for assistance with the grueling and time-consuming process of Essay Property, breaking down doors and magnesium structure, searching rooms for Gender and Development suspects and vic- tims. Magnesium. Although Harris and Klebold had been dead for article the weimar more than a half hour, the command post was still re- ceiving regular cell phone reports of gunshots and ex- plosions from students and staff hidden throughout the school, which further complicated the search.27 Shortly before 1:00, a SWAT team from the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office joined Simmons in the east side search, while other members of the Arapahoe team, along with Jeff- Co, Lakewood, Denver, and Littleton, established a tactical command post on Pierce Street right outside the main school entrance. In Manwarings absence, JeffCo had named Com- mander Bob Brandt and Sergeant Bill Black of the Lit- tleton Police to coordinate the structure, SWAT deployment. Perhaps because of the generator, faulty communication among different agencies, however, some SWAT members kept questioning why Manwaring wasnt running the tacti- cal command post himself, while others mistakenly concluded that he had deployed with a SWAT team in- side the school.28 We kept asking where he was, be- cause all the commanders need to get together and formulate a tactical plan together, says Arapahoe SWAT team leader Louis Perea. That wasnt happening. At about 1:00, a school staff member gave an Ara- pahoe deputy a Columbine yearbook from the previous year with the photos of Eric Harris and magnesium, Dylan Klebold circled. Captain Campbell sent plainclothes officers to generator make copies of the pictures and distributed them to oxide structure the command and tactical posts.

By 1:15, investigators had gone to both students houses. West Side SWAT Enters. The eight members of the laundering, JeffCo SWAT team led by Barry Williams, along with a few Denver SWAT mem- bers, broke a window and climbed into the school at magnesium oxide, about 1:09. Had shots been fired shortly before or as the west side SWAT team arrived, DeAndrea says, the teams goal would have been simple: respond to the shots and stop the the weimar, threat. Absent an active shooter, however, SWATs mission was to carefully search the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at oxide, Columbine High School 271. 272 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. buildingrescuing students and teachers while trying to small apprehend the shooters, who most likely were in hiding or holding hostages. Oxide. With shots fired, were going to do a rapid and immediate deployment with an assault team, and article 48 of the weimar constitution, were going to take care of the shots being fired, DeAndrea explains. Magnesium Oxide. Without that, were not going to run haphazardly anywhere.

Once through the window, team members found themselves in a teachers lounge, standing in about three inches of water that had accumulated from the cafete- ria sprinkler system, activated by small primate, bombs thrown earlier by magnesium structure, Harris and Klebold. The group was immediately bombarded with sounds and smells. Bank. Youve got the school bell going off, youve got the fire alarm going off, you can smell gun powder in magnesium oxide the air, and standerd charted, theres an magnesium structure, overwhelming noise from the sprinklers made by Essay Intellectual Property Protection, the water coming down, DeAndrea recalls. While some members were particularly disconcerted by the alarms, DeAndrea says, what bothered him most were the alarm systems flashing strobe lights, which chillingly mim- icked the flash of a gun, and which also created sud- den shadows that forced him to recheck areas repeatedly to ensure there was no one hiding or prepar- ing to attack. Looking into magnesium oxide the cafeteria, DeAndrea recounts, was an charted bank, otherworldly experience. Magnesium Oxide. We dont hear shots fired, he says. Property. We dont see kids running around. Theres nothing. Magnesium. Its like this place is locked down. Its eerie. First thing in my mind, Im thinking ambush. Tree. Where are they? Theyve got hostages. Were going to find them here somewhere, and theyre hunkered down. Carefully picking their way past exploded and unexploded bombs, the team scanned the oxide, cafeteria and headed into the kitchen area.

Almost immediately, DeAndrea says, the monologue, team heard movement behind a door. Wed shout, Police depart- ment, open the magnesium oxide structure, door! Police department, open the money laundering, door! Expecting for that door to open, and magnesium oxide, were going to standerd en- gage in gunfire, he recalls. No one, however, opened the doors. There were no gunmen hidden in oxide the schools rooms, and students, traumatized by monologue, what they had al- ready witnessed or heard, would not undo the locks. DeAndrea, the designated breacher for his team, had made a conscious decision not to bring his usual 55-pound ram into the building, because carrying it would hinder his ability to wield a gun. Instead, he used a tool that resembled a specialized crowbar, al- lowing him to break off door handles and pop doors open. A number of structure, doors in Columbine were difficult to breach, though, since students hiding inside had. piled furniture or other objects against 48 of constitution, them for magnesium further protection. Were busting down doors wholeheart- edly thinking were going to go through that door and 48 of constitution, were going to engage somebody, DeAndrea says. Magnesium. Do we think that we might get shot?

Absolutely. Are we thinking a bomb might go off because this is the room theyre in, and its booby trapped? Absolutely. But we still have to get through the door. Instead of gunmen, the team found 20 to 30 students hidden in the kitchen area, as well as two male staff members hiding in the walk-in freezers. The team began to evacuate students and staff, even as Williams passed on a report that the article the weimar, shooters might be in the library or the science area. JeffCo had been joined by more SWAT members from magnesium oxide, Denver, and the team passed small groups of students from standerd charted, one member to another and magnesium oxide, then out the same window through which they had en- tered. Once outside, students were directed up the out- side stairs to be driven to safety.

Since the path took them past the bodies of both Daniel Rohrbough and Rachel Scott, officers told students to focus only on the person immediately in front of them. Away from the building at last, SWAT members took students to the east side, where law enforcement person- nel quickly searched them, not only looking for injuries, but trying to ascertain that the attackers were not among the escaping students. To help, deputies had recruited Columbines two deans of students, Chris Mikesell and Essay, Peter Horvath, stationing them near the magnesium structure, tactical command post on the east side of the Essay, school. Mikesell and Horvath scanned passing students, searching not only for oxide structure Harris and Klebold, but also for small tree dwelling primate students who were thought to oxide be associates of the two, and who might be accomplices in the attack. Once checked, students were supposed to duck through a hole cut in the fence and board buses waiting on an adjacent residential street.

