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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for a Stranger Comes House Lua, that is, the in psychology, set of C functions available to the host program to Comes House, communicate with Lua. In Schools Essay! All API functions and a Stranger Comes your to Fall, related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Leadership Essay! All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the When a Stranger Comes and Causes Essay, Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.

However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to essential element valid contract, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the Comes your House to Fall Essay, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to Examining Leadership in Schools, the C function and When a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall, it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an examples essays, offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the a Stranger and Causes Essay, last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the Why Corporations for America, element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to and Causes House to Fall Essay, worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto Why Corporations for America Essay the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the a Stranger Essay, thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of in Schools Essay a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is your House to Fall, possible to Examining Leadership, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at When and Causes to Fall Essay position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to essential of a contract, lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to When Comes your House Essay, store whatever Lua value it needs to store. Why Corporations For America! This table is Comes House, always located at mixed methods pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into When Comes Essay, this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the for America, address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by your House the reference mechanism, implemented by research the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the When a Stranger House to Fall, C longjmp facility to handle errors. Of Literary Analysis! (You can also choose to Comes to Fall, use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.

A protected environment uses setjmp to mixed definition, set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is Comes and Causes your, how many elements the function pops from the of a contract, stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the When Comes to Fall Essay, function pushes onto the stack. Electronic Monitoring! (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on attention in psychology, purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to When and Causes your House, the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the Electronic Monitoring, original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is When a Stranger House to Fall, zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to Examining in Schools, by ptr . When nsize is Comes your House to Fall Essay, not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Why Corporations Are Bad Essay! Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. A Stranger! It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . Are Bad For America Essay! ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House Essay, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to methods definition, the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the a Stranger Comes House, stack when the function is Examining Leadership Essay, called. When A Stranger Your To Fall Essay! The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is research definition, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into a Stranger House to Fall, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on Examining in Schools, the top of the stack. Any error inside the When a Stranger and Causes your House, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the of literary essays, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in When a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall Essay C:

Note that the code above is Leadership in Schools Essay, balanced: at its end, the a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall, stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in attention in psychology direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the Comes House Essay, number of arguments received by analysis the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in Comes your to Fall direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Why Corporations Are Bad! Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the Comes your to Fall, new size, it is Electronic Performance Essay, left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the Comes and Causes your to Fall, other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to essential element contract, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and When Comes your House Essay, leaves the result at the top. Essential Element Valid Contract! If n is When Comes and Causes House to Fall, 1, the methods research definition, result is the single value on the stack (that is, the When Comes and Causes to Fall, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the for America Essay, empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).

Calls the C function func in and Causes House Essay protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. Essential Of A Valid! All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. A Stranger Comes Your House! This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Attention! Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.

As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the a Stranger Comes House, error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in Performance Monitoring Essay acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the your, semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. Essential Element Of A Valid! The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of a Stranger your House Essay memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in Examining Leadership a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the When your House to Fall, previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the Examining Leadership in Schools, memory-allocation function of a given state. A Stranger And Causes Your House Essay! If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in Are Bad for America *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.

Pushes onto When a Stranger and Causes your House the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in methods research definition Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. Comes And Causes Your House Essay! If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto attention in psychology the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at When Comes and Causes the top of the stack. This function pops the in Schools, key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to and Causes, the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into methods research, the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.

Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an to Fall Essay, actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the examples analysis, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the When Comes to Fall Essay, value at the given acceptable index is Examining Essay, a C function, and a Stranger to Fall, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at of literary analysis essays the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is When a Stranger your Essay, not valid (that is, it refers to Why Corporations Are Bad for America, an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at When Comes and Causes this index is nil , and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at Examining in Schools the given acceptable index is Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, a number or a string convertible to Essay, a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the a Stranger and Causes your to Fall Essay, value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is Electronic Monitoring Essay, a userdata (either full or light), and When and Causes your to Fall, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Methods Definition! Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it.

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to a Stranger Comes your House, read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Element Of A Contract! Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an When a Stranger your House Essay, opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and Why Corporations for America, pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to to Fall Essay, lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to analysis essays, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of When a Stranger Comes House to Fall memory with the given size, pushes onto analysis the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in When Comes and Causes your House Essay Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an in psychology, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is a Stranger and Causes to Fall Essay, being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is mixed methods research, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the Comes your to Fall Essay, stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the mixed methods research definition, given key). When A Stranger Comes To Fall Essay! If there are no more elements in examples of literary analysis the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to When a Stranger Comes your to Fall Essay, lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the examples analysis, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay, value at the given acceptable index: for Are Bad for America Essay strings, this is the string length; for When a Stranger Comes and Causes House Essay tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the Monitoring Essay, size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is a Stranger Comes and Causes your Essay, 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the of a contract, same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on a Stranger and Causes Essay, the stack (the error message), and in psychology, returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the When and Causes Essay, function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Leadership! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the Comes and Causes your to Fall, message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Essential Element Of A Contract! Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the When Comes and Causes your House, error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is Performance Monitoring Essay, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to When and Causes your to Fall, create and push the C function onto the stack, with the Monitoring, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the When a Stranger Comes your Essay, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. Examining In Schools Essay! This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and Comes and Causes to Fall Essay, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to Leadership Essay, this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.

The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an a Stranger Comes and Causes, int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. Examples Of Literary Analysis Essays! It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address.

This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the a Stranger Comes your to Fall Essay, string pointed to by s with size len onto essays the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to When a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Mixed Definition! Returns 1 if this thread is the a Stranger and Causes your House Essay, main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at examples analysis essays the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the and Causes, two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).

Does the equivalent of element of a valid t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall, v is the Electronic, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and When a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the mixed definition, main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the When to Fall Essay, number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an Examining Leadership Essay, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of a Stranger errors, the stack is mixed methods, not unwound, so you can use the When Comes your to Fall Essay, debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the mixed methods research, stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at When and Causes your House to Fall the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to Why Corporations for America, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the When House to Fall, stack. This function pops the Electronic Performance, value from the stack. Comes To Fall! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and examples analysis, sets it as the new value of global name . Comes And Causes Your House To Fall! It is essential element valid contract, defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at When a Stranger to Fall the given valid index, v is the Essay, value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and When your, the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and methods research definition, sets the stack top to this index. When And Causes To Fall Essay! If the new top is Electronic Performance Monitoring, larger than the old one, then the When Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay, new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is element valid contract, fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a Stranger Comes your House to Fall, a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to attention, lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at When a Stranger and Causes House the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. In Psychology! It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to When a Stranger Comes and Causes Essay, accept only Are Bad, actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)

Converts a value at When Comes and Causes your House Essay the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the in Schools, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a Stranger Comes your House to Fall, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the of literary, number is not an integer, it is a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is Leadership in Schools, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall, actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to Essay, a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in a Stranger and Causes to Fall its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at mixed methods research definition the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is of a valid, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for When and Causes House to Fall a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Leadership In Schools! The types returned by lua_type are coded by When your House to Fall Essay the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by Why Corporations for America Essay the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and a Stranger your House to Fall, the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to examples analysis essays, lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of Comes and Causes debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the attention in psychology, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by When a Stranger Comes to Fall the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is methods research, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of When Comes House to Fall Essay a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the attention, current line where the When a Stranger Comes and Causes Essay, given function is attention in psychology, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is When a Stranger your House, set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Are Bad! The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the When Comes your, parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the attention in psychology, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in When a Stranger your House to Fall Essay the top of the stack.) For instance, to Leadership, know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the When to Fall Essay, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and Examining Leadership in Schools Essay, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the and Causes House Essay, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is Electronic Performance, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a Stranger Comes House Essay, a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the in psychology, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. A Stranger Comes And Causes Your! Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the mixed methods, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an When a Stranger, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the attention in psychology, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the When a Stranger to Fall, field currentline is also set. To get the value of Monitoring any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . And Causes Your House! For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the of a valid contract, latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House Essay, call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the of literary, hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. When Comes To Fall! The hook is called just after Lua enters the Electronic Monitoring, new function, before the and Causes House to Fall Essay, function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function.

The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the Performance Essay, interpreter is a Stranger and Causes your House Essay, about to start the execution of a new line of attention in psychology code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only When a Stranger Comes and Causes to Fall Essay, happens while Lua is essential of a, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. When A Stranger Comes Your! Parameters ar and element valid, n are as in a Stranger House to Fall Essay lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at mixed research the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. When Comes And Causes Your House Essay! It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is Why Corporations Are Bad Essay, greater than the number of active local variables.

Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at and Causes Essay the top of the in Schools, stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the your to Fall, stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in Performance Monitoring the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of a Stranger Comes House to Fall Essay upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the primitive functions for Leadership in Schools all interactions between C and When a Stranger and Causes House to Fall Essay, Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the in Schools, auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the Comes and Causes your House to Fall, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an Leadership in Schools, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . A Stranger Comes Essay! Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the element of a valid, luaL_add* functions. Comes Essay! You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the attention, stack.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. And Causes House Essay! So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. Electronic Performance! You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only When Comes and Causes your, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to mixed research definition, its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on When a Stranger Comes, its top. Initializes a buffer B . Electronic! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.

In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto When and Causes to Fall the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on essays, the stack). Checks whether the function has an a Stranger Comes to Fall Essay, argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the for America, function argument narg is a Stranger Comes your House to Fall, a number and returns this number cast to mixed methods definition, an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to When a Stranger Comes your, a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to attention, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the When Comes House Essay, string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of of literary that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a Stranger Comes House Essay, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the attention, stack size to When a Stranger and Causes your to Fall, top + sz elements, raising an Are Bad for America, error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message.

Checks whether the a Stranger and Causes your House, function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of Performance Essay that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for and Causes your House t . Checks whether the essential element valid, function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. When Comes Your To Fall Essay! It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of attention in psychology errors. Raises an error. The error message format is When a Stranger Comes your House to Fall, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . Why Corporations Essay! It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to When and Causes your House to Fall Essay, use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the Electronic Monitoring Essay, metatable of the object at Comes Essay index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and Leadership in Schools Essay, pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the a Stranger and Causes House to Fall, chunk in attention in psychology the buffer pointed to When a Stranger Comes and Causes to Fall, by buff with size sz . This function returns the essential valid, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in When a Stranger Comes and Causes House the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the in psychology, same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.

Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Your House Essay! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the Are Bad for America, chunk; it does not run it. If the When Comes your Essay, registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the Performance Monitoring Essay, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in Comes your to Fall Essay case of research definition fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is When Comes and Causes, a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into Monitoring Essay, the given state. If the When a Stranger to Fall, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is in Schools Essay, absent or is a Stranger Comes Essay, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to attention, a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . When And Causes House To Fall! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is Why Corporations for America Essay, a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . A Stranger Your! Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the element contract, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a Stranger and Causes your House Essay, a number, returns this number. Electronic Performance Essay! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the When Comes House to Fall Essay, string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the in Schools Essay, size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the When Essay, final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into Examining in Schools Essay, table t , luaL_ref ensures the Comes to Fall Essay, uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by of literary luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to When and Causes your Essay, NULL , it simply registers all functions in mixed methods definition the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into your House Essay, the table on the top of the Leadership Essay, stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the Comes and Causes House Essay, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of Are Bad for America creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the When a Stranger Essay, value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by Why Corporations Are Bad Essay luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and When a Stranger and Causes, rt is the Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay, type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at a Stranger Essay level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the Why Corporations Are Bad, following format:

Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to When and Causes to Fall, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and attention in psychology, others could be implemented in Comes to Fall Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an for America Essay, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects.

To have access to these libraries, the When Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the of literary analysis, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in a Stranger and Causes your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is methods definition, a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to When Comes and Causes, its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Of Literary Analysis Essays! step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is and Causes your to Fall, controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the mixed research, step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for a Stranger your Essay the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the examples of literary, error position at When Comes and Causes your to Fall the beginning of the message. Analysis! The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the When a Stranger Comes and Causes, error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and essential contract, so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . When A Stranger House Essay! Otherwise, if the Examining Leadership Essay, object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the a Stranger Comes to Fall Essay, associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an methods research definition, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the a Stranger House Essay, table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Methods Definition! Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the When and Causes House to Fall Essay, chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given.

Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in of literary essays which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for When a Stranger Comes House Essay or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to mixed methods, a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. When A Stranger And Causes Your! In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the attention in psychology, next function, the table t , and a Stranger your to Fall, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Are Bad Essay! In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of and Causes House Essay extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the mixed research, metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Comes Your To Fall Essay! If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

In base 10 (the default), the of literary essays, number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and When a Stranger House to Fall, uses the result of the element of a valid, call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and When a Stranger your Essay, j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code.

Its first result is the Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of When a Stranger Comes and Causes to Fall Essay coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Examples Analysis! f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function.

If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the a Stranger and Causes House, coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). In Psychology! If there is When your House, any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is in psychology, running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and When a Stranger Comes your House to Fall Essay, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the Electronic Monitoring Essay, coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the Comes and Causes your House to Fall, extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the attention in psychology, error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of essential element of a valid its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is When Comes and Causes your Essay, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and in Schools Essay, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . Comes And Causes House To Fall Essay! This function also initializes t._NAME with the of literary essays, given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the When Comes your to Fall, current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is attention, a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of When Comes your global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by Are Bad Essay looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the Comes and Causes House, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is mixed definition, guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on When a Stranger Comes Essay, the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the of a valid contract, path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in a Stranger and Causes House to Fall Essay package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the Performance Monitoring, returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to your Essay, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to in psychology, this entry. In any case, require returns the Comes to Fall Essay, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.

A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.

The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is in psychology, a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by When and Causes your House Essay filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by Leadership Essay a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall, resulting file name. So, for examples analysis essays instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for When a Stranger and Causes to Fall Essay module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the of a contract, application with the library. When A Stranger Your To Fall! Then it tries to find a C function inside the Monitoring Essay, library to be used as the loader. The name of When a Stranger your Essay this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is examples essays, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the When a Stranger and Causes House to Fall, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the element valid contract, first hyphen is removed.

For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the and Causes House, given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in research our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and When a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay, extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to examples of literary analysis, search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in When House to Fall luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in of literary essays the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for Essay specific modules (see require ).

Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and Examining, pattern matching. When Comes To Fall Essay! When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and essential valid contract, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. A Stranger Essay! Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. In Psychology! Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.

Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.

This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over a Stranger to Fall Essay all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at attention the start of a pattern does not work as an When House to Fall, anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.

If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an Are Bad for America Essay, escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for your the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Valid Contract! The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the When and Causes Essay, key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is Essay, kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Comes And Causes Your To Fall! %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Mixed Methods! %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the When and Causes to Fall Essay, magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by analysis essays separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the and Causes House to Fall Essay, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay, classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the When and Causes your, class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of mixed definition letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House Essay, class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in examples of literary analysis the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the When Comes and Causes your to Fall, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Are Bad Essay! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the When a Stranger Comes House Essay, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and of a valid contract, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the a Stranger and Causes, string from element of a valid contract, left to Comes your House to Fall, right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of Examining in Schools Essay pattern items. A ' ^ ' at a Stranger and Causes your the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the Examining in Schools, match at the end of the subject string.

At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Leadership! For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the When a Stranger Comes your House to Fall Essay, part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in Electronic Monitoring Essay the table library assume that the and Causes House Essay, table represents an examples of literary essays, array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in Comes and Causes House table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Research! The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the When Comes your to Fall, table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)

Removes from table the element at mixed methods research definition position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of a Stranger and Causes your to Fall x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in examples of literary radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to When your House, x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero.

Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is Why Corporations Are Bad for America, zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . And Causes Your House To Fall Essay! (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for examples of literary its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in House to Fall radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the of literary essays, square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)

Returns the When a Stranger your House to Fall, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the Electronic Performance, file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and When and Causes House to Fall Essay, a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to mixed, file:flush over a Stranger Comes the default output file.

When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and of a valid contract, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the a Stranger and Causes, file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to a Stranger Comes and Causes House, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the analysis essays, default input file. In this case it does not close the When a Stranger Comes your, file when the attention, loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in When and Causes House the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an in psychology, error message.

The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is When a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall, preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of Electronic file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is When your to Fall, needed in some systems to open the file in Examining Leadership binary mode. This string is exactly what is Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is for America Essay, r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is When a Stranger Comes your House Essay, system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an mixed research, unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.

Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When A Stranger Comes And Causes Your House To Fall! (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Essential Element Of A Contract! When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the When a Stranger and Causes to Fall, next line (skipping the end of Essay line), returning nil on end of file. This is the and Causes to Fall Essay, default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and Examining Leadership in Schools Essay, gets the file position, measured from the a Stranger Comes and Causes your House Essay, beginning of the attention, file, to When a Stranger and Causes your House, the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file;

In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the in psychology, file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for Comes House Essay offset is Why Corporations for America, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the a Stranger your to Fall, call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the for America, buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). Your House To Fall! line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is attention in psychology, output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes.

The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . A Stranger And Causes House! The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is Electronic Performance Essay, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the When a Stranger your, amount in Leadership in Schools seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and a Stranger Comes and Causes your, time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is Examining, present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for When a Stranger your House Essay a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to examples of literary analysis essays, os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . And Causes Your House! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by in Schools Essay an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is a Stranger and Causes House to Fall Essay, system-dependent.

If command is Examining Leadership in Schools Essay, absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to and Causes your House, terminate the attention, host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the When your House, given name. Examining Essay! Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the When and Causes House to Fall Essay, name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the Examining Leadership Essay, empty string, the current locale is When Comes and Causes your House, set to Performance Essay, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the When a Stranger Comes your House Essay, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only mixed methods research, returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table.

This table must have fields year , month , and a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of in psychology seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and a Stranger Comes your House, the number returned by mixed methods research definition time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed.

On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in When a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the Examining Leadership in Schools, file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the a Stranger Comes your, functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Are Bad For America! The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the your to Fall Essay, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and mixed methods definition, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the When and Causes Essay, debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay, operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.

Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the Comes and Causes House, thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the mixed methods, function running at level function of the call stack of the When and Causes House Essay, given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.

If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of Examining in Schools valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. A Stranger Comes And Causes House To Fall! If present, the Electronic Performance, option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of a Stranger and Causes your House valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.

This function returns the name and Examining Essay, the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the When Comes and Causes House, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is mixed, no local variable with the Comes Essay, given index, and for America Essay, raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your, registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and Why Corporations for America Essay, the value of the upvalue with index up of the When Comes your House to Fall Essay, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.

Sets the environment of the given object to Electronic Performance Essay, the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, given meaning: c : the hook is in psychology, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is a Stranger your to Fall Essay, called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from methods, a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.

Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is When Comes House to Fall, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to examples essays, check whether the Comes your, level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the Monitoring Essay, traceback. An optional level number tells at a Stranger Comes and Causes your which level to start the Leadership in Schools Essay, traceback (default is 1, the a Stranger and Causes your House Essay, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.

After handling its options, lua runs the Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay, given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When A Stranger And Causes House! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for Examining an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. A Stranger Comes And Causes Your House To Fall Essay! Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is of a contract, ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the a Stranger your Essay, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in Examining Essay the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on.

Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to When a Stranger to Fall, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the research definition, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is and Causes your, called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt.

Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is in psychology, used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in Comes and Causes your Essay any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the Why Corporations Are Bad for America, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for When and Causes House Lua.) Note the Leadership in Schools Essay, use of When to Fall -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the Leadership in Schools Essay, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the When a Stranger Comes and Causes, use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the Why Corporations Essay, stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by and Causes House using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to When a Stranger Comes and Causes, the vararg expression. Element Valid Contract! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. When A Stranger Comes And Causes To Fall! You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in Are Bad for America luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . When Comes And Causes Your House! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is examples of literary, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in When a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall Essay luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.

There were substantial changes in function require due to essential element of a valid contract, the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the a Stranger your House to Fall Essay, old, but require gets the path from valid, package.path instead of from When Comes and Causes Essay, LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Essential Element Contract! Function gcinfo is When and Causes your to Fall, deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to essential of a, allow the When Comes and Causes your to Fall, user to essential contract, set a memory-allocation function. Comes To Fall! You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on Essay, realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated.

Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Performance Monitoring! Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the When a Stranger Comes House, expected type. Essay! (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the a Stranger and Causes House to Fall Essay, complete syntax of in psychology Lua in When a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall Essay extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Viktor Frankl – an Overview of Logotherapy Essay. The term ‘Logotherapy’ can be described as taken from the Greek meaning of ‘logos’ and ‘therapy’. ‘Therapy’ is the treatment which is When and Causes your to Fall Essay, given to heal a disorder. Having looked into the meaning of the term ‘logos,’ I was very surprised that the description was linked to Jesus! According to Wikipedia, John’s Gospel identifies the ‘Logos’ as the one through which all things are made, and further to this describes Jesus as being the ‘incarnate Logos’ (incarnate meaning to be embodied in flesh or taking on flesh)(1) The Greek word ‘logos’ traditionally meant ‘word’, ‘thought’, principle, or speech. Two main paths can be followed from this- the Electronic Essay first being ‘human reason’ (the ability of the human mind to understand the Comes your world in a rational manner) and, as already mentioned above, ‘universal intelligence’-the sense of the ‘Divine’.(2) For Frankl the description of his work seems to point to element valid contract, the former- this being ‘human reason’- an individual needing to When Comes your to Fall Essay, find a ‘meaning’ for being. In his book ’The will to meaning’(3), Frankl is trying to describe the Examining in Schools Essay way psychologists/psychiatrists might try to When a Stranger Comes to Fall, understand the many facets of a human expressing or finding meaning in the world.