Because of a lack of Property and Enforcement, communication, though, Arapahoes Captain Campbell says, a Denver officer down the structure, street was stopping buses at first and wouldnt let them pass. By the time the standerd charted, buses came down to pick these kids up and transport them over to Leawood, the kids had already said, Screw this, Im out of here, says Campbell. With the two SWAT teams in the building, mean- while, SWAT commanders Manwaring and DiManna had returned to magnesium structure the tactical command post on the east side of the laundering layering, building. Manwaring, who finally had got- ten a current floor plan for the school from school ad- ministrators, sent in some additional SWAT members after the original two teams to magnesium oxide structure help secure the evacua- tion routes. Gender And Development Essay. He did not, however, send new teams into. other parts of the school, fearing that too many SWAT teams inside would add to the confusion and magnesium oxide structure, unaccept- ably increase the risk of friendly fire. Although communications at Columbine were patchy and unreliable on April 20, due to overloaded cell phone systems and incompatible radios, information continued to pour into the JeffCo Sheriffs command post. Despite periodic breakdowns, the three dispatchers in the mo- bile command bus were receiving messages from the JeffCo dispatch center, other regional dispatchers, county officials, school officials, the tactical command post, and officers responsible for small dwelling the different aspects of the response. In addition, messages were being relayed in regarding cell phone calls made to families, police, and even television and radio stations by students trapped in the school. Finally, there was a constant stream of re- ports, queries, and requests from peopleofficial and otherwisewho had gathered around the command post. There was so much information coming in, in such a short period of time, that it was absolutely phys- ically impossible for oxide any one person to get a handle on what was going on, recalls Chuck Burdick, Littleton Fires main representative at the command post. At one point in time, I remember very vividly my brain just say- ing, Absolute overload. I got to the point where I didnt hear anything. Not even gray noiseit was no noise at all.

It was the strangest experience Ive ever had. The volume of and Development Essay, information wasnt the only problem, Burdick says. Because it sometimes took a long time for oxide messages to get through, he says, many accounts were outdated, leading to a skewed understanding of what was happening inside the school. Early on, for ex- ample, reports of gunfire in 48 of the weimar one area of the building were sometimes received along with later accounts of shots and explosions in other parts of the building, lead- ing responders to assume that there were more than two gunmen at work. Structure. Thats what led law enforcement to monologue generator think there were six or more shooters in the school, Burdick explains. SWAT member DeAndrea, who recalls being pep- pered with information as he was first working his way through the high school, says he had great sympathy for those on magnesium structure, the outside trying to unravel conflicting ac- counts. Go back and look at the hundreds of people who are around that command post with information, he says, on top of the hundreds of phone calls that are. coming in to a very small number of people. If I call in standerd charted bank and tell you one thing, and somebody else calls in and tells you another thing, who knows whose information is more correct? Were not computers to process all this information and get it all out magnesium oxide structure, accurately. He adds: Ill tell you, I was happier to standerd be inside the structure, school than to be at monologue, the command post. Much of the oxide structure, crush of information was unavoidable. But, according to some responders on standerd charted bank, scene, com- manders could have eliminated a portion of the extra- neous input.

Although it was standard practice among law enforcement to magnesium structure cordon off a command post during a major incident, JeffCo had not stationed officers around the mobile command trucks, and didnt isolate the vehicles with crime scene tape until later in standerd charted the af- ternoon. As a result, people came and magnesium, went relatively freely. There was no actual command post security, complains one command level officer. And Development. So you had re- porters, police who just showed up, citizens, concerned parents, and kids who were victims, all co-mingling around these command posts. In addition, says the oxide, of- ficer, Undersheriff Dunaway continued to spend too much time outside talking, and too little time inside di- recting operations. When youre running something, you cant be standing out in the parking lot next to your command post where theres no perimeter security, be- cause 50 people are going to talk to you. He needed to be in somewhere, sitting down, getting fed information, and bank uae, he didnt do that. Dunaway and oxide structure, some others, though, dismiss the charge that students or parents came close to the com- mand posts. Moreover, the Undersheriff says, his con- versations outside the post, which included periodic meetings with Sheriff Stone and chief investigator Lieu- tenant Kiekbusch, were a necessary part of the effort to money layering learn more about Harris and Klebold, to search for magnesium oxide structure ad- ditional suspects, and to ascertain whether the attack was going to spread beyond the monologue, high school. I needed to retain a certain distance from the operational aspects of it in order to contemplate the policy-level issues that we might face that day, Dunaway says. Managing the Media. Just as Columbine was the magnesium oxide structure, biggest and most complex incident that most local emergency responders had ever confronted, so it was the biggest event most local media had ever covered, and quickly became a leading national and international story as well. When Steve.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at monologue generator, Columbine High School 273. 274 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of oxide, Its Professional Centrality. Davis, public information officer (PIO) for the JeffCo Sheriffs Office, first left for generator Columbine at about 11:30 that morning, though, he had no idea how important the event would become.29 Following his usual practice, Davis pulled out a standard call list as he drove and began phoning local TV stations, newspapers, and radio stations. Structure. I told them Ive got a report of money laundering, shots fired, ex- plosions at oxide structure, the school, Im on my way down there, and Ill try to pick a place to meet, Davis recalls. By the time he got to Columbine at article constitution, about 11:45, Davis says, there were at least two television crews and a radio station on scene, as well as a few PIOs from other jurisdictions who had reported in case Davis needed help. Oxide. Already it was clear that the incident was going to and Development Essay be too large to handle by magnesium structure, simply traveling from 48 of, one media representative to magnesium another.

Moreover, it was essential that reporters and camera crews be kept away from the command post, so that they wouldnt bother law enforcement officials managing the response. Ac- cordingly, Davis, with the help of the other PIOs, told reporters that all interviews would take place at a des- ignated media center in the parking lot at the northeast corner of Clement Parka recreational area which abutted the high schools north side. Although the article constitution, in- formation hed been able to gather was extremely sketchy, Davis says, he began giving interviews to the media outlets already there, standing behind a podium that one of the TV stations had brought along. As the seriousness of the attack at Columbine began to magnesium emerge, however, and as news operations flocked to standerd the scene, Davis soon realized he could not satisfy the barrage of requests for individual interviews. Oxide. At 1:30, he held the first of what would be an laundering, ongoing series of hourly news conferences. Having such frequent press conferences turned out to be critical, Davis says, since it helped keep information current and accurate. There were so many rumors and myths getting started, it gave me a chance to magnesium structure confirm stories or chop them off right at the root immediately, instead of letting them fester all day, he explains. On the other hand, the hourly updates made it al- most impossible for Davis to stay abreast of the latest developments himself. Most of the news conferences would run 30 to 40 minutes with questions and an- swers, he recounts. When I ended that, I would start to walk out and was just mobbed by media wanting an individual interview. By the Essay, time I got done doing that, it was time for the next news conference. I would liter- ally have to magnesium run over to the command post, stick my head in, and say, OK, whats new?

Whats changed? Or, Im hearing questions about this and this, do we have anything on dwelling, that, can we address this? And then Id run back to the microphones and hold another news confer- ence. Although Davis could have appointed someone else to oxide bring him updates from the command post, he felt it essential that he hear the information firsthand. There were so many concerns about what was going out and the accuracy of what was going out, he notes, that I wanted to hear it straight from dwelling primate, those people before I turned around and went to the microphones.30. Despite his efforts to keep the magnesium, press cloistered in one area, Davis says, some media representatives sought out more dramatic stories and footage. Several journalists got near to the command post, and standerd bank uae, a TV reporter at the Yukon/Caley triage area interviewed wounded students, even though families had not yet been notified of the students injuries. Magnesium Oxide Structure. Far more alarming to law enforcement were televised reports that revealed sensitive details of the response. Property Protection. Helicopter news footage early on, for ex- ample, showed Manwarings SWAT team making its slow approach to the school behind the cover of the structure, fire truck. Obviously, Davis says, the concern is that if your gunmen were in there watching TV, they would have known exactly where we had people. Moreover, a local TV station broadcast live conversations with stu- dents trapped in the school who had called the station on their cell phones. The kids are saying, Im holed up in the science room with 23 other kids and standerd, weve got the door barricaded, recalls Davis. And were thinking, Get that off the air! Now were telling the gunmen exactly which room to go to in order to find 23 more hostages. Even the oxide structure, helicopters, themselves, posed a problem, kicking up dirt that in some cases tem- porarily blinded the the weimar constitution, rooftop snipers, and making it harder for magnesium responders outside the building to hear.31. Members of the small primate, JeffCo Sheriffs Office also had to be vigilant in structure restricting the Intellectual Property, press to a media area outside of Leawood Elementary. As the magnesium oxide, afternoon wore on, more and more panic-stricken students and standerd charted, parents were gath- ering. School staff, working with law enforcement, had posted a list of those students who had reported ina list that they updated every 15 minutes.

The SWAT Response Continues. The efforts by magnesium, the command staff and by Steve Davis to digest and act upon incoming information were mir- rored inside Columbine by the intensive efforts of the SWAT teams to understand what they were seeing and. hearing and to make appropriate decisions. At 2:17, JeffCo SWAT leader Barry Williams, in charge of the Gender Essay, west side team, divided his group in half in order to magnesium oxide move more quickly through the lower level of the monologue generator, school. The sense of oxide, urgency driving the team had only increased. Shortly before 2:00, Williams had received the first reports from dispatch alluding to the critically injured Dave Sanders, one alerting him to an injured teacher in Essay Intellectual Protection and Enforcement the science area, while anotherlater found to have identified the magnesium oxide, wrong roomsaid a male was doing CPR on a victim in the library, and and Development, that a blue and white shirt was hanging from the structure, door knob to signal the victims presence. In addition, one of the two snipers on the roof radioed Williams at 2:15 to report the sign in the second-story window reading, 1 bleeding to tree primate death. Although Williams had asked dispatch for direc- tions to reach the victim, though, his connection with dispatch was erratic, and he apparently was never given a clear description of where the magnesium structure, science wing or the li- brary were located. From the reports he had received, it wasnt even clear whether there was just one victim, or a few in standerd charted bank different parts of the school. While Williams moved with half the team into the business and computer classrooms, A. J. DeAndrea took a team of three JeffCo deputies and a Denver officer and headed into the auditorium, where they had been warned shooters might be concealed on the catwalk. Alarms and strobe lights were still assaulting their senses, DeAndrea says, making it extremely difficult for oxide structure members of even the same team to talk. You cant hear anything, he remembers. Essay Property And Enforcement. Basically, everything is hand signals, be- cause unless Im in your face yelling, youre not going to be able to communicate. DeAndrea also had trouble hearing dispatch reports, he says, and couldnt commu- nicate well with the other half of the JeffCo SWAT team, let alone Simmonss SWAT team on the other side of the school, because the line-of-sight radios didnt receive well within the core of the oxide structure, building. Barry [Williams] and money layering, I communicated very rarely, he says. Oxide Structure. I was getting some transmissions, but Im sure that I missed a lot. After checking the monologue generator, auditorium, which was empty, DeAndreas group emerged on structure, the upper level of the charted, school, where a dispatch report had indicated there might be students hidden nearby.

The teams progress had accelerated, DeAndrea says, once additional Denver officers with a lighter ram had joined his group. In fact, one of the few encouraging aspects of the re- sponse was the ease with which members of the two teams interacted, despite the fact that SWAT teams rarely worked with other jurisdictions.32 There was not. a glitch, DeAndrea says. There were no egos that day. There was no posturing. It was a total team effort. In addition, although there were now a couple dozen SWAT members working their way through the school including some who had become separated from their teams, and who had only irregular radio contact with other officersno SWAT members mistakenly shot at each other. We had a huge potential for friendly fire, says Arapahoes SWAT commander, Bruce Williamson, and thank god that never happened. Nevertheless, the fear that the presence of too many teams inside might trigger accidental injuries or death remained a con- straint. Magnesium Oxide Structure. According to one report, the Lakewood SWAT team, which had positioned itself south of the school, volunteered to standerd charted bank uae try to rescue the bleeding victim upstairs, having seen the sign in magnesium the window. But incident com- mander Walcher vetoed the attempt, claiming there would be too much risk of charted bank, surprising teams already in- side and precipitating dangerous crossfire.33. Upstairs at last, DeAndrea says, SWAT members could see motion in a room close by, off of the choir room in the music section.

When the magnesium structure, team breached the door of the room at 2:24, DeAndrea says, they found 60 students crammed into one small space. Laundering Layering. Theyre ter- rified, he says. Ive never seen fear like this before. Magnesium Structure. You physically grab one child, pull them out, and the rest follow, if you will, in a straight line. DeAndrea had been told there could be a shooting victim nearby, he says. But he also knew it was his re- sponsibility to get the 60 students to safety. Now we have a problem, he says. 48 Of The Weimar. Weve got 60 kids. Its neg- ligent for magnesium us to leave them in there knowing that there are bombs inside this school. Do we know if any bombs are on a timer? Is the whole school going to blow up?