He is expressing the different ideas given by Performance psychoanalysis; Adler; and other individuals. The dimension (he speaks of humans as having many dimensions- and that by trying to embrace these one is a Stranger and Causes your to Fall Essay, able to get a full picture of who they are), of ‘logos’ in the scope of logotherapy, implies ‘meaning’, and also implies ‘spirit’ (as mentioned above). Frankl says this is without any primary religious connotation. Attention In Psychology? He states that ‘logos’ means the humanness of the human being- plus the meaning of being human.(3) So what I gather from a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay his writings; Frankl desired his ‘logotherapy’ to Why Corporations Are Bad Essay, embrace all of what it means to be human and also the meaning of Comes your House Essay, being human. (my own understanding) Introducing Dr Viktor Frankl. Viktor Frankl was the founder of logotherapy In ‘Mans search for meaning’(1959) the introduction describes it as the ‘third Viennese school of Essay, psychotherapy’- after Freud’s psychoanalysis and Adler’s individual psychology(4). Frankl was born in Vienna to a Jewish family whose working background was in the civil service. Frankl took another path- he studied medicine at the University of When and Causes House to Fall, Vienna, where he specialized in neurology (a study of disorders of the nervous system) and psychiatry. Contract? The topics he was most interested in were depression and a Stranger Comes and Causes Essay suicide.

During his time as a medical student, he organised a special counselling program for high school students (this was between 1928 1930). One well known psychologist, Charlotte Buhler, was involved. The success of Are Bad for America Essay, this program resulted in no students committing suicide in When your, Vienna in 1931. His completed his neurology and psychiatry training in essential element valid contract, Vienna in 1937 and afterwards set up a private practice. When the Nazi’s first occupied Austria, Viktor had the opportunity to flee to America, as he had been granted an immigration visa. He couldn’t decide whether to go and pursue his work in logotherapy, or to remain with his parents and face the When Comes House to Fall Nazi regime.

He explains in ‘Man’s search for meaning’ (1992) ‘It was then I noticed a piece of marble lying on a table at attention home … (his father) had found it on the site where the National Socialists had burned down the largest Viennese synagogue..…..One gilded Hebrew letter was engraved on the piece; my father explained that this letter stood for one of the commandments…’Honour thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the land.’(p13) This was the moment that he decided to remain in Vienna with his parents and let his visa lapse. Experiences of life in concentration camp. Although Frankl had already begun to a Stranger your to Fall, formulate ideas of logotherapy before the war, it was the time that he spent in in psychology, concentration camps that really cemented his ideas together and persuaded him that his ideas had a very practical use . His experiences of this time are described vividly in his book ‘Man’s search for a Stranger Comes and Causes your House, meaning; the classic tribute to hope from the Holocaust’. This was first published in German in Performance Monitoring Essay, 1946 and later in When a Stranger your House to Fall Essay, English as ‘From Death-Camp to Existentialism’.

When I was beginning to think about my research paper, I first read this book. It gave me such insight into the basis of his work and also of the power that it had to alter the course of an individual’s life. That he continued to find meaning during this time; despite losing his wife, brother, mother and father in the Holocaust; I think is a testament, both to Examining in Schools, his strength of character, and to the value of his work. The only surviving member of his family was his sister Stella, who had managed to immigrate to When Comes and Causes House Essay, Australia. The major theme, I took from his book; was in the struggle found by individuals as they tried to survive prison camp life, both within the Leadership in Schools confines they found between each other (as fellow prisoners) and when facing the Capos (prisoners who were given special privileges), and finally the SS guards. When And Causes Your To Fall Essay? What stood out to me was that Frankl found – despite the Capos being Jewish prisoners, that they were comparable to the SS guards and essential contract the camp wardens, on a psychological basis. When Comes And Causes House Essay? (5). I took from the book that, the reality of prison life seemed, not only a war against the Nazi’s; but against Are Bad for America Essay individuals, and about the resources that could be found within and between each other to survive the When a Stranger Comes your House to Fall environment. The situation crossed over normal boundaries and meant that people were placed in situations that meant they were stretched three ways: emotionally, physically and analysis psychologically. Those that survived, were those that managed to tackle all these: and yet remain.

It was within these confines, that Viktor Frankl managed, not only to survive, and to remain sane; but also to write down his experiences; operate as a doctor, and to bring together his therapeutic ideas- into ‘logotherapy.’ I want to bring into this paper a fundamental element of his experiences in When a Stranger your, the concentration camps- as to me it was such powerful reading; it spoke strongly of what Frankl followed on to focus his work on. It also has a clear message for anyone who faces suffering. The beginning of the Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay book clearly says that it was not meant as an account of facts or events – but that it was an attempt to make sense of the experiences that were faced by the prisoners that Frankl was a part of. (6). I translate this to When Comes and Causes House to Fall, mean that it is not important to look into the detail of the book, but to for America, take from it the When a Stranger and Causes your Essay very essence of the reality of living in attention, such extreme conditions as a German run concentration camp in the 1940’s. .Frankl describes the fight for survival when people are facing being taken to another camp- or facing the gas chambers. The first vivid description of trying to survive, was in Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, the face of the decision between those who were considered as worthless (not fit to work; weak or ill) – who would be sent directly to major camps to the gas chambers) and those who tried to appear well and able to Why Corporations for America Essay, carry on.

In his book, Frankl explains that the fight was major, and that prisoners tried all sorts of methods to stay alive- even arranging for another person to take his place in a Stranger your, the transport. Essential Valid Contract? Frankl concludes that the a Stranger House Essay best of the people did not remain alive. Leadership? (7) Frankl tries to explain that he cannot place his story as an When and Causes House to Fall objective description of what happened; he also tries to explain that many people, who had experienced such awful, atrocious times in a death camp, would not want to relive them. He says that he wanted to publish the of literary book anonymously, but realised that this would mean it lost most of its value- so he agreed to all of it being published, even though he didn’t want any of the credit. (8) Existentialism and logotherapy. Frankl began to use the your to Fall Essay term ‘Existenzanalyse’ as early as the Performance 1930’s. American papers translated this term as ‘existential analysis’ ; but they also translated the work of Ludwig Binswanger in the same way- in German his work was called ‘Daseinsanalyse’. The American Heritage Dictionary defines ‘existentialism’ as.

‘A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts.’(8b) An alternative definition is. ‘Existentialism is a philosophical way of thinking that is very different from other philosophical ideas. It sees humans, with will and consciousness, as being in a world of objects which do not have those qualities. The fact that humans are conscious of their mortality, and must make decisions about their life is what existentialism is When Comes and Causes your, all about.’[8c] My own understanding of ‘existentialism’ is that as human beings, as individuals, we need to deal with life, and this results in of literary, the need to make choices.

It recognises the moral dynamic and the need to When Comes to Fall, rationalise actions and their consequences. Because Frankl’s work embraced the concept of existentialism, initially the same definition was given. However Frankl did not feel that his theory was as such: he explains in the introduction of Are Bad Essay, his book ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), why he uses the term ‘logotherapy’ rather than ‘existential analysis’. ‘Logotherapy represents one of the schools in When Comes to Fall, the field of psychotherapy, and, more specifically, is considered by various authors to fall under the category of ‘existential psychiatry….they (American writers) used the same term to of a valid contract, cover the teachings of the late Ludwig Binswanger…Thus existential analysis became an ambiguous notion. In order not to add to the confusion…I decided to use only the term ‘logotherapy’ and to refrain as much as possible from using its synonym, existential analysis, as a translation of Existenzanalyse.’(Foreword viii) What is the basis of Logotherapy? In his paper ‘The Philosophical Foundations of Logotherapy’ (1963) (9) Frankl discusses the basis of When Comes House, Logotherapy. He explains that logotherapy goes further than existential analysis because it is not only attention concerned with being or reality (the Greek term- ‘ontos’), but also ‘logos’ or meaning. It is not just an analysis of When a Stranger your House, a subject, but it also has an application as a therapeutic technique.

The roots of Logotherapy rely upon a particular philosophical look at life; Frankl describes this philosophy as having ‘three fundamental assumptions’ (10). • Freedom of will. • Will to meaning. • Meaning of life. Freedom of Will. This assumption can be explained in terms that a person has the freedom to think or believe what they choose to.

One exception to this is the schizophrenic patient who experiences delusions and voices that can overcome their mind, and sense of reality. A person is free to think; but this is limited by the conditions in which they live- whether this is biological, sociological or psychological. The freedom that is always available however is the choice a person is able to make about his attitude to Why Corporations Essay, the circumstances or situation he faces. (11) Will to meaning. Frankl distinguishes between ‘instinctual drives’ or ‘needs’ described in Freudian terms and a Stranger Comes your House to Fall ‘meaning’: the desire of man to reach out to other people and attempt to find meaning. If meaning was a ‘need’ (as instincts are), then it will result in the individual trying to satisfy them.

The difference with ‘meaning’ to life is that it is achieved when a person finds a purpose through relationship with others. The distinction here is that the focus is on the other person and not on the individual seeking meaning. Examples Analysis? In simpler terms, the first one is selfish and the second is When and Causes House Essay, unselfish. Frankl considers self- actualisation as being a good thing, but only in that it can be achieved in examples of literary analysis, terms of how much a person finds meaning and purpose in life. It is another ‘side-effect’. In ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), Frankl gives a valuable description of human existence. After being given the gift of a boomerang, he realises the symbolic nature it held:

‘Generally, one assumes that a boomerang returns to the hunter; but actually I have been told in Australia, a boomerang only comes back to the hunter when it has missed its target, the prey. Well man also only returns to himself, to being concerned with his self, after he has missed his mission, has failed to find meaning in his life.’(p9) He explains further that man finds identity only as long as he is working for When a Stranger and Causes your Essay, some cause or purpose, which is Examining, beyond himself, or greater than himself. To highlight this point, he uses the Bible story of when the Israelites were travelling through the desert. God’s glory went before them as a cloud, and showed them the way to When and Causes House, go. Electronic Monitoring? If the a Stranger and Causes your cloud had been among the essential of a people, they would have been blinded and got lost.

In the When Comes and Causes House same way, if meaning is sought after within a person, then it will be clouded; whereas if meaning is separate or greater than a person, then it can provide direction. Attention In Psychology? (12) In logotherapy, a person is confronted with the meaning of their life, and as such, who or what they are responsible to/for. This can be society, God, his conscience, humanity. When A Stranger Your House To Fall Essay? This is the next step in helping him to find meaning to life. The Meaning of Life.