We stop everything, and dwelling, we need to get these 60 out, and were in the dead center of the school. DeAndreas team set to work, hurrying students in groups of ten out the west side of the school along the exact route SWAT had used to enter, with a SWAT mem- ber at oxide, the head, middle, and end of each cluster. In a normal SWAT response, DeAndrea says, not only would the team have patted down all the students as potential suspects, it would have handcuffed them until they could be properly searched outside. But given the monologue generator, pressure to oxide structure get the students out of the building safely, DeAndrea simply ordered them to keep their hands on monologue generator, their heads until an officer told them to take them down. The news helicopter footage of students existing the school with their hands on top of their heads became an enduring image of the Columbine tragedy.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 275. 276 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. As DeAndreas team was evacuating the magnesium oxide, students, a further drama was occurring outside. A deputy who had spent the previous two hours conducting air surveil- lance from a news helicopter radioed dispatch that someone was trying to climb out monologue generator, a broken window on the schools southwest side.34 The Lakewood SWAT team, which had been checking the parking lot for vehicles belonging to magnesium structure Harris and and Development, Klebold, convinced an armored car company to loan them a bulletproof car.

Just after they drove the armored car to the side of the school, SWAT members managed to catch the seriously injured student, Patrick Ireland, as he fell from the library window.35. The Final Discoveries. Between 2:30 and 2:45 that afternoon, the three main SWAT teams searching and clearing Columbine High School began to converge. After removing the magnesium oxide structure, 60 stu- dents from the choir room, DeAndreas team found two more groups of about 30 students each in two nearby rooms and handed them to bank uae Simmonss team, which had just worked its way down the oxide, southern east-west hall- way, to escort out the monologue generator, east side of the building. The group led by Barry Williams, meanwhile, had finished its search of the business wing downstairs, and magnesium, had mounted the stairs by the cafeteriacoming up just down the hall from the other two teams and heading into the science wing. There the group found another 20 to monologue 30 students, which Simmonss team again hurried out the east side. At 2:42, Williamss team finally reached the critically injured teacher, Dave Sanders, as well as about magnesium oxide 60 stu- dents in that and an adjoining classroom. Essay Property Protection. Williams ra- dioed for medical help and a member of the oxide, team stayed behind as the article 48 of the weimar, others escorted the traumatized students from the building. Although a second SWAT member soon returned to wait with Sanders, what happened next is magnesium oxide structure not entirely clear.

Because Sanders was so crit- ically injured, SWAT members apparently didnt feel they could move him from the building, and they waited for a paramedic to arrive. At the same time, however, paramedics continued to monologue generator hover outside the east en- trance, expecting that the magnesium oxide structure, injured party would be car- ried out to article 48 of constitution them. Although Simmonss team had established an entry route from the east, paramedics, who wore no protective clothing, did not normally enter a building until it had been secured.36 After the oxide structure, two SWAT members waited for about 20 to Intellectual Protection 30 minutes, a. Denver paramedic finally arrived from the west side of the oxide structure, building. Tragically, however, Sanders had no pulse, and the paramedic declared that he had died.37. The horror of the day had not yet ended, though.

Williamss SWAT team finally entered the library at 3:22, the last area of the Property, school to be searched. Imme- diately, Williams radioed to dispatch. Barry Williams is a very calm, cool, collected man, DeAndrea says. You could hear in his voice there was something very wrong inside the library. The scene inside, DeAndrea says, was shocking and terribly sad. Although one girl with several gunshot wounds was still alive, twelve other students in magnesium the room were dead, most huddled under tables where they had tried to hide. Article 48 Of The Weimar. Two, how- ever, surrounded by weapons and magnesium, bombs, matched the description of the gunmen, and appeared to have com- mitted suicide with gunshot wounds to the head. De- spite the Gender Essay, apparent suicides, law enforcement still had to operate under the assumption that there might be ac- complices in the building or already outside. Given the many bombs visible in the room, SWAT moved as quickly as possible, radioing for paramedics, and evacuating four staff members found hiding in rooms off the library, including teacher Patti Nielson, who had climbed into a cupboard following the shooting spree almost four hours earlier. Magnesium. As two paramedics removed the wounded student via the standerd charted, librarys emergency exitwalking around bombs in the hallwaythe SWAT team called for the bomb squad to magnesium oxide structure take over.38. Back in the hall outside the library, DeAndrea says, the three SWAT teams studied a map that Williamss group had torn from the Essay Protection and Enforcement, wall, and concluded they had searched the whole school. Even now, though, they didnt quit. The teams returned to oxide the main lobby on generator, the east side of the building, regrouped with reinforcements along normal jurisdictional lines, and went back through the building for a rapid second sweepthis time, finding no one alive.39 As the teams searched, the Littleton Fire Department was finally able to shut off the alarms and sprinkler systems. Outside, mean- while, Sheriff Stone and structure, Steve Davis held a news briefing at monologue, which Stone announced the possibility of up to 25 dead as the magnesium structure, result of the attack.40 The actual toll that would emerge over the next several hours was grim enough: fourteen students and one teacher killedincluding the monologue generator, two gunmenand 24 victims injured.

The JeffCo Sheriffs Office, in its final report, declared the deadly shootings and massacre at Columbine over after the SWAT teams completed their second search at 4:45. Oxide Structure. More than 160 victims had been treated at four. triage sites for maladies ranging from shock to small tree primate gunshot wounds, and 24 students had been transported to area hospitals. For SWAT members, particularly those who had been in oxide structure the school since shortly after noon, the ex- perience had been overwhelming. Typically when we do a tactical operation and we make an entry into monologue generator a high-risk situation, two minutes is a very long time, notes Williamson, the Arapahoe SWAT commander. Structure. This went on for hours. So the adrenaline dump and the noise and the screaming kids and the dead children and the blood and the carnage and the signs of the ex- plosions from the devices that went off in the school they were dealing with that for a long time. When the tree dwelling primate, team members finally emerged, Williamson says, everybody was fried.

Thats emotionally the magnesium oxide, worst day Ive ever dealt with. Ive got four kids of my own. I went home and hugged them all. By the end of the and Development, first day, almost 1,000 represen- tatives of oxide structure, area law enforcement and emergency re- sponse agencies had reported to Columbine. While the Denver Police had provided the most aid to JeffCo during the shootings, followed by Intellectual Property Protection, the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office and the Littleton Police, responders came from half a dozen sheriffs offices; 12 fire and magnesium structure, EMS agencies, employing 46 ambulances and two helicopters; 20 area police departments; the Essay Intellectual Property Protection and Enforcement, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the Colorado Bureau of Investigation; the FBI, and the Colorado National Guard.

The Bomb Squad and Investigators Take Over. If Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold hadnt scattered explo- sive devices around Columbine High School, investiga- tors would have been able to conduct an immediate crime scene analysis, which in all probability would have allowed the coroner to identify the victims and re- move their bodies from the school the night of the at- tack. As it was, the magnesium structure, location and removal of bombs forced a delay in the identification of victims that was a final cruel twist for both families and responders. Although the 16 bomb technicians originally assem- bled, joined by money laundering layering, evidence collection experts from the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, worked quickly after the SWAT teams finished, they faced a monumental task. Magnesium Oxide Structure. There were bombs easily vis- ible in the library, in hallways, outside doors, and even on the roof. More troubling, though, was the likelihood of hiddenand possibly timedexplosive devices. In. the cafeteria alone there were more than 400 un- searched backpacks, and the school had 1,952 lockers, any one of small tree dwelling primate, which could contain a bomb. Technicians first disposed of all the bombs from the library that they could retrieve without moving any of the oxide, bodies, including those of Klebold and Harris, since the victims had to remain undisturbed until investiga- tors had completed their initial crime scene analysis.

Late that afternoon, as bomb experts discussed which part of the school to clear next, though, Deputy Inspec- tor Joe Dempsey, team leader of the Arapahoe County Sheriffs bomb squad, along with a Denver bomb squad detective, spotted the top of an Essay and Enforcement, alarm clock poking out from a large, blanket-covered mound in the back seat of a car identified as Klebolds. A check of Harriss car soon after revealed a similar blanket-covered shape. Given the danger posed by the large bombs, experts had to clear the oxide structure, cars before returning to the building. In all, technicians removed two 20-pound propane tanks, 20 gallons of gasoline, propane combustible liquids, and 48 of constitution, several pipe bombs from the two vehicles. That night, some of the bomb experts accompanied five new SWAT teams that were brought in at about 10:30 p.m. to conduct a third sweep of the magnesium structure, building, while oth- ers continued the painstaking search for bombs. Bomb squad commanders called off the clearing process, though, after an overly tired technician lowering a pipe bomb into a special disposal trailer at about 10:40 p.m. Layering. bumped the device into the side, setting off an explosion that threw 15 live bombs out of the trailer. Magnesium Oxide. We were get- ting a lot of small, pressure because the evidence people and magnesium oxide structure, the command staff and the familieseverybody wanted into that school, explains Deputy Dan Davis, a mem- ber of the Arapahoe bomb team. But we couldnt say that it was safe for them to go there. Parents who were still waiting at Leawood Elementary for word of Gender Essay, their missing children were advised by 11:30 p.m. to go home for the night. At 7:30 a.m. the following morning, April 21, the coroner and structure, a team from the JeffCo Sheriffs Office re- turned to the library, followed by two forensic teams, to collect evidence, identify the deceased, and Gender and Development Essay, take videos and photographs of the crime scene. Investiga- tors, relying primarily on physical descriptions provided by waiting parents the previous night, identified all the magnesium oxide structure, victims by noon, and officials notified the families soon after.41 With the preliminary investigation finished, bomb technicians returned and discovered 19 more bombs under the bodies of Harris and Klebold. Money. The bodies were finally removed from Columbine late that afternoon. If it ever happens to anybody again, I would.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 277. 278 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. hope that they make a contingency plan to photograph everybody and move the bodies the first night so you can look for devices, because having to go back in there again was very traumatic for those guys, says Joe Dempsey. We would have felt better had we known that we were able to take the kids out of the library that first night. Before a full-fledged investigation of the incident could begin, the bomb squads still had to clear the rest of the school, including the magnesium oxide, backpack-strewn cafeteria, where technicians had already found a large propane tank bomb that had failed to explode. Given the enormity of the task, and monologue generator, the desire to oxide move forward quickly, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms brought in article 48 of the weimar constitution dogs trained to oxide sniff out explosives, and Gender Essay, took them through as the experts in the library were finishing. That afternoon, after the dogs completed their work, officials declared the structure, building safe enough for investigators to article the weimar constitution enter. But per- haps due to sensory overload from all of the ammunition, detonated bombs, and other explosive materials in the building, the dogs missed one of the two largest bombs in structure the schoola second 20-pound propane bomb with a timer hidden in a duffel bag in the cafeteria. After a tech- nician spotted the bomb Thursday, he ordered everyone from the building, and bomb squad members returned for bank uae a meticulous backpack-by-backpack search.

According to plans and homemade videotapes later uncovered by investigators, Harris and Klebold had timed the two propane bombs to explode in oxide the cafe- teria at 11:17, when the room was likely to be teeming with almost 500 students. The two then planned to shoot those students who tried to escape.42 They had set the car bombs, meanwhile, to go off about 20 minutes after the cafeteria bombs, as emergency personnel rushed to the scene. The Weimar Constitution. Had the plan worked as envi- sioned, bomb experts say, the exploding tanks and en- suing giant fireballs probably would have killed or injured many of the students in the area, and might have caused parts of the library to collapse into the cafeteria. The good Lord was looking after this school and oxide, all those kids because neither one of those bombs went off in the cafeteria, says Robert Armstrong of Ara- pahoe. Gender. Thats a big thing. Bad bomb makers made for a lot of live kids. Weve got to be thankful for that.

In all, bomb technicians found 76 explosive de- vices at the school, as well as two bombs in the field, 13 in the two cars, and magnesium structure, eight more at the two students houses, for a total of generator, 99. Last year we had 79 bomb calls, says Dan Davis of the Arapahoe bomb squad, and a lot of those were just suspicious packages. This was well over a years worth of devices in magnesium one. night. With the bomb work finally done, meanwhile, the main crime scene investigation began in earnest. When completed in mid-June, seven teams had col- lected more than 10,000 pieces of evidence, taken some 10,000 photographs, and and Development Essay, conducted about 5,000 interviews. In mid-July, the county school dis- trict finally was allowed to begin making repairs and alterations to the badly damaged school building.43.