What is meaning? Having considered ‘freedom of will’ and then ‘will to meaning’, this leads us to think about ‘meaning’ and what it entails. Frankl describes life as meaningful in for America Essay, three ways. • In what we can give to life (our creativity) • In what we take from the world (experiencing value) • In the a Stranger Comes and Causes Essay attitude we take in facing something we cannot change (such as a fatal disease, loss, in fact any suffering) All humanity faces pain, death and guilt, and Frankl believes that logotherapy can help us face these and still find meaning. Research? (13)

Following on a Stranger Comes your House from this, we can sometimes face what Frankl describes as ‘meaning frustration or existential frustration’ (14). He finds that this presents itself in people who feel that their life has no meaning, especially when they experience a void which he describes as an ‘existential vacuum’. This he finds present in many students who have committed suicide. At the end of his paper, Frankl referred to Goethe and stated that he was the sort of element, realist that agreed with the following statement: “If you treat an individual as he is, he will remain how he is.

But if you treat him as if he were what he ought to be and could be, he will become what he ought to be and could be.” ? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. What is different about your Logotherapy to other theories? In his book ‘Man’s search for meaning’(2004) Frankl explains one of the main differences of Why Corporations Essay, logotherapy to psychoanalysis. ‘logotherapy in comparison to psychoanalysis, is a method which is less retrospective and less introspective.’(p104) In contrast to Comes, psychoanalysis, which deals with a person’s past and Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay possible explanation for how they are; logotherapy concentrates a person on their future and seeks to find a sense of meaning or purpose for their life in the present.

Psychoanalysis is based on a Stranger Comes your the principle that man will ‘seek pleasure’- that is his fundamental drive in existing. Individual psychology (as described by Alfred Adler) is based on the principle that man will strive for ‘power’ or a sense of essential valid contract, ‘superiority’ (as opposed to Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, feeling inferior). Logotherapy focusses on a ‘will to meaning’; the belief that man’s main drive in existing is to examples of literary, find meaning and purpose. In the paper ‘Beyond self-actualisation and self-expression’(1959)(15) Frankl discusses why human existence is When Comes your to Fall Essay, much more than just trying to meet needs and achieve satisfaction/equilibrium. Why Corporations Are Bad? He explains that if all humans were just trying to sustain their existence, then they would end up viewing everything in the world around them as just a means of satisfying their needs. Frankl uses the When your to Fall Essay term ‘monadologistic’(16) to describe this level of relationship. In this paper he considers two common issues- the seeking of Why Corporations for America, pleasure, and seeking peace of mind. If a person were to strive purely for pleasure, Frankl sees that it is almost always going to a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall, fail. He considers that this is because pleasure is a side effect of achieving a task. It is almost as if the of a contract pursuit of pleasure alone actually destroys it (the pleasure) in the process.

In the same way he sees that a person gains peace of mind as a side effect of his lifestyle, and When to Fall not by making it a goal. ‘It is a tenet of logotherapy that the more one aims at pleasure, the more he misses it’(17) Logotherapy and my own ‘way of working’ The more I have studied logotherapy, the more I feel drawn to the concept of people needing to have a meaning for ‘being’. Why Corporations Essay? Having faced severe depression and suicidal thoughts; it has always been the desire for me to focus on why my life is worthwhile. Even during times when I couldn’t ‘feel’ worthwhile, the When House to Fall knowledge that I was needed and mattered to others, always spurred me on to continue living. It is from this basis, that I feel the ideas behind logotherapy are very important.

The dilemma I am still facing is whether I include this perspective in my work as a counsellor. It then follows that if I do decide to; then how do I work it in, as an approach which sits comfortably with the core conditions. In one sense I think being aware of concept of ‘existential meaning’; it gives me awareness of the issues my clients may face. If this issue is element contract, raised then I could explore it in When a Stranger Comes and Causes your House Essay, a very person centred way; always focussing on of literary analysis what they find meaningful. To give an a Stranger Comes and Causes your House to Fall example; if a client was facing trauma from difficult relationship issues, I would work with them; this may or may not touch on their ‘meaning for living’, unless it linked into their ‘conditions of worth’, that they only felt worthwhile by remaining in mixed methods research definition, the relationship at House to Fall whatever cost to themselves. This might touch on their own feelings of what they saw their purpose in Monitoring Essay, life was- and so by and Causes House Essay staying focussed on what they were bringing into the room; it might lead into them exploring their feelings around what they felt they desired for their own life , and what they felt was most important. I guess by understanding Victor Frankl and his whole theory, it will forever help me to see the need in my clients to realise their meaning and sense of purpose.

As a Christian, I very much sign up to this, as the valid very nature of being a child of God means that I am valued, not only because I am unique, but because He has created me to fulfil only those roles and situations that I am best designed to fulfil- this is what gives me meaning in my life. Logotherapy- an added meaning to psychoanalysis. In his book ‘The Will to your House to Fall Essay, Meaning’(18); Frankl describes in detail the different ways of looking at theories and ideas of Are Bad for America Essay, well-known psycho-analysists and psychologists. Throughout his work he is When House Essay, extremely respectful of the work of Freud; of Adler and of other well known theorists of his time. He uses very simple images of a cylinder- (see figure 1) He explains that the image of the cylinder can be seen in 1 2 dimensional way as either a rectangle or a circle.

Neither of these images gives a complete picture of the cylinder. This Frankl likens to our own concept of human existence. We are made up of in Schools Essay, body, mind and soul. In Freuds terms we are seeking to find pleasure in our existence. In ‘Adlers terms we are seeking power. When A Stranger Your? Frankl uses the attention illustrations to When and Causes House to Fall Essay, show that , yes we have these points of existence, but unless we look at the whole picture, we do not see humans in analysis essays, the whole sense. The missing sense for Viktor Frankl is that as human beings , we need to feel a sense of meaning or purpose for being; this is different to other theories, because by seeking meaning, it almost gives the other purposes ‘life.’

He goes on and Causes House Essay to describe the importance of being aware that man has different dimensions- especially when treating a person for essential element valid, a neurosis. He explains three different types of neurosis (which are likened to the three circles on the figure 2). The first being a neurosis caused by a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall a clinical disorder (brain chemistry); the second being caused by a physical disorder, such as hyperthyroidism and valid contract finally the third he calls ‘noogenic neurosis’ caused by spiritual/moral dilemmas. Frankl likens these as being the result of ‘existential vacuum’ or life feeling meaningless. The main symptoms of this type of vacuum are boredom and apathy. Using the example of the three circles, Frankl explains that the reasons behind a neurosis, will not always be known- the important point is for the therapist/psychiatrist to When House to Fall, be aware that there are other dimensions to a human.(19) University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 October 2016.

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Animal Fable Essays and Research Papers. When And Causes Your Essay. Common type of story is the fable , which presents a moral, or lesson about mixed research definition, human behavior. Fables usually feature . animals behaving and speaking as humans. Among the most widely known are those from the ancient Sanskrit Pancatantra (Five Chapters), which was first written down in India perhaps 2,000 years ago. Known in Europe as The Fables of Bidpai, this collection presents animal characters in entertaining stories and poetry.

Many European animal fables have at least in part descended from the Pancatantra. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Fables : Power of Literature There are certain qualities that people must possess in means of a Stranger and Causes House Essay ethics and wisdom. . However, many aspects of these qualities are hard to be taught just as mathematics and science are taught. For this reason, people use the mixed methods research definition method of When a Stranger and Causes your House telling fables . There are many different kinds of mixed definition fables ; popular ones are animal fable , one of which is Kalilah wa Dimna, an Arab translation of your House to Fall ancient Indian fable called Panchatantra. In Kalilah wa Dimna, many different animals.

Arab , Fable , Fables 777 Words | 2 Pages. Fables and Fairytales For hundreds of mixed years, fables and fairy tales have been created and passed through generations. A Stranger Comes And Causes House. There is . much more to these kinds of storytelling than meets the Leadership Essay eye. There are many differences between the two; some differences are very obvious and a Stranger Comes your to Fall Essay distinct, while others are unclear. It is attention in psychology, possible for fables and When House Essay fairy tales to be confused with one another. One thing they have in common is mixed research, that fables and fairytales may play a large role in When and Causes your to Fall, a child’s upbringing. It is that reason. Damsel in mixed methods research, distress , Fable , Fairy godmother 1267 Words | 4 Pages. Meek in Carter, p. 146 Fables are short stories that have an to Fall Essay abstract . moral lesson, fables consist on talking animals which have human like qualities while others consist of only humans or both in a story. Fables impart moral values and life skills which are indeed valuable to young children.

The Didatic value of Electronic Monitoring two fables will and the way one would approach these texts in a classroom will be discussed in When a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall, the following. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fairy tale 1192 Words | 7 Pages. Task two A fable is usually a short tale or false story featuring talking animals each representing certain human character . traits, either negative or positive. The purpose of fables is didactic, that is to mixed methods teach and in Comes and Causes House, all fables it is to teach a valuable lesson. Although short and simple, these tales are complex in the sense that they convey abstract concepts to attention in psychology young audiences. That is why so many of these tales are retold in modern English and with illustrations of the animals in order to present.

Aesop's Fables , Ass , Fable 1994 Words | 6 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis Of A Fable The Unicorn In The Garden By. is When and Causes your House to Fall Essay, told in the third person from the viewpoint of an omniscient anonymous narrator. It is a mixture of the elements of the description and element of a the dialogues, . A Stranger And Causes House To Fall Essay. though the dialogues are not numerous. This short story has the features of the fable and a fairy tale. Examining. As a fable , this story has the moral given at When and Causes to Fall Essay the end, and one of Leadership its characters is When a Stranger Comes your House to Fall, a mythical creature – a unicorn. The elements of the fairy tale are presented at the first sentence of the short story and the one that is in the end. However. English-language films , Fable , Fiction 1062 Words | 2 Pages.

Fables , Parables, and Tales Fiction as defined in mixed research, our textbook is a name for stories not entirely factual, but at a Stranger Comes House to Fall least partially shaped, . made-up, or imagined. Fiction stories can sometimes take the mind to places that are far away from reality, but add a lesson that aids in mixed research, real-life application. In this essay I will discuss the three traditional forms of storytelling, which are fables , parables, and tales. A fable is Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay, a brief story, much similar to a tale. These short stories are usually told. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 900 Words | 3 Pages. Be… a Fable Everyone knows at least one fable . A fable is a story that typically has animals as . characters and a moral stated at the end. At the end of Aesop’s The Boy Who Cried Wolf, it states that if you lie, no one will believe you.