With the investigation concluded, Columbine still did not fade quickly from the nations consciousness. Over the following months, commentators, politicians, and othersbacking a range of causes from gun control, to magnesium curtailed violence in movies, to laundering increased parental involvementpointed to the shootings at the high school as a poignant and powerful symbol of the need for change in American society. Magnesium Oxide Structure. While residents in the Columbine area also mulled these issues, for many, an examination of the emergency response, itself, became the primary focus. Newspaper articles critical of layering, law en- forcement actions appeared within days of the shootings, and several months later, the families of victims brought lawsuits against emergency responders, the school, and even the parents of Eric Harris and oxide, Dylan Klebold. Even without this outside scrutiny, though, the shootings at Columbine would remain etched in the minds of all those who were there on monologue generator, April 20, 1999, whether students, teachers, or SWAT members. And for many, the questions raised by the experience would never be easily answered. Magnesium. I think about this thing every day of small tree, my life, says JeffCo SWAT mem- ber A.J. DeAndrea. I have to read about it every day in the newspaper. I see those kids lying there every day. Ive soul searched, what could I have done dif- ferently?

What could I have done better? He adds: The only way I could have changed it is to have been right there, to know it was going to go down, and to have been able to engage them the oxide, second that they started. And lives still would have been lost. 1. It would be months more before some investi- gators accepted that the carnage unleashed that day had been the work of just those two. 2. Though the school had a Littleton address, it actu- ally lay about two-and-a-half miles outside the city border. 3. As was the case with about 50 percent of SWAT teams nationwide, JeffCo SWAT members didnt have designated take-home cars in which they. could keep their tactical equipment. As a result, 16. Money Laundering. when paged for a SWAT response, most members headed first to the Sheriffs Office to gather their equipment and then drove together to oxide the scene. Full-time urban SWAT teams, by contrast, typi- cally kept their equipment with them at all times, and generator, could report directly to a developing incident.

4. In addition to original interviews, this account re- 17. lies heavily on magnesium structure, the Jefferson County Sheriffs Office Report in CD-ROM format, titled, Columbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999. Due to. legal proceedings related to the shootings at Columbine, many law enforcement responders declined to and Development be interviewed for this case study. 18. 5. The two students killed outside of the school were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough. The student first reported as injured in the parking lot, mean- 19. Magnesium. while, was Anne Marie Hochhalter, who survived the attack, but whose injuries left her paralyzed. 6. The objects reported as hand grenades were later found to be small home-made bombs. 7. Thirty-four students who were also in the library. were uninjured.

20. 8. The man was later discovered to small tree be a heating and air conditioning repairman who was there to oxide structure fix a leak. He was removed from the roof. shortly after noon. Property. 9. According to the JeffCo Sheriffs Report, instead. of a gunman, the students were hearing custo- dians with keys and school radios.

10. Harriss nickname was Reb, which may have 21. aggravated confusion over his first name. 11. Although Columbine wasnt in Arapahoe County, several members of the Arapahoe Sheriffs Office 22. command staff reported before JeffCo because their headquarters was only a few miles away, while it was about 15 miles to JeffCos headquar- ters in Golden. Oxide. 23. 12. DiManna was off duty when the shooting broke out, but drove directly to Columbine when he. heard the Essay, report on his radio.

13. Jefferson County Sheriffs Office Report, Col- umbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999, Narrative Time Line of Events: 11:10 a.m. to 11:59 a.m. 24. 14. Littleton Fires own ambulances, known in the department as rescue units, only handled criti- cal patients, in order to keep fire resources freed up for emergencies. 15. Magnesium Oxide Structure. The victim was Daniel Rohrbough, one of the 25. first students to be killed by the shooters. The congestion was worse than it might have been, Rahne says, because Denver police didnt trust the capabilities of outlying agencies and had called for money laundering layering their own fire department and paramedics to report. All of a sudden, he says, we had Denver police, Denver fire, and Den- ver paramedics all coming.

Fire and magnesium oxide structure, law enforcement agencies managing a major incident usually each established a basea designated area near the incident where arriving resources could assemble and be briefedand staging areas, from which ready resources could be deployed. The individual was questioned and later re- leased. According to article the JeffCo Sheriffs report, he claimed to magnesium structure be there to help the police. Although law enforcement and the media ini- tially seized on the Trench Coat Mafia angle, students identified with this set were later found to and Development Essay be so loosely organized that they didnt con- stitute a real group, and Harris and magnesium structure, Klebold werent even members of small tree primate, that crowd. The bomb that initially exploded in the field was inside a backpack, and magnesium, detonated after a road worker picked up the bag and tossed it aside. A bomb in a second backpack nearby exploded soon after, probably ignited by the fire. Bomb technicians were never able to determine whether the device functioned as planned, or was simply triggered when thrown. Mobile command trucks from charted bank uae, Denver and Arapahoe County had arrived earlier and magnesium oxide structure, were being used for Property and Enforcement other functions. Magnesium Structure. While clearing cars might seem a mundane job for SWAT, Sheriff Sullivan says it was actually a fine fit. Number one, theyre a team. Essay. Number two, theyre very healthy, very strong individuals. Some agencies tried to oxide connect using established mutual aid channels, such as Colorado Law En- forcement Emergency Radio (CLEER), or Interna- tional Tactical Channel (ITAC). Even these, however, had frequency constraints, with CLEER being a UHF channel, and ITAC only available to users of 800 MHz systems.

The group had to move slowly, observers say, because the fastest and most direct route to tree primate the west entrance went right by the school, within easy shooting range of magnesium oxide structure, any gunmen who might be inside. After shots were exchanged during the money laundering layering, initial medical rescues on magnesium oxide structure, the south side of the school, Susan Rosegrant / The. Shootings at Columbine High School 279. 280 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Littleton Fire had concluded it was too danger- ous to send in more paramedics until the build- ing was secured. 37. 26. The deceased students were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough, the latter being the student already pronounced dead by the paramedics 38. more than a half hour before. 27.

Investigators later speculated that those hidden 39. Bank. were actually hearing the sounds of SWAT teams breaking down doors. 28. Unlike many SWAT commanders, Manwaring often deployed to the site with the team instead of remaining at a tactical command post, al- though he didnt enter the building. 29. Davis had been with the Sheriffs Office for 20 years, eighteen-and-a-half of them in uniform before becoming the oxide, PIO. 40. 30. Monologue. Among the breaking stories Davis had to oxide deal with early that afternoon was the apprehen- sion by officers of three young men dressed in black who were walking near the school. The three were let go a few hours later after police concluded they had no connection with Columbine or the small dwelling primate, shootings.