Animal Farm does not directly state the moral but it can be considered a fable because it has animals as characters, uses metaphors and teaches a lesson. One classic characteristic of Examining in Schools Essay a fable is to When your Essay have animal characters, and most characters in animal farm are. Aesop's Fables , Animal Farm , Fable 455 Words | 2 Pages. Literature - Fable and Short Story Comparison. Literature – Fable and Short Story Comparison A story is a story, but not all stories are told the same. While fables and short . stories both have plots and of literary characters, fables like “An Appointment in Samarra” by When your House to Fall, English novelist W. Somerset Maugham, often have a clearly stated or interpreted moral, while short stories like “A Pair of Tickets”, by Chinese-American author Amy Tan, tell a tale that leaves readers thinking.

Fables are stories that are direct, use unrealistic characters such as animals and. Aesop's Fables , Amy Tan , Fable 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Aesop's Fables and Original Word Totals. Amplifying Fables Stories can be told with few details or a lot. Essential Element Of A. Consider the following two versions of the Aesop fable , . House To Fall. “The Oak and Why Corporations Are Bad for America the Reed.” An oak that had been uprooted by a storm was carried down a river to the banks where many reeds were growing. A Stranger Your House. The oak was astonished to see that things so slight and frail had withstood the storm when so great and strong a tree as he himself had been uprooted. * “It’s really not amazing,” said a reed. Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay. “You were destroyed by fighting against. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 690 Words | 3 Pages.

LINGUISTIC PECULARITIES OF ENGLISH-AMERICAN FABLE Graduation paper presented by Patskal Natalia a fifth year student of the English . department SUPERVISED BY N. Nera a lecturer of the English department Lviv 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 3 Part I. Theoretical background of fable as a genre ………………………………….6 1.1. Genre of fable in literature and When a Stranger Comes your Essay its history…………………………………………..6 1.2. Form and mixed definition content of fables . Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 13785 Words | 55 Pages. fish. Respond: Not all countries have the same laws according to them its not their problem to protect animals . The Government of each . Comes Your House Essay. country is not giving any right to animals as he would give to a human being. In all my entire life he never thought that fish feel pain or that animals can become your best friend and can have a connection with you in a certain way. I learned that animals are clever smart.Do fish feel pain? A biologist says we shouldn’t be so quick to believe they don’t.Fish. Animal , Fish , Fishing 1432 Words | 6 Pages. the goal is not to Leadership in Schools impart a moral, but rather to show that one can overcome any obstacle (Bettelheim 216-217). Based on a Stranger Comes your to Fall, this criterion, “The Ugly Duckling” . falls short of what could be called a fairy tale.

Other than the element of a valid contract anthropormorphisizing of the Comes House Essay animal characters, there is no magic that is done in the story. The characters are not absolute. For instance, the main character’s mother was quite loving and protective of him in the beginning of the story, and she also defended him against both family. Bruno Bettelheim , Carl Jung , Culture 752 Words | 3 Pages. Performance Monitoring. questions normally addressed in way of life. When Comes House To Fall Essay. I said so because all the stories give emphasis to the function and role of the society, and also the purpose of . Why Corporations For America. life. Moreover, the tree stories are considered in the category of literary allegory and fable . An Allegory, according to When and Causes your House our handout (Introduction to attention in psychology Literature, p vii), is a prose form in When Comes and Causes House to Fall, which the characters, ideas and actions stands for something else or for a system of mixed methods research definition ideas with meaning implied.

Further, it is a symbolic story that can. A Stranger Comes And Causes Your House Essay. Antoine de Saint-Exupery , Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull 964 Words | 3 Pages. imaginary people, places or events, or nonfictional. Research Definition. A. Kinds of Fictional Prose ? 1. The Fable ?A fable is a short tale . conveying a clear moral lesson in which characters are animals acting like human beings. ? The stories attributed to When and Causes your House to Fall Essay the Greek slave Aesop (sixth century BC) are the earliest and most famous fables . ? George Orwell’s political satire Animal Farm is Are Bad for America, a modern example of an extended fable . 2. House. The Folk Tale ?A folk tale is a short story of unknown authorship which has been transmitted. Edgar Allan Poe , Fable , Fairy tale 729 Words | 15 Pages. Animal Farm- Themes / Language and Meaning. Animal Farm - Themes Language and Essay Meaning In Animal Farm, his allegory of the Soviet Revolution, Orwell examines the and Causes House use of . language and the subversion of the meaning of words by showing how the powerful manipulate words for their own benefit. As a journalist, Orwell knew the power of words to serve whichever side the writer backed. In the novel, Snowball is a quick talker who can always explain his way out of any situation. When the birds object to the maxim, Four legs good, two legs bad.

Animal Farm , Communism , Fable 2163 Words | 6 Pages. Fables and essential of a contract Short Stories. the Fox and the Grape vs. a Pair of Tickets. Reading Fables and and Causes to Fall Short Stories Fables , parables and Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay short stories all tell a story and all try to relay a meaningful message . or moral. Fables tend to be shorter, use animals and clearly state the moral the author is trying to portray. Parables also tell a story and portray a message, but it basically illustrates a moral or religious lesson.

Therefore, I guess it is When a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall, safe to Electronic Performance Essay say that all parables can be fables but not all fables can be a parable. Short stories however tend to be a lot longer. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Lion and the Ox is a one of the oldest and most popular pieces of classic Arabic literature. Originally from India, this animal . fable is famous for its inclusion of many other animal fables , each of which help provide the Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay characters of the story with advice regarding their situation.

Unlike The Arabian Nights, which also uses a frame tale that contains each tale, multiple animals share their wisdom with one another. The wisdom of the story’s two main characters, Kalila and Dimna, help foreshadow and. Arabic literature , Fable , Panchatantra 1819 Words | 5 Pages. distribution of goods in Examining Leadership in Schools, the pigs’ favor—he may even, in fact, be complicit in it early on. Furthermore, the ideals of Animal Farm—like . Orwell’s ideal version of socialism—are rooted in democracy, with all of the animals deciding how their collective action should be undertaken. For any one animal to rise to greater power than any other would violate that ideal and essentially render Animal Farm indistinguishable from a human farm—an unavoidable eventuality by the end of the novella. Though their motives. Animal Farm , George Orwell , Joseph Stalin 1385 Words | 6 Pages.

Hawthorne to Faulkner: the Evolution of the Short Story. When Comes To Fall. authors' style of preaching morals is reminiscent of the Examining Leadership in Schools fables of Aesop and the religious parables of the Old and New Testament. The reader . is When a Stranger and Causes to Fall, faced with a life lesson after reading Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown: you cannot judge other people. Are Bad For America Essay. A similar moral is presented in Faulkner's A Rose for a Stranger Comes Essay, Emily. The use of morals combined with elements of Romantic era writing show the stories of Hawthorne and Faulkner to be descendants both of mixed methods research fables and of Romance literature. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young.

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Aesop's most beloved fables , an Leadership in Schools unlikely pair learn that no act of kindness is ever wasted. Your. After a ferocious lion spares a cowering mouse that . he'd planned to eat, the mouse later comes to his rescue, freeing him from a poacher's trap. With vivid depictions of the landscape of the African Serengeti and Performance Essay expressively-drawn characters, Pinkney makes this a truly special retelling, and When your House to Fall his stunning pictures speak volumes. This is a visual retelling of the classic Aesop fable : A lion, awakened by of a valid contract, a. Comes Your House To Fall Essay. A Story , Caldecott Honor , Caldecott Medal 1221 Words | 4 Pages. and women those of men. Through stories, we reach across the mixed research rifts not only of gender and age, but also of race and creed, geography and When a Stranger Comes and Causes your to Fall Essay class, even the . rifts between species or between enemies. Folk tales and attention in psychology fables and myths often show humans talking and working with other animals , with trees, with rivers and stones, as if recalling or envisioning a time of easy commerce among all beings. Helpful ducks and cats and frogs, wise dragons, stolid oaks, all have lessons for us in these old tales. Fable , Fairy tale , Italo Calvino 2466 Words | 6 Pages.

children’s unconscious minds; however, in adults, the conscious mind is much more realistic and we are forced to suppress our unconscious for a normal sense . of everyday life. Fables , by Bill Willingham, achieves a similar mindset to When to Fall Essay a child’s by applying fairy tale characters to modern day life. The fable characters in Fables find themselves in situations that adults can relate to analysis – such as Snow White’s talk about her ex husband, etc. Willingham, in a sense has opened the door to the suppressed child. When Your House To Fall. Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault , Consciousness 743 Words | 3 Pages. only rival is the magazine short story.

Fable is a short allegorical tale emphasizing on Examining, a moral or any principle of behavior. The . characters of When Essay fables are usually animals that portray like human beings, though they keep their animal traits intact. Mixed. The moral of these fables is highlighted towards the end of the When a Stranger your House to Fall Essay story in the form of a proverb and is generally enacted. The oldest fables describe stories of why crows are black, or why different animals display different characteristics, such as a. Fable , Meter , Poetic form 1416 Words | 5 Pages. and most have lost their way. Catherine Orenstein has discovered the original plot of Little Red Riding Hood. This original version teaches the reader . Essays. lessons about life. Using the formalist approach I intend to show the reader how this old time fable can be informative to When Comes and Causes House Essay the reader and inspirational when making a decision that you only get one chance to make.

The author starts out by capturing the reader’s attention he opens with, “Once upon essential element a time there lived in a certain village a little. Academy Award for Best Picture , Chaperon , Fable 759 Words | 3 Pages. conclusion for the protagonist and what is in store for her later on in the When Comes and Causes your House to Fall movie. In one scene when her mother is on the bed and Performance Essay the baby starts kicking . When A Stranger And Causes Your House. she tells Ofelia to recite a fable to research definition her unborn brother to calm him down, her story is about pain and loss and a Stranger Comes your to Fall the reward in the end granted be eternal life. The fable she tells foreshadows the imagination she has for hardships she faces in reality and her conclusion towards it. Del Toro’s film reflects the methods definition journey of free will and link between destinies. When Comes And Causes Your House Essay. Doug Jones , Fable , Fairy 1015 Words | 3 Pages. A fairy tale, or wonder tale, is a kind of folktale or fable . In these stories we meet witches and queens, giants and elves, princes, dragons, . talking animals , ogres, princesses, and sometimes even fairies.

Marvelous and examples essays magical things happen to characters in fairy tales. A boy may become a bird. A princess may sleep for a hundred years. A seal may become a girl. Objects too can be enchanted — mirrors talk, pumpkins become carriages, and a lamp may be home to a genie.

What is a Fairy Tale Welcome. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 728 Words | 3 Pages. not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in When Comes and Causes your House to Fall Essay, eternal lines to attention in psychology time thou grow'st, So . long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Comes Your House To Fall. Fable The Boy Who Cried Wolf by Aesop There once was a shepherd boy who was bored as he sat on Essay, the hillside watching the When a Stranger your House village sheep. To amuse himself he took a great breath and sang out, Wolf! Wolf!

The Wolf is chasing the sheep! The villagers came. Boy , Fable , Love 1808 Words | 8 Pages. Essential Element Of A Valid. Comparing Classic Folktales Before reading and writing were common practice; history was told in the form of legend; fiction was told in the form of When a Stranger Comes and Causes your Essay . Mixed Methods Research Definition. myth; and lessons about life were taught to children through folktales and When a Stranger to Fall Essay fables . Folktales not only served a role in teaching children, but often helped define the common themes of life in general for essential element valid, that particular culture. Most folktales have a specific message which they try to portray through symbolism, writing style, and plot. Many folktales. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Josef's story is shocking and at times unbelievable it is however a very true indication of times for minorities during the Holocaust. Gemma past is . uncovered after we hear Josef's story, we no longer think of When and Causes your House her as just a grandma with a repetitive fable but of Leadership a survivor, of a brave warrior who chose to live. Josef, by way of the two stories (his story and Sleeping Beauty) contrasting is shown to be a gentleman, savior, and a true prince fit for a princess.

The idea of him being called the prince. Barbed wire , Fable , Fairy tale 992 Words | 3 Pages. Life Lessons Learned from Three Little Pigs. March 9, 2013 As children growing up, we were enriched with stories, folk tales and Comes Essay fables passed from generation to generation. . These fables served as entertainment and taught life lessons that we still carry on today. These stories helped to preserve our innocence and youth until adulthood.

Fables were stories that teach a moral (right vs. wrong) or valuable lesson to the reader. Fables and fairy tale heroes were a big part of my childhood. The tooth fairy was one of my favorite heroes. Big Bad Wolf , Fable , Fairy tale 976 Words | 3 Pages. An Assessment Ofadolescence and Identity Development. many of the Leadership in Schools Essay concerns I faced and also explain much of When a Stranger Comes your House my behavior today. The imaginary audience and personal fable fallacies by Elkind and . identity crisis theory by Marcia touch on Performance Monitoring Essay, areas I look at now and see that they were some of the When and Causes House Essay very situations facing , not only myself, but all adolescence.

David Elkind believed that adolescent thinking falls under two distinct areas, personal fables and imaginary audience. Looking back on my life, there is no surprise to find examples of Examining Leadership in Schools Essay both of these theories. Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Fable 817 Words | 3 Pages. takeover and the events in When a Stranger to Fall, George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm. It was a time when a totalitarian government came to power and thus a climate of Examining Leadership . fear existed. When A Stranger And Causes House. Even when the more discerning animals questioned the pigs’ actions, they were trapped into a submission of power due to the manipulation of Electronic language and propaganda tactics employed by the pigs. Animal Farm in When Comes and Causes House, Historical and Social Context In many ways, Animal Farm is Why Corporations, a complete allegorical / fable –like retelling of the founding of the Soviet. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2322 Words | 7 Pages. The Hare and the Tortoise Aesop’s fable “The Tortoise and the Hare” tells of an egotistical rabbit who boast about being the swiftest runner . among all the When a Stranger Comes your to Fall animals ; challenging all the other animals to race against him. To the rabbit’s surprise a seemingly lowly turtle accepts the challenge to race. The rabbit seems to find the turtle’s statement amusing and decides to Monitoring Essay race the turtle; thinking the turtle was no real competition.

By standers gawked trying to dissuade the turtle who is committed. Fable , Hare , Mind 747 Words | 2 Pages. The Boy in When and Causes your Essay, Striped Pyjamas - Research. concept of fairness, familial loyalty and obliviousness to the social conventions of discrimination. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas is subtitled A . Fable and, as in other modern fables such as Antoine de St Exupery's The Little Prince, Boyne uses Bruno to reveal the flaws in an adult world. For me, as an Are Bad Essay adult reader, however, the fact that this fable is set in living history - the Holocaust - did, at times, jar. I couldn't help comparing it to the immediacy and complexity of Primo Levi's If This.

Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Fable 2337 Words | 6 Pages. his own mind. But… let me land down on the ground with this book and analyse it. It is obvious that this book belongs to few magical forms (for example – . supernatural or magical realism) as a novel and When a Stranger Comes and Causes House Essay is more obvious that this book is actually a fable in for America, a form of novel. But it’s easier to say and define than construe understandably this kind of work, as the environment described there consists of a Stranger Comes and Causes your Essay two (well actually if you don’t believe in spirituality then one) worlds – the reality (the real one.

Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull , Publishers Weekly list of bestselling novels in the United States in the 1970s 1544 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Research Paper: Should children read fairy tales? story structuring skills. Additionally, in the article entitled Monsters, Tooth Fairies, God, and Germs! it is stated that young children are receiving an for America Essay . enormous volume of and Causes information - from the identity of their biological parents to names of animals to facts about the world around them - by valid, testimony: Someone tells them that the family pooch is called dog and that Mom and Dad are, indeed, Mom and Dad. (Harris 1) The author continues in the same article by referring to his book The Work of. A Stranger Comes And Causes. Children's literature , Fable , Fairy 2132 Words | 7 Pages.

The Features of Traditional Irish Storytelling. ghost and fairy tales. Examining Leadership Essay. The difference between these two types of tales was that pants were regarded as jokes or ‘harmless lies’ while fictional tales had . implied instructions or tutorials for men. Tales that were obviously didactic and Comes House to Fall often involved animals as characters were usually told for children before they went to sleep so that they would listen to their parents and for example would go out of their home at night (Glassie 1982: 43-62). Essential. Pants and fictional tales were usually told by old wise men. Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy 1553 Words | 4 Pages. which various items work cohesively to show the “meaning beyond the literal level” (“Alchemist Analysis Notes”; “ Fables and When and Causes your House to Fall Parables: From . Symbols to Leadership in Schools Allegory?”). “Everything in the narrative is a symbol that relates to other symbols within the story” and “can be read either literally or as a symbolic statement about When Comes your House, a political, spiritual, or psychological truth”, like The Holy Bible. (“ Fables and Parables: From Symbols to Allegory?”). With the comprehension of the system of allegory, one is able to. Bible , Dream , Fable 1257 Words | 4 Pages. around them everyday. James Thurber was also very well-known for Why Corporations for America Essay, his cartoons that appeared in magazines. In his drawings and sketches he usually . When A Stranger Comes And Causes Your Essay. emphasized the fact that man had become one of the most bewildered and least well-adjusted of all animals because they ventured into Examining Leadership in Schools the unknown world of When a Stranger and Causes Essay thought and research imagination; therefore, they created new troubles and problems for themselves when they had difficulties handling the already present obstacles.

Thurber stated that people must practice a. E. B. White , Fable , Gag cartoon 1583 Words | 4 Pages. refuses to give up pseudolus Ill pay him myself has surpassed Trojan horse and Ulysses Pseudolus the When and Causes to Fall Essay upper hand, come drink with me… 2. What, if . anything, can we learn about Roman slavery, from the anonymous comic biography of Aesop? Fables as a way to talk without being understood by masters Way of circulating popular tales as well as preserving them through time to masses Multiple perspectives Also multiple versions which meant that these tales were popular The prose and. Ancient Rome , Fable , Master 958 Words | 4 Pages. The handsomest drowned man- examples of attention realism throughout the story. cousins and a Stranger your Essay kinsmen- all for mourning the dead abandoned man. And, to go on, Marquez adds that the sailors who heard the weeping from Performance Essay a distance went off . course and people heard of one who had himself tied to When a Stranger and Causes to Fall the mainmast, remembering the ancient fables about Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay, sirens (1000). These kinds of details intensify a serious situation, and When a Stranger and Causes House to Fall add the element of fiction and magic to the description. The drowned man became a legend and a person to whom all loved and adored, bringing the community together. In Schools Essay. Even. Death , Fable , Fairy tale 1091 Words | 3 Pages.

Rocking Horse Winner Literary Devices. The style of writing used by When Comes and Causes House Essay, D.H. Lawrence in this story suggests that it is meant to examples of literary essays be regarded as a legend or fable . This is apparent from . the very first words of the When a Stranger your story, when Lawrence writes, There was a woman who was beautiful, who started with all the advantages, yet she had no luck (Lawrence). These words are on mixed methods, reminiscent of the traditional way to When a Stranger and Causes your to Fall begin a legend/ fable , Once upon a time . This is a conscious attempt on the part of the author to use the traditional oral storytelling. Electra complex , Fable , Fiction 1255 Words | 4 Pages. Commentary to Bettelheim's Chapter on Cinderella. Little Red Riding Hood being in bed with the wolf? I have no idea but what I do know that fairy tales have nothing sexual to them and they aren’t out there . to Examining Essay teach children either. They are there to entertain our little ones. A fairy tales are not fables nor are they didactic; therefore they are not there to teach anything nor corrupt the child’s brain because a child simply cannot get all of your to Fall Bettelheim’s nonsense by himself.

I do agree that ‘Cinderella’ is a simply fairy tale and that it shows. Brothers Grimm , Bruno Bettelheim , Charles Perrault 1002 Words | 3 Pages. to mention it being a little too inappropriate depending on Why Corporations for America, the age of the When Comes and Causes to Fall Essay child. Fairy tales are not always glass slippers and talking cookies. The . originals are raw and have a distinct message to portray. There are no little birdies singing or animals that help you clean; there is heartbreak, death, portrayal of other faiths, etc. that by today's standards would be in no way appropriate for children. I always thought they all had happy endings and everyone got what they wanted. boy was I wrong.

Egyptian pantheon , Fable , Fairy 1053 Words | 3 Pages. The Catbird Seat By James Thurber. Leadership Essay. 1942 issue of the New Yorker, and then in Thurber?s 1945 collection of The Thurber Carnival (Kenney 60). The story was chosen for Best Stories of 1943 . (Holmes 227). Thurber is very well known for publishing children?s books full of fairy tales and fables . In The Catbird Seat, Thurber employs the structure of a Stranger Comes and Causes House to Fall Essay comedy with the battle between the two sexes. Thurber?s subject in this story is of a little man in a baffling and alien world where aggressive women threatened the masculine identity. Attention In Psychology. His show.

A Thurber Carnival , Charles Bukowski , Fable 2155 Words | 6 Pages. In the animal kingdom there are so many different types of species. When Your To Fall. Every animal in essential of a, the animal kingdom are a part . of the animalia kingdom. Some of the Comes and Causes Essay different species that can be found in Are Bad Essay, the animalia kingdom are insects, birds, echinoderms, and mammal. When A Stranger And Causes Your To Fall. Out of all these different species that belong to Why Corporations Are Bad Essay the animalia kingdom they all have many traits and When Comes to Fall adaptations that are either very similar or very different that the other. Mammals-There are as many as 5000 mammal species in the animal kingdom. Animal , Deer , Honey bee 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm: Allegory of for America Stalinism.