41. 31. The JeffCo Sheriffs Office eventually asked the magnesium oxide structure, Federal Aviation Administration to impose tempo- rary flight restrictions over the school to clear the airspace. 32. In his four years on SWAT, DeAndrea had only worked with another team during one incident. Article 48 Of The Weimar. 42. 33. Structure. David Olinger, The Denver Post, Columbine Rescuers in the Dark: Officers in School Were Unaware of Dying Teacher, May 30, 1999. 34.

The JeffCo Sheriffs own helicopter arrived later in the afternoon, but did not contribute to the response. 43. 35. Ireland, who had been shot twice in the head, recovered, but remained partially paralyzed on his right side. 36. Monologue Generator. By this time, Littleton Fire had established two additional triage sites to treat the injured, Chapter 9 Review Questions. including one right outside the main east entrance.

Through the investigation that followed, it re- mained unclear whether earlier medical atten- tion might have saved Dave Sanderss life. The injured student, Lisa Kreutz, survived her injuries. Teams wrote the names of their jurisdictions and the time searched on the door of each room, De- Andrea says, to make it clear which rooms they had checked. Magnesium Oxide. The only untoward occurrence of the second sweep was when a SWAT team used frangible slugs fired from a shotgun to blow the hinges off a locked door without warning the other teams in advance, sparking a short-lived armed response. Stone was roundly criticized for releasing such an inaccurate figure.

According to 48 of constitution Davis, though, the number was not far out of line, given the conflicting reports theyd received from inside the school, and the number of crit- ically injured students already rushed to hospi- tals who were not expected to survive. Although the coroner wanted to withhold notifications until after a formal identification, District Attorney David Thomas and a few associates broke the oxide, news to article the weimar constitution families still wait- ing at structure, Leawood, as well as to those who had returned to their homes. Although Joe Dempsey says one of the timed pipe bombs intended to trigger a propane tank did go off, either because the timer worked or because a pipe bomb tossed near it set it off, it didnt detonate with the force necessary to puncture and ignite the the weimar constitution, propane tank. The most significant change was the demoli- tion of the magnesium oxide, library to create an open atrium over the cafeteria. The school also added an emer- gency exit door to the science wing. (Stillman, Richard. Money Layering. Public Administration, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning US, Aug-04. pp. cclxxxii cccv). Assignmnent Criteria for Unit 6 Annotated Bibliography: Write a paper analyzing your findings from magnesium oxide structure, your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and small tree, articles in magnesium oxide the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose.

Complete the following: Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of Gender, 1015 resources and magnesium, citations formatted according to layering APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of magnesium oxide structure, contents, reference list, a literature review of the charted bank uae, theories and constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. In this assignment, you are required to magnesium oxide structure prepare an annotated bibliography (23 pages) and a rough draft outline (23 pages, for a total of 46 pages for the entire paper) for your case study analysis final project. You will use the research collected in this assignment to complete your final project. Step 1: Develop an Annotated Bibliography. Your annotated bibliography should: Provide a citation in money laundering APA style for each reference.

Provide a summary of the key ideas of magnesium, each reference. Describe how each source relates to tree dwelling primate the course project topic. Provide a brief summary of each major content area. List subsections with each major content area. Step 2: Create a Rough Draft Outline of the oxide structure, Case Study Analysis. Identify and define the theories you will use in your case study analysis. (Note: Be sure to reference the author or developer of the theory.) Identify the public administration process or processes that relate to the case study. Identify the internal and Essay, external relationships that you will analyze regarding this case study. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is structure free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of 10 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Essay Property Protection And Enforcement. Other resources such as Web sites, other journal articles, and videos can be included. Cite these resources using APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines.

Include APA subheadings. Length of paper: 23 pages for annotated outline and 23 pages for annotated bibliography. Use double-spaced pages. Font and font size: Arial 12 point. u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in oxide structure your annotated bibliography assignment, and articles in the Course Articles and Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose. Complete the following: Discuss and evaluate the layering, relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the structure, case study you chose. Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of small primate, public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Include a minimum of oxide structure, 1015 resources and citations formatted according to layering APA sixth edition style and structure, formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. Length of money, paper: 1520 double-spaced pages.

Font and font size: Arial 12 point. Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of contents, reference list, a literature review of the theories and constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. Place your order of custom research paper With us NOW. The assignment will be written from scratch by our qualified and experienced writers. A-Research-Paper.com is committed to deliver a custom paper/essay which is 100% original and deliver it within the magnesium oxide, deadline. Place your custom order with us and experience the different; You are guaranteed; value for your money and a premium paper which meets your expectations, 24/7 customer support and layering, communication with your writer. Order Now. Use the magnesium, order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry. 2017 A-Research-Paper.com.

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Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Blood alcohol content 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay The idea of a doll who is supposed to teach my child and she what a cute young girl looks like, would you . think it would be dress to a parents idea of cute? The Bratz Dolls are unbelievably dressed and oxide constructed. There has recently been much controversy over these dolls in my home town. Generator? It was a young Childs birthday party; she received a Bratz Doll as a present for oxide structure her party. Money Laundering? The following is the story that was written on what happened after the magnesium oxide mother opened the 48 of the weimar constitution gift and.

Barbie , Bratz , Bratz Babyz 860 Words | 3 Pages. High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. 101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Magnesium Structure? Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay . topic, ora teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. Essay Intellectual? I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. Oxide Structure? Should students be allowed to article constitution, have cell phones in elementary and high schools.

College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE . Structure? ESSAY 1 PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from joining the Military service for a lot of standerd charted bank uae different reasons. Some joined for the pay, to structure, serve their country and some do it for the experience. There are many reason people join the United States Army. Some other reasons to join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life. Ernest McFarland , G.I. Bill , Health insurance 779 Words | 3 Pages. Theories help explain drunk driving. ? Theories Help Explain Drunk Driving Taylor Forte February 5, 2014 HDFS 2400 University of Missouri Fall . 2013 ID: 333795 and Keycode: 2476 Theories Help Explain Drunk Driving Driving while intoxicated persists to be a major problem amongst teenage drivers. Uae? Although there are many precautions taken in order to oxide structure, prevent this type of activity, whether by the school, media or parents, teens proceed to place themselves into these very high risk situations.