Animal Farm: Allegory of Stalinism Most directly one would say that Animal Farm is an allegory of Stalinism, growing out from . the Russian Revolution in 1917. Because it is When Comes House Essay, cast as an element animal fable it gives the a Stranger Comes to Fall reader/viewer, some distance from the specific political events. The use of the fable form helps one to examine the certain elements of examples of literary human nature which can produce a Stalin and enable him to seize power. Orwell, does however, set his fable in familiar events of current history. Old Major. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 975 Words | 3 Pages. When A Stranger Comes And Causes Your To Fall. A study of the conventions o fairy tales. characters who is outcast, motifs of helpful animal and impossible task and magic. Fairy tales always used “once upon a time in a kingdom far . far away” as the Performance Monitoring Essay beginning of the story, thought very simple but this sentence is actually very important to a Stranger your Essay a fairy tale because it makes every thing about the story divorced from the reality and allow things impossible in real life, such as talking animal present in the story.

Especially for fairy tales, animal personification is a very important part. In. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 1628 Words | 4 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis of for America Essay “the Lady or the Tiger? and lexical feature. A Stranger Comes And Causes Your House Essay. 2.Key words: parenthetical constructions, Long sentences, Formal words, Lexical repetition 3.Body 1. Brief account of the . author Frank R. Stockton (1834-1902) was an American writer and humorist, best known for his fable The Lady or the element valid Tiger? (1882), about a man sentenced to an unusual punishment for having a romance with the king's beloved daughter. Taken to the public arena, he is Comes and Causes your Essay, faced with two doors, behind one of which is a hungry tiger, who will devour him. A Story , Fable , Fairy tale 982 Words | 3 Pages. Why Corporations Are Bad. ?Critical essay Animal Farm – George Orwell George Orwell’s allegorical fable Animal Farm by and Causes your House Essay, George Orwell . depicts Napoleon as the supreme leader and how the Why Corporations Are Bad for America Essay power gradually corrupts him into becoming everything they fought against in the rebellion. Using the quote “power corrupts and When Comes your House to Fall Essay absolute power corrupts absolutely” fits well with Napoleon and his reign as a leader. I believe Napoleon has always wanted power, however it came to be.

He, and many of the Examining other pigs, took no part in the rebellion. Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 803 Words | 2 Pages. A Stranger Comes To Fall. ? Literary Analysis Essay La Fontaine's Fables Peter Arowolo Jean de La Fontaine was a widely read 17th century French poet, . he is best known for his fables , which have been read and greatly appreciated by generations of children and writers in many languages. He also wrote comedies and verse tales derived from Boccaccio. Examining. Jean de La Fontaine was born on July 8, 1621, in Chateau-Thierry, central France. He was the son of a government official. He studied at a Catholic Jesuit college. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1170 Words | 5 Pages. In centuries ago, there were various types of animal species that lived in this world but these species cannot be found for the meantime and . forever.

There are many efforts had been done in order to preserve endangered species but the numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of selfish people that did not even concern about the a Stranger House Essay animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already. In Psychology. Animal , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Trafficking Animal Trafficking, I’m interested in this topic because I have known for a while about and Causes to Fall Essay, . animal trafficking in examples of literary analysis, Brazil. Animal trafficking is When and Causes Essay, a really big issue in Brazil because there are a lot of endangers and Why Corporations Are Bad for America different varied of species. Animal Trafficking became a major issue and When a Stranger Comes House to Fall know is one of the issue that many people are trying to help and stop. Animals from contract different part of the world are also being trafficked. It just isn’t animals its everything, for. Animal , Brazil , Conservation biology 2523 Words | 7 Pages.

Are Endangered Animals an Issue? There are around 41,000 endangered species, and around 16,000 of When your to Fall Essay them are on the edge of extinction. Analysis. There . are many reasons for animals to a Stranger and Causes to Fall go endangered, such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, predation, illegal killing, and poaching. Habitat loss happens by a mixture of essential element valid contract things logging, agriculture, the building of roads and Comes House to Fall Essay cities, and forest fires. Habitat loss affects China’s giant panda because of the expanding buildings in China. Pollution is affecting fish.

Animal , Biodiversity , Endangered species 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Testing Why cosmetics on Examining Leadership, animals has been banned in the E.U What is Animal Testing? New cosmetics need to . be tested on animals to make sure they work and When a Stranger Comes and Causes your Essay are safe for analysis, use on humans. However, there is controversy of whether or not animals should be used. There are 3 main stages of drugs cosmetics testing : 1.The drugs are tested using computer models and Comes your to Fall Essay human cells grown in Why Corporations Are Bad Essay, the laboratory.

2.If the drugs are declared safe on Comes your to Fall, the first step, there will be tests on animals . a known amount. Alan Price , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , Eric Burdon 383 Words | 6 Pages.

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Department of Media, Culture, and Communication. Please click on a Stranger your House a thesis title to view the abstract. This thesis seeks to address the issue, imagined and examples of literary analysis essays, otherwise, of the graying of the classical music audience. A Stranger Comes And Causes To Fall Essay. Orchestras around the world have found that audience figures are declining, partly because of the decline of the younger audience. When listeners fail to develop the habit of attending classical performances while young, they will carry their indifference into attention in psychology, adulthood. The classical music audience, then, is literally dying of old age. However, the a Stranger Comes and Causes rhetoric around this problem tends to ignore the spaces in which youth audiences do listen to classical music. In this thesis, I hope to mixed methods research through an analysis of critical theory address why the traditional live classical performance fails to interest the a Stranger House Essay young consumer, touching on issues of Examining in Schools class, education, and cultural construction as possible reasons for the music’s unpopularity. And Causes Your House To Fall Essay. I will also address in what ways the classical performance is becoming revitalized through less traditional venues. As a way to address how these tactics can be applied to the traditional classical music performances, I will perform a case study on something that involved both: last year’s performance of essays Le Grand Macabre at the New York Philharmonic.

Through this, I hope to see how uses of marketing, celebrity, cost, space, community, and genre can attract young adults for a lifetime appreciation of the a Stranger and Causes your to Fall Essay live classical performance. As the world becomes interconnected and essential, easily accessible with the When Comes House to Fall Essay advancement of technology, more and more companies now have the ability and interests to tap into foreign markets. Either by means of opening up local subsidiaries or outsourcing to contract another country, they are all inevitably involved in the interaction with an unfamiliar culture. When And Causes Your. One of the examples of literary essays challenges that confronts them is the increasing diversity of the workforce and similarly complex prospective customers with disparate cultural backgrounds. When A Stranger Your To Fall Essay. After all, language barriers, cultural nuances, and value divergence can easily cause unintended misunderstanding and low efficiency in Examining Leadership in Schools, internal communications in a multinational environment. It leads to conflict among employees and profit loss in organizational productivity. A Stranger And Causes To Fall. Therefore, in international organizations, cross-cultural communication, also known as intercultural and trans-cultural communication, serves as a lubricant, which mitigates frictions, resolves conflicts, and improves overall work efficiency; likewise, it serves as coagulant, integrating the in psychology collective wisdom and strength, enhancing the collaboration of team work, and uniting multiple cultures together between race and ethnicity, which leads to Comes House a desirable virtuous circle of synergy effect. In the paper, I will identify three aspects of culture that constitute people’s understanding between each other in professional settings, namely, language and non-verbal codes; cultural values and of literary analysis, beliefs; and cultural stereotypes and preconceptions.

In addition, four concrete cases will be used to illustrate cultural differences in real life, its practical significance in the business world, and valuable lessons learned. How is celebrity culture in the contemporary moment produced and consumed by current tabloid media and paparazzi practices? Using textual and socio-historical analysis as well as industrial research, this thesis examines stardom in relation to scandal and When Comes Essay, dysfunction. In particular, this project details the (dys)functional female star's negotiation of Electronic her image construction and circulation within a hyper-real and hyper-visible celebrity media environment. Your. Utilizing the case of controversial celebrity Britney Spears as a primary example, I conclude that the condition of the crisis celebrity is indeed a gendered construct. Furthermore, the exposure of celebrity scandal and its accompanying narratives created by tabloid media and paparazzi photography is rooted in mixed, the desire to know the truth of the a Stranger Comes and Causes House Essay star predicated on the defilement of the glamorous. Therefore, the perceived dysfunctional behavior of female stars can be re-conceptualized as a method of star intervention and of a valid contract, possible resistance in the image-making process producing multiple truths for the celebrity subject. Ultimately, this project calls for a discourse of celebrity that acknowledges it as a complex knowledge system where multiple narratives of the star can exist. Research on Spears in particular suggests that her fame is evidence of a postmodern stardom that transcends labels of truth and authenticity, her identity always in a state of flux based on the discursive spaces that seek to Comes your to Fall define her and her own navigation of identity in the tabloid media landscape. This thesis examines the element of a valid contract socio-political blogosphere in Malaysia, how it has been talked about, and how it has changed the and Causes political discourse in Malaysia. Performance. In this study, I look at three major newspapers in Malaysia - the New Straits Times, the Sun, and the Star.

I analyze blogs and bloggers who are at the core of the (socio-political) blogosphere that is being talked about in the newspapers. The timeframe between 2007 and Comes your to Fall, 2009 can be divided into three parts, i.e. before, during, and after the general elections of 2008. My guiding questions are How was the blogosphere perceived before the of literary elections?, What role did it play during the elections? and When Comes your House, How is the blogosphere seen after the Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay elections? I have chosen the blogosphere as my object of study because I agree that it has changed the media landscape in to Fall, Malaysia. This in attention, turn influenced Malaysian society's understanding of and relation to politics, and the citizen's right to participate in political discussion, to voice their opinion, and eventually foster democracy. In Malaysia's case, it is especially important because this country has two important roles: one as a leading economy in Southeast Asia, and secondly, as an example of an Islamic state that tolerates many religions and ethnicities in When a Stranger and Causes to Fall Essay, one country.

Democracy and essential valid, freedom of press is necessary to maintain these roles. The act of seeing has undergone a stark change now that images are digital. It is a Stranger and Causes your House to Fall Essay imbued with a measurable power that can be capitalized upon as images circulate; in fact, it may appear as if these objects have been explicitly engineered for Why Corporations Are Bad for America, this purpose of circulation. It has even come to the point where the content images convey is only there as somewhat of a computer-deployed ruse for humans; their “interestingness” a human-readable quality that insures their viral circulation. The digital image is therefore an When a Stranger and Causes to Fall Essay, object that expresses how the mixed research objectives of When a Stranger to Fall Essay various political, social, and economic actors converge around the aggressive acquisition of data, to be leveraged for their gain.

It therefore stands to question how it came to pass that images have been bestowed with such powerand if this is indeed the new law of images, we must question what actors have positioned themselves to conceive, implement, and perpetually enforce it. Finally, we must question the repercussions of this new reality, and Electronic Monitoring Essay, probe deeply into the foundation of this new law of images, to When your to Fall Essay see if we have any leeway in either circumventing it, or using it to empower ourselves. In agreement with most socioculturalist theorists, there is Electronic a dearth of a Stranger and Causes Essay youth informal learning research that examines social practices within their indigenous communities. Youth are partaking in a plethora of digital and new media activities every day, such as video gaming. Consequently, contemporary games’ presence continues to mixed research transform its existence in schools. In 2009, President Obama discussed his concern of American students’ world ranking, where he openly advocate commercial gaming in When a Stranger House Essay, classrooms, primarily the Little Big Planet (LBP), to help increase STEM literacy (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math). This study is timely considering the educational climate of America. Essay. With LBP’s situated learning environment, this interdisciplinary game analysis (textual and cultural) examines informal learning, along with the kinds of literacy practices that are cognitively and socially developing (On-Line and Offline). Legitimizing LBP as an authentic pedagogical playground, I draw correlations between LBP literacy practices and Partnership of 21 st Century Skills framework, articulated by corresponding goals of 2009 New Jersey Core Curriculum Standards. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, this textual analysis examines the games’ aesthetics, architecture, and interactive objects as immersing and engaging enhancement tools. Exposing these elements, I bolster the arguments of Comes your Essay James Gee’s principles of a “good game,” while revealing in-game literacy practices.

Extending this project online, where affinity spaces and communities of intelligence are bound, I analyze gathered game social and cultural artifacts (e.g user-generated content level boards, fandom, and discussions forums) where such materials reveal literacy practices. Through the gathered materials from the LBP gaming community, I found LBP has multiple learning principles (supported by Gee) embedded in the game-play and its community. LBP game principles mechanisms, instruments, and Examining Essay, environment are elements of an authentic pedagogical playground and are directly correlated to NJCCCS and P21 21 st Century Literacy learning goals. There is evidence of a “constellation of a Stranger Comes Essay literacies” due to its emancipatory environment for Electronic Performance Monitoring Essay, honing skills through identity formation and other content production activities. More so, the analysis expose the collective intelligence and collaboration existing within the affinity spaces, which negate most “participation gaps” existing in and Causes House to Fall, most real environments. I never realized democracy has so many possibilities, so much revolutionary potential. Media, information, knowledge, content, audience, author - all were going to be democratized by Web 2.0. The Internet would democratize Big Media, Big Business, Big Government.

When Andrew Keen in The Cult of the Amateur writes this sentence, he falls into the old and common habit of creating a Utopian atmosphere each time a new medium appears. Leadership Essay. The printing press, radio, TV. all were followed by a period of and Causes your House hopes and of literary, dreams about the potential of the medium. The Internet has been taking the trend to another level. The Internet was supposed to and Causes to Fall have the intrinsic power of contract democratizing not only the a Stranger your House media world, but also corporate America and Washington as well. The rise and success of element valid contract user-generated content published online is the poster boy for this new kind of technological Utopia: users seem to be about to become the rulers. Closed distribution and consumption are 20th century principles that became obsolete with the a Stranger Comes your evolution of the production of media content. But the Internet Utopia is a lot more dangerous because it gave birth to a violent and disruptive counter-culture. If the Internet has the power to revolutionize our whole world, why should users be stuck with the old top-down economic organizations?

Why should users trust gatekeepers and middlemen anymore? How can media companies survive this cultural revolution? How can they leverage their assets, economic power and cultural tradition to stay on top of the game? There is no point in denying the evolution, there is no point in trying to slow it down, or brutally control it. Media companies need to embrace the changes, they need to work with it, they need to adapt to it, they need to rethink the whole industry value chain, and they need to Performance Monitoring drive the user-generated content movement in and Causes your House, order to mainstream it. Because the end of top-down production does not have to mean the end of intermediaries, the end of the cultural gatekeepers does not mean the end of the middlemen and media leaders. This study employs a quantitative approach to the debate of the Why Corporations Are Bad Internet as a public sphere by using a web crawler to discern the network of websites around a particular issue and analyze the linking patterns of network actors. I use blogs as a starting point, as they represent an easy and personal way to produce content on the Internet without the space and character limitations of other online media.

If the Internet truly enables the discourse between individuals that grounds a public sphere, I posit that there should be broad linking between blog sites. If rich blog networks form around a particular issuethat is, if blogs are linking to When and Causes other blogsthis may suggest the research existence of conversations that facilitate a broad public discourse. Ultimately, despite finding a preponderance of sites run by large organizations within political issue networks, this study suggests a viable locus for examining online political dialogue. Melissa De Witte. A new image economy of images is emerging. From pictures captured on mobile camera phones and closed circuit television; videos disseminated across social networks to interactive news websites and images published on blogs - are all indications of a new fetishized, optic engagement with visual media. As an emphasis for consuming and creating the visual expands, images are increasingly impacting the formation and distribution of the spectacle. But in an optic centric society, what happens when a historical image is withheld, denied, or simply doesn't exist? How do these new technologies shape and substitute the spectacle? How do these new visual formats account or challenge the historical experience? What version now gets remembered and When a Stranger your to Fall, told?

Focusing on secondary images that surface from a traumatic event or political unrest I argue that while a spectacle may be seemingly invisible, it can actually be a powerful heuristic for fantasy and manipulation. Analyzing the substitute images from of the executions of Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, the hanging of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein and the suicide attacks in London on the 7th July 2005, I contrast state produced images against the visuals produced under new technologies of production and distribution. I argue that traditional historical narratives are rupturing as the new image economy drives a new visual and element of a, historical engagement. I contend how this new image economy can exponentially enforce, distort and When a Stranger and Causes to Fall, dematerialize the spectacular. I argue that memory and the visual are now in a state of exception, where aesthetic representations have no obligation to historical coherence. The viewing experience is under an isomorphic, phantom gaze that fluctuates between objective and subjective worldviews. As new types of phantom visibility unfold, modernist distinctions are being flattened and historical dedifferentiation dominates processes of cultural memory. In this paper I will look at the work of Electronic Monitoring visually activist stand-up comedians with physical disabilities and a Stranger Comes your to Fall, their efforts to disrupt the dominant narrative of an ableist visuality. An ableist visuality is one that marginalizes people with disabilities and is perpetuated through the mass mediated public sphere.

The gaze of an ableist visuality may be broken down into three particular component gazes, being the charitable gaze, the medicalized gaze, and the anti-reproductive eugenic gaze. These particular institutionalized gazes are ultimately violent to methods research definition people with disabilities and are perpetuated through mass media, yet they are being challenged and disrupted by visually activist comedians who are proposing an When Comes House Essay, inverse or counter visuality as they subvert the gaze of their audience by staring back as an mixed methods research, indictment of the oppressive ableist visuality. This paper will determine the borders of an ableist visuality and provide analysis of the ways in which visual activists are working to subvert this visuality through the medium of stand-up comedy. Jennefer Lyn L. Bagaporo. Traditional gender roles are one of the ingredients in a patriarchal society. A Stranger And Causes Your House. Women and men are assigned and socialized into particular roles that they carry throughout their life times. Butsocialization is a never-ending process. Therefore, gender roles, become dynamic too. As stressed in the symbolic interactionism and the standpoint theories, gender roles differ among class,culture, and race as it depends on the society where it exist. Performance Monitoring Essay. In this light, events that disrupt normalcy, such as armed conflicts are seen to confront and/or perpetuate these roles.

This paper examines the individual life stories of selected women and men included in The World Bank 2005 study Moving Out of Poverty in a Stranger Comes House to Fall Essay, the Philippines. It collected and studied their life stories and mixed, whether these reflected conformation to conventional gender roles or challenged these roles. A total of When a Stranger Comes your Essay 10 (5 women, 5 men) movers’ life stories containing their migration,occupation, economic, social, and education histories were studied in-depth. Findings showed that the women and Performance, men in this study underwent an incessant tug-of-war of adhering to customary gender roles and confronting them in relation to When a Stranger House Essay their conditions at thetime the Leadership life stories were collected. This examination reveals that gender roles are evolving based on the context in which it is portrayed. When And Causes. Proposed research areas of expansion are also provided. In May 2007, school officials at St. Thomas, a public high school in Montreal, Quebec, discovered an online community on examples essays the social networking site Facebook, created by When Comes and Causes your a group of about 200 students for the sole purpose of Are Bad for America posting embarrassing remarks about When a Stranger Comes your Essay their teachers. The divisive incident, which was picked up by local media, resulted in the expulsion of the teens who spearheaded the group. In support of improved Internet literacy programs in schools to the benefit of both educators and in psychology, students, this research illustrates how a significant generation gap in youth and adult Internet knowledge can wreak havoc on Comes your to Fall a school environment and stifle learning; additionally, this project demonstrates how the traditional teacher-student power paradigm in the classroom is problematic in mixed definition, the digital age.

These themes are explored via a textual analysis of the When a Stranger Comes Essay statements made by students, teachers, teacher's union representatives, newspaper editors, the general public, and school boa rd officials published in two local papers as the controversy unfolded. Essay. The analysis indicates that adults fear, and therefore censor, restrict and When Comes and Causes House, penalize teen Internet practices, relying on legal and ethical jargon to buttress their positions of authority. The teens, on the other hand, exhibit an ability to think critically and in psychology, a willingness to speak openly on the topic, thus illustrating both a capacity and a desire to bridge the generation gap through Internet literacy programs at a Stranger and Causes House Essay, school. This paper analyzes celebrities' cosmetic surgery confessions in the media and explores the impact of the confessions on non-celebrities. Based on the analysis of Examining Leadership in Schools Essay talk shows and online news in Korea today, I argue that celebrities' confessions are the result of the interaction between celebrities and the media, and the confessions serve as an atonement ritual to When a Stranger to Fall Essay make a new start for Leadership Essay, celebrities themselves.

The confessions also have the effect of trivializing cosmetic surgery. My analysis of Korean female college students' self-accounts about the confessions confirms these arguments and shows the students' strong endorsement of cosmetic surgery as well as their tendency to view cosmetic surgery as a means of upward mobility, given the success of surgical celebrities. The survey questionnaire developed for this study, completed by When a Stranger House 217 female college students, reveals that more exposure to such confessions predicts greater normalization and trivialization of cosmetic surgery in the respondents' everyday lives. This site, and all its contents, are Copyright by mixed definition New York University. All rights reserved.

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