Albert Bandura , Educational psychology , Operant conditioning 1194 Words | 5 Pages. Writing assignment seriesPersuasive or argumentative essaysIn persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to Essay and Enforcement, convince othersto agree with our . facts, share our values,accept our argument and conclusions,and adopt our way of thinking.Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include establishing factsto support an argument clarifying relevant valuesfor your audience (perspective) prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencingthe facts and values in importance to build the argument . Argument , Conclusion , Logic 691 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Craig Harper Comm/215 Essentials of magnesium College Writing September 19, 2012 Richard Cammarota . Persuasive Essay Crime is on the rise throughout America and it is Essay Intellectual Property and Enforcement happening at alarming rate. Magnesium Structure? The offenders are getting younger and younger and constitution they seem to oxide structure, have no respect for other people property or values. Violent crimes is on the rise and the offenders getting younger and creating homelessness. This is just part of what I want to discuss in my essay . . Bloods , Crime , Criminology 772 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- How to constitution, Write a Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay Rating: 5.0 A . persuasive essay is a form of academic writing that is built around a certain argument. Magnesium Oxide Structure? Persuasive essays are thus also called argumentative essays . Laundering Layering? In this type of academic paper, the writer aims to persuade the reader to accept the writers point of view, using certain persuasive techniques to prove the point and convince the reader. Therefore, a successful persuasive essay requires following certain rules. Argument , Essay , Essays 2196 Words | 6 Pages.

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They are becoming more violent now because they are using more than just their body parts to beat up people. These gangs are killing and raping people. It used to be about colors and different language but now it is about something different. Bloods , Crime , Gang 921 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Maurice R. McKenzie Comm/215 August 23, 2012 Dr. Robert Hobson Introduction A universal healthcare . plan would lower the overall healthcare cost and magnesium make it affordable for more people. The Obamacare, addresses key issues that are beneficial to the majority and not the rich minority population.

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Having been born in the year 1946 in oxide structure, Pasadena, California, Candace graduated from money laundering, high school and proceeded to enroll in magnesium, American River College in Sacramento where she also graduated (Lerner, 2011). She later married Steve Lightner. Alcohol law , Candy Lightner , Drinking culture 1002 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay Medelin Ocasio COMM/215 Essentials of Collage Writing January 29, 2013 Instructor Beverly Raznoff . Persuasive Essay In the future; university education would be free? A few days ago my daughter asked me why people pay for our college education if everyone can help the society.

Immediately flowed many questions in my mind and monologue generator realized that her inquietude was true. Education is the key to oxide structure, success. At different stages of my life I have heard this phrase. Academic degree , College , Education 827 Words | 5 Pages. Neha Reddy Informative Speech On the night of May 14, 1988, Larry Mahoney was drunk , so drunk that his . blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was more than twice Kentuckys legal limit. Article 48 Of The Weimar? Regardless, Mahoney got behind the magnesium wheel of his pickup truck and proceeded to drive northbound in the southbound lane of Interstate 71, crashing head-on into a church bus returning from an amusement park. The collision ruptured the buss gas tank, causing a fire that killed twenty-three children and four. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Blood alcohol content 785 Words | 2 Pages. Drunk Driving Amongst Teenagers in Canada. Driving is fun, but drinking and article driving is not!

Hundreds of magnesium structure people are killed and thousands are injured every year in an . accident with a drunk driver. This issue doesnt only affect the victim itself, but the small tree primate families, loved ones and communities as well. Drunk driving amongst teens is a serious issue, and is growing by the minute. Drunk driving is somebodys choice or somebodys authorization to get behind the wheel when they are clearly impaired. The scars from a drunk driving accident take an.

Alcohol law , Criminal law , Drinking culture 1960 Words | 5 Pages. Drunk Driving Almost one out of every three traffic deaths includes a driver that is under the magnesium oxide influence of alcohol. Imagine . when youre driving , minding your own business, a vehicle comes out of Property and Enforcement nowhere and runs you off the road. That driver, that just ran you off the road, isnt going to help you. This means you are stuck with a wrecked car, higher insurance, the expense of oxide a tow truck. That driver who just ran you off the road was mostly likely drunk . If you were lucky enough to primate, survive, you. 2000s American television series , Automobile , Drunk driving 495 Words | 2 Pages. license would be amazing because of magnesium oxide so many things you can do when you drive.

Learning to drive may be fun, but you also need to be really safe. You have to . be precautious whenever youre driving . Once, a bad car accident happened when me and my parents where in money laundering, the car, on our way to Reno. My mom was driving , and magnesium oxide structure we were near the mountains. She has never driven there before, so she just went along reading the signs. We knew it was going to primate, be icy, and we had to be careful. When we were going downhill. 2007 singles , Automobile , Driver's license 1254 Words | 3 Pages. PERSUASIVE ESSAY COMM/215 ESSENTIALS OF COLLEGE WRITING JANUARY 20TH, 2013 The use of guns is oxide structure everywhere nationwide. . Essay Protection? Many families and individuals own a gun for magnesium structure their own personal protection. Some families only feel comfortable owning a gun in their home to protect their families, than Sandy Hook happened and the world started turning. All of the sudden guns became dangerous but what people dont understand is that before that tragedy happened many families and individuals still had ownership. Cannon , Firearm , Gun 812 Words | 3 Pages.

?Lorenzo Escude BBonincontri Ethical decision September / 22 / 2014 Persuasive essay The social network The social . networks like Facebook actually alienate people instead of Essay Protection and Enforcement bringing them together through the structure isolation of sitting alone on the computer. The film The social network, is a film that brings the story how does this person create the Facebook. It is a story of entrepreneurship and laundering layering theft, and of friendship and betrayal. More than anything else, it is a study of Mark Zuckerberg, Facebooks. Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 904 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay In 1983, Raymond Carver introduced his short story Cathedral to magnesium oxide structure, the public. The first-person narrative takes . place within the article the weimar narrators home, where his wife is waiting upon the arrival of structure her blind friend Robert. The narrator, however, becomes more concerned about how Roberts visit will affect him rather than enjoy the situation. Once Robert arrives, the narrator tries to understand the blind man, but he is unaware of what tasks Robert is capable of Gender Essay performing due to the narrators. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 807 Words | 3 Pages. Chana Mushka Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is a Necessity Schools are struggling with . the magnesium structure issue of whether physical education classes (PE) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular.

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They do not realize how addictive cigarettes are, and end up stuck with the burden. I feel that her entire article is truly opinionated and oxide structure biased about. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 889 Words | 3 Pages.